Mechanical ventilation of patients with severe lung injury is an important clinical treatment to ensure proper lung oxygenation and to mitigate the extent of collapsed lung regions. While current imaging technologies such as Computed Tomography (CT) and chest X-ray allow for a thorough inspection of the thorax, they are limited to static pictures and exhibit several disadvantages, including exposure to ionizing radiation and high cost. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a novel method to determine functional processes inside the thorax such as lung ventilation and cardiac activity. EIT reconstructs the internal electrical conductivity distribution within the thorax from voltage measurements on the body surface. Conductivity changes correlate with important clinical parameters such as lung volume and perfusion. Current EIT systems and algorithms use simplified or generalized thorax models to solve the reconstruction problem, which reduce image quality and anatomical significance. In this thesis, the development of a clinically relevant workflow to compute sophisticated three-dimensional thorax models from patient-specific CT data is described. The method allows medical experts to generate a multi-material segmentation in an interactive and fast way, while a volumetric mesh is computed automatically from the segmentation. The significantly improved image quality and anatomical precision of EIT images reconstructed with these 3D models is reported, and the impact on clinical applicability is discussed. In addition, three projects concerning quantitative CT (qCT) measurements and multi-modal 3D visualization are presented, which demonstrate the importance and productivity of interdisciplinary research groups including computer scientists and medical experts. The results presented in this thesis contribute significantly to clinical research efforts to pave the way towards improved patient-specific treatments of lung injury using EIT and qCT.
Researchers and analysts in modern industrial and academic environments are faced with a daunting amount of multivariate data. While there has been significant development in the areas of data mining and knowledge
discovery, there is still the need for improved visualizations and generic solutions. The state-of-the-art in visual analytics and exploratory data visualization is to incorporate more profound analysis methods while focusing on improving interactive abilities, in order to support data analysts in gaining new insights through visual exploration and hypothesis building.
In the research field of exploratory data visualization, this thesis contributes new approaches in dimension reduction that tackle a number of shortcomings in state-of-the-art methods, such as interpretability and ambiguity. By combining methods from several disciplines, we describe how ambiguity can be countered effectively by visualizing coordinate values within a lower-dimensional embedding, thereby focusing on the display of the structural composition of high-dimensional data and on an intuitive depiction of inherent global relationships. We also describe how properties and alignment of high-dimensional manifolds can be analyzed in different levels of detail by means of a self-embedding hierarchy of local projections, each using full degree of freedom, while keeping the global context.
To the application field of air quality research, the thesis provides novel means for the research of aerosol source contributions. Triggered by this particularly challenging application problem, we instigate a new research direction in the area of visual analytics by describing a methodology to model-based visual analysis that (i) allows the scientist to be “in the loop” of computations and (ii) enables him to verify and control the analysis process, in order to steer computations towards physical meaning. Careful reflection of our work in this application has led us to derive key design choices that underlie and transcend beyond application-specific solutions. As a result, we describe a general design methodology to computing parameters of a pre-defined analytical model that map to multivariate data. Core applications areas that can benefit from our approach are within engineering disciplines, such as civil, chemical, electrical, and mechanical engineering, as well as in geology, physics, and biology.
This thesis provides a fully automatic translation from synchronous programs to parallel software for different architectures, in particular, shared memory processing (SMP) and distributed memory systems. Thereby, we exploit characteristics of the synchronous model of computation (MoC) to reduce communication and to improve available parallelism and load-balancing by out-of-order (OOO) execution and data speculation.
