In der chemischen Industrie treten bei vielen Absorptions- und Desorptionsanlagen wässrige Lösungen flüchtiger schwacher Elektrolyte, d. h. chemisch gelöster saurer (z. B. Kohlendioxid, Schwefeldioxid) und basischer (z. B. Ammoniak) Gase auf, die oftmals auch Salze und organische Komponenten enthalten. Die dabei anfallenden Elektrolytlösungen müssen zur Rückgewinnung der beteiligten Einsatzstoffe sowie aus Umweltschutzgründen aufgearbeitet werden. Zur Auslegung und Optimierung solcher Verfahren sind Informationen zum Phasengleichgewicht erforderlich. Die Korrelation und Vorhersage solcher Phasengleichgewichte wird durch die in der flüssigen Phase ablaufenden chemischen Reaktionen und die dabei auftretenden ionischen Spezies maßgeblich beeinflusst. In früheren Arbeiten wurde ein thermodynamisches Modell für die Löslichkeit der Gase Kohlendioxid, Schwefeldioxid, Schwefelwasserstoff und Ammoniak in wässrigen, auch salzhaltigen Lösungen entwickelt, in dem die in der flüssigen Phase auftretenden chemischen Reaktionen zwischen Ammoniak und den sauren Gasen berücksichtigt werden. Der Einsatz dieses Modells ist jedoch auf das Lösungsmittel Wasser beschränkt. Um auch die Vorgänge in Lösungsmittelgemischen aus Wasser und organischen Komponenten (über den gesamten Konzentrationsbereich, d. h. vom reinen Wasser bis zum reinen organischen Lösungsmittel) beschreiben zu können, wurde von ein neues thermodynamisches Modell entwickelt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird dieses Modell weiter getestet und parametriert. Die hier vorliegende Arbeit behandelt Dampf – Flüssigkeit – Feststoff – Gleichgewichte (und die Gleichgewichte der benötigten Untersysteme) der Systeme (Wasser + Methanol + Ammoniak + Kohlendioxid + (Natriumchlorid / -sulfat)), (Wasser + Aceton + Kohlendioxid + (Natriumchlorid / -sulfat)) sowie (Wasser + 1–Propanol + 1–Methylimidazol + Natriumchlorid).
This dissertation is intended to give a systematic treatment of hypersurface singularities in arbitrary characteristic which provides the necessary tools, theoretically and computationally, for the purpose of classification. This thesis consists of five chapters: In chapter 1, we introduce the background on isolated hypersurface singularities needed for our work. In chapter 2, we formalize the notions of piecewise-homogeneous grading and we discuss thoroughly non-degeneracy in arbitrary characteristic. Chapter 3 is devoted to determinacy and normal forms of isolated hypersurface singularities. In the first part, we give finite determinacy theorems in arbitrary characteristic with respect to right respectively contact equivalence. Furthermore, we show that "isolated" and finite determinacy properties are equivalent. In the second part, we formalize Arnol'd's key ideas for the computation of normal forms an define the conditions (AA) and (AAC). The last part of Chapter 3 is devoted to the study of normal forms in the general setting of hypersurface singularities imposing neither condition (A) nor Newton-Nondegeneracy. In Chapter 4, we present algorithms which we implement in Singular for the purpose of explicit computation of regular bases and normal forms. In chapter 5, we transfer some classical results on invariants over the field C of complex numbers to algebraically closed fields of characteristic zero known as Lefschetz principle.