Manual programming of parallel software requires the developers to partition a system into tasks and to add synchronization and communication. The model-based approach of development abstracts from details of the target architecture and allows to make decisions about the target architecture as late as possible. The synchronous MoC supports this approach by abstracting from time and providing implicit parallelism and synchronization. Existing compilation techniques translate synchronous programs into synchronous guarded actions (SGAs) which are an intermediate format abstracting from semantic problems in synchronous languages. Compilers for SGAs analyze causality problems, ensure logical correctness and the absence of schizophrenia problems. Hence, SGAs are a simplified and general starting point and keep the synchronous MoC at the same time. The instantaneous feedback in the synchronous MoC makes the mapping of these systems to parallel software a non-trivial task. In contrast, other MoCs such as data-flow processing networks (DPNs) directly match with parallel architectures. We translate the SGAs into DPNs,which represent a commonly used model to create parallel software. DPNs have been proposed as a programming model for distributed parallel systems that have communication paths with unpredictable latencies. The purely data-driven execution of DPNs does not require a global coordination and therefore DPNs can be easily mapped to parallel software for architectures with distributed memory. The generation of efficient parallel code from DPNs challenges compiler design with two issues: To perfectly utilize a parallel system, the communication and synchronization has to be kept low, and the utilization of the computational units has to be balanced. The variety of hardware architectures and dynamic execution techniques in processing units of these systems make a statically balanced distributed execution impossible.
The synchronous MoC is still reflected in our generated DPNs, which exhibits characteristics that allow optimizations concerning the previously mentioned issues. In particular, we apply a general communication reduction and OOO execution to achieve a dynamically balanced execution which is inspired from hardware design.
Hadoop ist ein beliebtes Framework für verteilte Berechnungen über große
Datenmengen (Big Data) mittels MapReduce. Hadoop zu verwenden ist einfach: Der
Entwickler definiert die Eingabedatenquelle und implementiert die beiden
Methoden Map und Reduce. Über die verteilte Berechnung und Fehlerbehandlung muss
er sich dabei keine Gedanken machen, das erledigt das Hadoop-Framework.
Allerdings kann die Analyse von Big Data sehr lange dauern und da sich die
Eingabedaten jede Sekunde ändern, ist es vielleicht nicht immer die beste
Idee, die vollständige Berechnung jedes Mal aufs Neue auf die kompletten
Eingabedaten anzuwenden. Es wäre geschickter, sich das Ergebnis der
vorherigen Berechnung zu betrachten und nur die Deltas zu analysieren, also
Daten, die seit der letzten Berechnung hinzugefügt oder gelöscht wurden. In dem Gebiet der
selbstwartbaren materialisierten Sichten in relationalen Datenbanksystemen gibt
es bereits mehrere Ansätze, die sich mit der Lösung dieses Problems
beschäftigen. Eine Strategie liest nur die Deltas und inkrementiert oder
dekrementiert die Ergebnisse der vorherigen Berechnung. Allerdings ist diese
Inkrement-Operation sehr teuer, deshalb ist es manchmal besser, das komplette
alte Ergebnis zu lesen und es mit den Deltas der Eingabedaten zu kombinieren.
In dieser Masterarbeit wird ein neues Framework namens Marimba vorgestellt,
welches sich genau um diese Probleme der inkrementellen Berechnung kümmert. Einen
Map\-Re\-duce-Job in Marimba zu schreiben ist genau so einfach wie einen Hadoop-Job.
Allerdings werden hier keine Mapper- und Reducer-Klasse implementiert, sondern
eine Translator- und Serializer-Klasse. Der Translator ähnelt dem Mapper: Er
bestimmt, wie die Eingabedaten gelesen und daraus Zwischenwerte berechnet
werden. Der Serializer erzeugt die Ausgabe des Jobs. Wie diese Ausgabe berechnet
wird, gibt der Benutzer durch Implementierung einiger Methoden an, um Werte zu
aggregieren und invertieren.
Vier MapReduce-Jobs, darunter auch das Paradebeispiel für MapReduce WordCount,
wurden im Marimba-Framework implementiert. Das Entwickeln von inkrementellen
Map-Reduce-Jobs ist mit dem Framework extrem einfach geworden. Außerdem konnte
mit Performanztests gezeigt werden, dass die inkrementelle Berechnung deutlich
schneller ist als eine vollständige Neuberechnung.