Subject of this book is an epistemological consideration - a consideration which could be characterised as a main theme - maybe the main theme - of that part of philosophy we all know as epistemology: the nature of knowledge. But other than the most essays on the subject of knowledge, here I am going to deal with a largely overlooked account to try to find an answer to the epistemological question of knowledge. This is the mental state account of knowledge (Price in his 'Belief' the formulation ``mental acts'' and Williamson talks about a ``state of mind''). Or to put it into the question I chose as title: is knowledge a mental state? We have to concede first that there is only a small group of philosophers who used to explain knowledge in terms of a mental state, particularly the `Oxford Realists'. And secondly, the acceptance of the MS thesis is low and negative. There is an interesting detail here: unlike the poor interest in an epistemic theory such as the MS thesis, philosophers like Prichard or Austin (and their philosophical thinking) are not really living in the shadows of philosophical consideration. Indeed their philosophical impact is high level, if we consider for instance Prichard's moral writings or Austin's theory of speech acts. I think we can conclude from this fact that the reason of the `negative' ignorance in respect of their epistemological point of view was not caused by a negative quality of their philosophy. Now, the question we are faced with (and that should be answered here) is: what is wrong with the MS thesis even though it is held by high class philosophers? Why is the epistemic thinking of Cook Wilson, Prichard and Austin afflicted with such ignorance? I will try to explain this later on with the notion of an unreflected Platonian heritage during 2000 years of epistemic thinking - a notion which is similar to a point Hetherington has called ``epistemic absolutism''. So, there are three main purposes which I am pursuing in this consideration: 1.To explain the reasons why there is such an ignorance towards an assertion of the MS thesis. I am going to pursue this through an analysis of knowledge which will demonstrate the inappropriateness of the JTB thesis as an adequate analysis of knowledge. 2.To describe that it is a mistake to ignore or at least underestimate the MS thesis in the discussion of an appropriate definition of knowledge and to maintain that the MS thesis is the key to a general theory of knowledge. 3.Conclusion: If the first two steps are correct, the JTB thesis is insufficient in order to give an account of the nature of knowledge in general. A consequence from this is: all the epistemic theories which are dealing with the JTB thesis are based on deficient assumptions. Hence their results - notably the well-known externalism/internalism debate - are insufficient, too. So, there is a need for a new theory of knowledge based on the MS thesis. In the course of my consideration I am going to justify the following three theses: i) The JTB thesis as a definition of knowledge in general is deficient, as the JTB thesis describes the propositional aspect of knowledge only. But the propositional knowledge - the so-called `knowledge that' - is merely one element among others that has to be recognized in search of a theory of knowledge. ii) The status of the `knowledge that' is derivative and not ultimate. It is derived from the non- propositional knowledge in order to make the non-propositional knowledge communicable to others. The mode of the `knowledge that' is indirect and thus can be stated in the third person point of view only. This ultimate kind of knowledge - the knowledge which the `knowledge that' is derived from - is the non-propositional knowledge. Its mode is direct and hence it is restricted to the first person point of view. Therefore the basis towards a theory of knowledge in general has to be this non-propositional aspect of knowledge. iii) Hence, taking the first two theses for granted, an appropriate theory of knowledge needs an account of the non-propositional knowledge. The MS thesis will accomplish this task.
Limit theorems constitute a classical and important field in probability theory. In several applications, in particular in demographic or medical contexts, killed Markov processes suggest themselves as models for populations undergoing culling by mortality or other processes. In these situations mathematical research features a general interest in the observable distribution of survivors, which is known as Yaglom limit or quasi-stationary distribution. Previous work often focuses on discrete state spaces, commonly birth-death processes (or with some more flexible localization of the transitions), with killing only on the boundary. The central concerns of this thesis are to describe, for a given class of one dimensional diffusion processes, the quasistationary distributions (if any), and to describe the convergence (or not) of the process conditioned on survival to one of these quasistationary distributions. Rather general diffusion processes on the half-line are considered, where 0 is allowed to be regular or an exit boundary. Very similar techniques are applied in this work in order to derive results on the large time behavior of an exotic measure valued process, which is closely related to so-called point interactions, which have been widely studied in the mathematical physics literature.
This Dissertation tried to provide insights into the influences of individual and contextual factors on Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) teachers’ learning and professional development in Ethiopia. Specifically, this research focused on identifying and determining the influences of teachers’ self perception as learners and professionals, and investigates the impact of the context, process and content of their learning and experiences on their professional development. The knowledge of these factors and their impacts help in improving the learning and professional development of the TVET teachers and their professionalization. This research tried to provide answers for the following five research questions. (1) How do TVET teachers perceive themselves as active learners and as professionals? And what are the implications of their perceptions on their learning and development? (2) How do TVET teachers engage themselves in learning and professional development activities? (3) What contextual factors facilitated or hindered the TVET Teachers’ learning and professional development? (4) Which competencies are found critical for the TVET teachers’ learning and professional development? (5) What actions need to be considered to enhance and sustain TVET teachers learning and professional development in their context? It is believed that the research results are significant not only to the TVET teachers, but also to schools leaders, TVET Teacher Training Institutions, education experts and policy makers, researchers and others stakeholders in the TVET sector. The theoretical perspectives adopted in this research are based on the systemic constructivist approach to professional development. An integrated approach to professional development requires that the teachers’ learning and development activities to be taken as an adult education based on the principles of constructivism. Professional development is considered as context - specific and long-term process in which teachers are trusted, respected and empowered as professionals. Teachers’ development activities are sought as more of collaborative activities portraying the social nature of learning. Schools that facilitate the learning and development of teachers exhibit characteristics of a learning organisation culture where, professional collaboration, collegiality and shared leadership are practiced. This research has drawn also relevant point of views from studies and reports on vocational education and TVET teacher education programs and practices at international, continental and national levels. The research objectives and the types of research questions in this study implied the use of a qualitative inductive research approach as a research strategy. Primary data were collected from TVET teachers in four schools using a one-on-one qualitative in-depth interview method. These data were analyzed using a Qualitative Content Analysis method based on the inductive category development procedure. ATLAS.ti software was used for supporting the coding and categorization process. The research findings showed that most of the TVET teachers neither perceive themselves as professionals nor as active learners. These perceptions are found to be one of the major barriers to their learning and development. Professional collaborations in the schools are minimal and teaching is sought as an isolated individual activity; a secluded task for the teacher. Self-directed learning initiatives and individual learning projects are not strongly evident. The predominantly teacher-centered approach used in TVET teacher education and professional development programs put emphasis mainly to the development of technical competences and has limited the development of a range of competences essential to teachers’ professional development. Moreover, factors such as the TVET school culture, the society’s perception of the teaching profession, economic conditions, and weak links with industries and business sectors are among the major contextual factors that hindered the TVET teachers’ learning and professional development. A number of recommendations are forwarded to improve the professional development of the TVET teachers. These include change in the TVET schools culture, a paradigm shift in TVET teacher education approach and practice, and development of educational policies that support the professionalization of TVET teachers. Areas for further theoretical research and empirical enquiry are also suggested to support the learning and professional development of the TVET teachers in Ethiopia.
In der Automobilindustrie muss der Nachweis von Bauteilzuverlässigkeiten auf statistischen Verfahren basieren, da die Bauteilfestigkeit und Kundenbeanspruchung streuen. Die bisherigen Vorgehensweisen der Tests führen häufig Fehlentscheidungen bzgl. der Freigabe, was unnötige Design-Änderungen und somit hohe Kosten bedeuten kann. In vorliegender Arbeit wird der Ansatz der partiellen Durchläuferzählung entwickelt, welche die statische Güte der bisherigen Testverfahren (Success Runs) erhöht.
Most software systems are described in high-level model or programming languages. Their runtime behavior, however, is determined by the compiled code. For uncritical software, it may be sufficient to test the runtime behavior of the code. For safety-critical software, there is an additional aggravating factor resulting from the fact that the code must satisfy the formal specification which reflects the safety policy of the software consumer and that the software producer is obliged to demonstrate that the code is correct with respect to the specification using formal verification techniques. In this scenario, it is of great importance that static analyses and formal methods can be applied on the source code level, because this level is more abstract and better suited for such techniques. However, the results of the analyses and the verification can only be carried over to the machine code level, if we can establish