Ein weiterer unter den vier implementierten Jobs berechnet
Wortauftrittswahrscheinlichkeiten in geschriebenen Sätzen. Dies kann
beispielsweise für Spracherkennung verwendet werden. Wenn ein Wort in einer
gesprochenen SMS nicht richtig verstanden wurde, hilft der Algorithmus zu raten,
welches Wort am wahrscheinlichsten an einer bestimmten Stelle stehen könnte,
abhängig von den vorherigen Wörtern im Satz. Damit dieser Algorithmus auch
brauchbare Ergebnisse liefert, ist die Menge und die Qualität der Eingabedaten
wichtig. Durchaus brauchbare Ergebnisse wurden durch die Verarbeitung von
Millionen von Twitter-Feeds, die deutsche Twitter-Nutzer in den letzten Monaten
geschrieben haben, erreicht.
For many decades, the search for language classes that extend the
context-free laguages enough to include various languages that arise in
practice, while still keeping as many of the useful properties that
context-free grammars have - most notably cubic parsing time - has been
one of the major areas of research in formal language theory. In this thesis
we add a new family of classes to this field, namely
position-and-length-dependent context-free grammars. Our classes use the
approach of regulated rewriting, where derivations in a context-free base
grammar are allowed or forbidden based on, e.g., the sequence of rules used
in a derivation or the sentential forms, each rule is applied to. For our
new classes we look at the yield of each rule application, i.e. the
subword of the final word that eventually is derived from the symbols
introduced by the rule application. The position and length of the yield
in the final word define the position and length of the rule application and
each rule is associated a set of positions and lengths where it is allowed
to be applied.
We show that - unless the sets of allowed positions and lengths are really
complex - the languages in our classes can be parsed in the same time as
context-free grammars, using slight adaptations of well-known parsing
algorithms. We also show that they form a proper hierarchy above the
context-free languages and examine their relation to language classes
defined by other types of regulated rewriting.
We complete the treatment of the language classes by introducing pushdown
automata with position counter, an extension of traditional pushdown
automata that recognizes the languages generated by
position-and-length-dependent context-free grammars, and we examine various
closure and decidability properties of our classes. Additionally, we gather
the corresponding results for the subclasses that use right-linear resp.
left-linear base grammars and the corresponding class of automata, finite
automata with position counter.
Finally, as an application of our idea, we introduce length-dependent
stochastic context-free grammars and show how they can be employed to
improve the quality of predictions for RNA secondary structures.
The recognition of day-to-day activities is still a very challenging and important research topic. During recent years, a lot of research has gone into designing and realizing smart environ- ments in different application areas such as health care, maintenance, sports or smart homes. As a result, a large amount of sensor modalities were developed, different types of activity and context recognition services were implemented and the resulting systems were benchmarked using state-of-the-art evaluation techniques. However, so far hardly any of these approaches have found their way into the market and consequently into the homes of real end-users on a large scale. The reason for this is, that almost all systems have one or more of the following characteristics in common: expensive high-end or prototype sensors are used which are not af- fordable or reliable enough for mainstream applications; many systems are deployed in highly instrumented environments or so-called "living labs", which are far from real-life scenarios and are often evaluated only in research labs; almost all systems are based on complex system con- figurations and/or extensive training data sets, which means that a large amount of data must be collected in order to install the system. Furthermore, many systems rely on a user and/or environment dependent training, which makes it even more difficult to install them on a large scale. Besides, a standardized integration procedure for the deployment of services in existing environments and smart homes has still not been defined. As a matter of fact, service providers use their own closed systems, which are not compatible with other systems, services or sensors. It is clear, that these points make it nearly impossible to deploy activity recognition systems in a real daily-life environment, to make them affordable for real users and to deploy them in hundreds or thousands of different homes.