the correctness of the translation. Thus, compilation is a crucial step in the development of software systems and formally verified translation correctness is essential to close the formalization chain from high-level formal methods to the machine-code level. In this thesis, I propose an approach to certifying compilers which achieves the aim of closing the formalization chain from high-level formal methods to the machine-code level by applying techniques from mathematical logic and programming language semantics. I propose an approach called foundational translation validation (FTV) in which the software producer implements an FTV system comprising a compiler and a specification and verification framework (SVF) which is implemented in higher-order logic (HOL). The most important part of the SVF is an explicit translation contract which comprises the formalizations of the source and the target languages of the compiler and the formalization of a binary translation correctness predicate corrTrans(S,T) for source programs S and target programs T. The formalizations of the languages are realized as deep embeddings in HOL. This enables one to declare the whole program in a formalized language as a HOL constant. The predicate formally specifies when T is considered to be a correct translation of S. Its definition is explicitly based on the program semantics definitions provided by the translation contract. Subsequent to the translation, the compiler translates the source and the target programs into their syntactic representations as HOL constants, S and T, and generates a proof of corrTrans(S,T). We call a compiler which follows the FTV approach a proof generating compiler. Our approach borrows the idea of representing programs in correctness proofs as logic constants from the foundational proof-carrying code (FPCC) approach. Novel features that distinquish our approach from further approaches to certifying compilers, such as proof-carrying code (PCC) and translation validation (TV) are the following: Firstly, the presence of an explicit translation contract formalized in HOL: The approaches PCC and TV do not formalize a translation contract explicitly. Instead of this, they incorporate operational semantics and translation correctness criterion in translation validation tools on the programming language level. Secondly, representation of programs in correctness proofs as logic constants: The approaches PCC and the TV translate programs into their representations as semantic abstractions that serve as inputs for translation validation tools. Thirdly, certification of program transformation chains: Unlike the TV approach, which certifies single program transformations, the FTV approach achieves the aim of certifying whole chains of program transformations. This is possible due to the fact that the translation contract provides, for all programming languages involved in the program transformation chain, definitions of program semantics functions which map programs to mathematical objects that are elements of a set with an (at least) partial order "<=". Then, the proof makes use of the fact that the relation "<=" is transitive. In this thesis, the feasibility of the FTV approach is exemplified by the implementation of an FTV system. The system comprises a compiler front-end that certifies its optimization phase and an accompanying SVF that is implemented in the theorem prover Isabelle/HOL. The compiler front-end translates programs in a small C-like programming language, performs three optimizations: constant folding, dead assignment elimination, and loop invariant hoisting, and generates translation certificates in the form of Isabelle/HOL theories. The main focus of the thesis is on the description of the SVF and its translation verification techniques.
Photochemical reactions are of great interest due to their importance in chemical and biological processes. Highly sensitive IR/UV double and triple resonance spectroscopy in molecular beam experiments in combination with ab initio and DFT calculations yields information on reaction coordinates and Intersystem Crossing (ISC) processes subsequent to photoexcitation. In general, molecular beam experiments enable the investigation of isolated, cold molecules without any influence of the environment. Furthermore, small aggregates can be analyzed in a supersonic jet by gradually adding solvent molecules like water. Conclusions concerning the interactions in solution can be derived by investigating and fully understanding small systems with a defined amount of solvent molecules. In this work the first applications of combined IR/UV spectroscopy on reactive isolated molecules and triplet states in molecular beams without using any messenger molecules are presented. Special focus was on excited state proton transfer reactions, which can also be described as keto enol tautomerisms. Various molecules such as 3-hydroxyflavone, 2-(2-naphthyl)-3-hydroxychromone and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid have been investigated with regard to this question. In the case of 3-hydroxyflavone and 2-(2-naphthyl)-3-hydroxychromone, the IR spectra have been recorded subsequent to an excited state proton transfer. Furthermore the dihydrate of 3-hydroxyflavone has been analyzed concerning a possible proton transfer in the excited state: The proton transfer reaction along the water molecules (proton wire) has to be induced by raising the excitation energy. However, photoinduced reactions involve not only singlet but also triplet states. As an archetype molecule xanthone has been analysed. After excitation to the S2 state, ISC occurs into the triplet manifold leading to a population of the T1 state. The IR spectrum of the T1 state has been recorded for the first time using the UV/IR/UV technique without using any messenger molecules. Altogether it is shown that IR/UV double and triple resonance techniques are suitable tools to analyze reaction coordinates of photochemical processes.