This thesis works towards the solution of the above mentioned problems. Activity and context recognition systems designed for large-scale deployment and real-life scenarios are intro- duced. Systems are based on low-cost, reliable sensors and can be set up, configured and trained with little effort, even by technical laymen. It is because of these characteristics that we call our approach "minimally invasive". As a consequence, large amounts of training data, that are usu- ally required by many state-of-the-art approaches, are not necessary. Furthermore, all systems were integrated unobtrusively in real-world/similar to real-world environments and were evalu- ated under real-life, as well as similar to real-life conditions. The thesis addresses the following topics: First, a sub-room level indoor positioning system is introduced. The system is based on low-cost ceiling cameras and a simple computer vision tracking approach. The problem of user identification is solved by correlating modes of locomotion patterns derived from the trajectory of unidentified objects and on-body motion sensors. Afterwards, the issue of recognizing how and what mainstream household devices have been used for is considered. Based on a low-cost microphone, the water consumption of water-taps can be approximated by analyzing plumbing noise. Besides that, operating modes of mainstream electronic devices were recognized by using rule-based classifiers, electric current features and power measurement sensors. As a next step, the difficulty of spotting subtle, barely distinguishable hand activities and the resulting object interactions, within a data set containing a large amount of background data, is addressed. The problem is solved by introducing an on-body core system which is configured by simple, one-time physical measurements and minimal data collections. The lack of large training sets is compensated by fusing the system with activity and context recognition systems, that are able to reduce the search space observed. Amongst other systems, previously introduced approaches and ideas are revisited in this section. An in-depth evaluation shows the impact of each fusion procedure on the performance and run-time of the system. The approaches introduced are able to provide significantly better results than a state-of-the-art inertial system using large amounts of training data. The idea of using unobtrusive sensors has also been applied to the field of behavior analysis. Integrated smartphone sensors are used to detect behavioral changes of in- dividuals due to medium-term stress periods. Behavioral parameters related to location traces, social interactions and phone usage were analyzed to detect significant behavioral changes of individuals during stressless and stressful time periods. Finally, as a closing part of the the- sis, a standardization approach related to the integration of ambient intelligence systems (as introduced in this thesis) in real-life and large-scale scenarios is shown.
An huge amount of computational models and programming languages have been proposed
for the description of embedded systems. In contrast to traditional sequential programming
languages, they cope directly with the requirements for embedded systems: direct support for
concurrent computations and periodic interaction with the environment are only some of the
features they offer. Synchronous languages are one class of languages for the development of
embedded systems and they follow the fundamental principle that the execution is divided into
a sequence of logical steps. Thereby, each step follows the simplification that the computation
of the outputs is finished directly when the inputs are available. This rigorous abstraction leads
to well-defined deterministic parallel composition in general, and to deterministic abortion
and suspension in imperative synchronous languages in particular. These key features also
allow to translate programs to hardware and software, and also formal verification techniques
like model checking can be easily applied.
Besides the advantages of imperative synchronous languages, also some drawbacks can
be listed. Over-synchronization is an effect being caused by parallel threads which have to
synchronize for each execution step, even if they do not communicate, since the synchronization
is implicitly forced by the control-flow. This thesis considers the idea of clock refinement to
introduce several abstraction layers for communication and synchronization in addition to the
existing single-clock abstraction. Thereby, clocks can be refined by several independent clocks
so that a controlled amount of asynchrony between subsequent synchronization points can be
exploited by compilers. The declarations of clocks form a tree, and clocks can be defined within
the threads of the parallel statement, which allows one to do independent computations based
on these clocks without synchronizing the threads. However, the synchronous abstraction is
kept at each level of the abstraction.
Clock refinement is introduced in this thesis as an extension to the imperative synchronous
language Quartz. Therefore, new program statements are introduced which allow to define
a new clock as a refinement of an existing one and to finish a step based on a certain clock.
Examples are considered to show the impact of the behavior of the new statements to
the already existing statements, before the semantics of this extension is formally defined.
Furthermore, the thesis presents a compile algorithm to translate programs to an intermediate
format, and to translate the intermediate format to a hardware description. The advantages
obtained by the new modeling feature are finally evaluated based on examples.
Regular physical activity is essential to maintain or even improve an individual’s health. There exist various guidelines on how much individuals should do. Therefore, it is important to monitor performed physical activities during people’s daily routine in order to tell how far they meet professional recommendations. This thesis follows the goal to develop a mobile, personalized physical activity monitoring system applicable for everyday life scenarios. From the mentioned recommendations, this thesis concentrates on monitoring aerobic physical activity. Two main objectives are defined in this context. On the one hand, the goal is to estimate the intensity of performed activities: To distinguish activities of light, moderate or vigorous effort. On the other hand, to give a more detailed description of an individual’s daily routine, the goal is to recognize basic aerobic activities (such as walk, run or cycle) and basic postures (lie, sit and stand).
With recent progress in wearable sensing and computing the technological tools largely exist nowadays to create the envisioned physical activity monitoring system. Therefore, the focus of this thesis is on the development of new approaches for physical activity recognition and intensity estimation, which extend the applicability of such systems. In order to make physical activity monitoring feasible in everyday life scenarios, the thesis deals with questions such as 1) how to handle a wide range of e.g.
everyday, household or sport activities and 2) how to handle various potential users. Moreover, this thesis deals with the realistic scenario where either the currently performed activity or the current user is unknown during the development and training
phase of activity monitoring applications. To answer these questions, this thesis proposes and developes novel algorithms, models and evaluation techniques, and performs thorough experiments to prove their validity.
The contributions of this thesis are both of theoretical and of practical value. Addressing the challenge of creating robust activity monitoring systems for everyday life the concept of other activities is introduced, various models are proposed and validated. Another key challenge is that complex activity recognition tasks exceed the potential of existing classification algorithms. Therefore, this thesis introduces a confidence-based extension of the well known AdaBoost.M1 algorithm, called ConfAdaBoost.M1. Thorough experiments show its significant performance improvement compared to commonly used boosting methods. A further major theoretical contribution is the introduction and validation of a new general concept for the personalization of physical activity recognition applications, and the development of a novel algorithm (called Dependent Experts) based on this concept. A major contribution of practical value is the introduction of a new evaluation technique (called leave-one-activity-out) to simulate when performing previously unknown activities in a physical activity monitoring system. Furthermore, the creation and benchmarking of publicly available physical activity monitoring datasets within this thesis are directly benefiting the research community. Finally, the thesis deals with issues related to the implementation of the proposed methods, in order to realize the envisioned mobile system and integrate it into a full healthcare application for aerobic activity monitoring and support in daily life.
Backward compatibility of class libraries ensures that an old implementation of a library can safely be replaced by a new implementation without breaking existing clients.
Formal reasoning about backward compatibility requires an adequate semantic model to compare the behavior of two library implementations.
In the object-oriented setting with inheritance and callbacks, finding such models is difficult as the interface between library implementations and clients are complex.
Furthermore, handling these models in a way to support practical reasoning requires appropriate verification tools.
This thesis proposes a formal model for library implementations and a reasoning approach for backward compatibility that is implemented using an automatic verifier. The first part of the thesis develops a fully abstract trace-based semantics for class libraries of a core sequential object-oriented language. Traces abstract from the control flow (stack) and data representation (heap) of the library implementations. The construction of a most general context is given that abstracts exactly from all possible clients of the library implementation.
Soundness and completeness of the trace semantics as well as the most general context are proven using specialized simulation relations on the operational semantics. The simulation relations also provide a proof method for reasoning about backward compatibility.
The second part of the thesis presents the implementation of the simulation-based proof method for an automatic verifier to check backward compatibility of class libraries written in Java. The approach works for complex library implementations, with recursion and loops, in the setting of unknown program contexts. The verification process relies on a coupling invariant that describes a relation between programs that use the old library implementation and programs that use the new library implementation. The thesis presents a specification language to formulate such coupling invariants. Finally, an application of the developed theory and tool to typical examples from the literature validates the reasoning and verification approach.
Compared to traditional software design, the design of embedded software is even more challenging: In addition to the correct implementation of the systems, one has to consider non-functional constraints such as real-time behavior, reliability, and energy consumption. Moreover, many embedded systems are used in safety-critical applications where errors can lead to enormous damages and even to the loss of human live. For this reason, formal verification is applied in many design flows using different kinds of formal verification methods.
The synchronous model of computation has shown to be well-suited in this context. Its core is the paradigm of perfect synchrony which assumes that the overall system behavior is divided into a sequence of reactions, and all computations within a reaction are completed in zero time. This temporal abstraction simplifies reactive programming in that developers do not have to bother about many low-level details related to timing, synchronization and scheduling. This thesis is dedicated to this design flow, and it presents the author's contributions to it.