Die Homöostase der intrazellulären Ca2+-Konzentration ist eine essenzielle Aufgabe in allen Zellen, da Ca2+ an diversen zellulären Prozessen beteiligt ist. Besonders Neurone des auditorischen Hirnstamms sind auf eine optimale Ca2+-Regulation angewiesen, da ihr Überleben und ihre Entwicklung von der intrazellulären Ca2+-Konzentration abhängen. Neben Ca2+-bindenden Proteinen und Ca2+-ATPasen sind besonders Na+/Ca2+-Austauscher, welche sich in die Familien NCX (NCX1-3), NCKX (NCKX1-5) und CCX (NCKX6) gliedern, in vielen neuronalen und nicht-neuronalen Strukturen maßgeblich für die Ca2+-Regulation verantwortlich. In meiner Arbeit wurde die Verteilung von NCX1-3 sowie NCKX2-6 im Nucleus cochlearis(CN), superioren Olivenkomplex (SOC) und inferioren Colliculus (IC), welche Strukturen des auditorischen Hirnstamms darstellen, untersucht. Dies erfolgte auf Boten-Ribonukleinsäure(messenger ribonucleic acid, mRNA)-Ebene qualitativ mittels reverser Transkription (RT)gefolgt von genspezifischer Polymerasekettenreaktion (PCR) sowie quantitativ mittels realtime-PCR, auf Proteinebene qualitativ mittels Immunhistochemie. Um auch ontogenetische Aspekte der Ca2+-Homöostase zu berücksichtigen, wurden Ratten in einem unreifen Entwicklungsstadium (P4) sowie junge adulte Ratten (P60) analysiert. Die Genexpression aller untersuchten ncx- und nckx-Isoformen wurde mittels RT-PCR in beiden Entwicklungsstadien in CN, SOC und IC nachgewiesen. Besonders auffallend war bei den ncx-Isoformen eine im Verlauf der Entwicklung meist verstärkte Transkription, während die nckx-Isoformen in den meisten Fällen eine verminderte Transkription im adulten Tier zeigten. Mittels Immunhistochemie zeigt meine Arbeit zum ersten Mal eine entwicklungsabhängige Umverteilung der Austauscher. Während die Isoformen bei P4 hauptsächlich im Neuropil lokalisiert waren, zeigte sich im Gegensatz dazu bei P60 eine verstärkte Immunfluoreszenz innerhalb der Somata. Ausnahme war hier NCKX2, welcher im CN auch bei P60 hauptsächlich im Neuropil exprimiert wurde. Die Expression von NCX1-3 und NCKX2 im Neuropil junger auditorischer Hirnstammneurone legt eine Ca2+-regulierende Funktion im Bereich dendritischer Synapsen nahe. Die Synapsen befinden sich in diesem Alter noch in einem unreifen Zustand, so dass die Na+/Ca2+-Austauscher einen maßgeblichen Einfluss auf die synaptische Plastizität ausüben können. Abschließend deutet die Verteilung der Na+/Ca2+-Austauscher darauf hin, dass alle NCX- und NCKX-Isoformen, im Zusammenspiel mit weiteren Ca2+-regulierenden Proteinen, an der Ca2+-Homöostase in den Strukturen des auditorischen Hirnstamms beteiligt sind.
This thesis deals with the application of binomial option pricing in a single-asset Black-Scholes market and its extension to multi-dimensional situations. Although the binomial approach is, in principle, an efficient method for lower dimensional valuation problems, there are at least two main problems regarding its application: Firstly, traded options often exhibit discontinuities, so that the Berry- Esséen inequality is in general tight; i.e. conventional tree methods converge no faster than with order 1/sqrt(N). Furthermore, they suffer from an irregular convergence behaviour that impedes the possibility to achieve a higher order of convergence via extrapolation methods. Secondly, in multi-asset markets conventional tree construction methods cannot ensure well-defined transition probabilities for arbitrary correlation structures between the assets. As a major aim of this thesis, we present two approaches to get binomial trees into shape in order to overcome the main problems in applications; the optimal drift model for the valuation of single-asset options and the decoupling approach to multi-dimensional option pricing. The new valuation methods are embedded into a self-contained survey of binomial option pricing, which focuses on the convergence behaviour of binomial trees. The optimal drift model is a new one-dimensional binomial scheme that can lead to convergence of order o(1/N) by exploiting the specific structure of the valuation problem under consideration. As a consequence, it has the potential to outperform benchmark algorithms. The decoupling approach is presented as a universal construction method for multi-dimensional trees. The corresponding trees are well-defined for an arbitrary correlation structure of the underlying assets. In addition, they yield a more regular convergence behaviour. In fact, the sawtooth effect can even vanish completely, so that extrapolation can be applied.