The main goal of this work was the study of the applicability of a polymer film heat exchanger concept for the applications in the chemical industry, such as the condensation of organic solvents. The polymer film heat exchanger investigated is a plate heat exchanger with very thin (0.025 – 0.1 mm) plates or films, which separate the fluids and enable the heat transfer. After a successful application of this concept to seawater desalination in a previous work, a further step is in chemical engineering, where the good chemical resistance of polymers in aggressive fluids is the challenge.
Two approaches were performed in this work. The first one was experimental and included the study of the chemical and mechanical resistance of preselected films, made of polymer materials, such as polyimide (PI), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). To simulate realistic operating conditions in a heat exchanger the films were exposed to a combined thermal (up to 90°C) and mechanical pressure loads (4-6 bar) with permanent contact with the relevant organic solvents, such as toluene, hexane, heptane and tetrahydrofuran (THF). Furthermore, a lab-scale apparatus and a full-scale demonstrator were manufactured in cooperation with two industrial partners. These were used for the investigation of the heat transfer performance for operating modes with and without phase change.
In addition to the experimental work, a coupled finite element –computational fluid dynamics (FEM-CFD)-model was developed, based on the fluid-structure-interaction (FSI). Two major tasks had to be solved here. The first one was the modelling of the condensation process, based on available mathematical models and energy balances. The second one was the consideration of the partially reversible deformation of the used film during operation. Since this deformation changes the geometry of the fluid channels also has an influence on the overall performance of the apparatus, a coupled FEM-CFD model was developed.
During the experimental study of the chemical resistance of the films, the PTFE film showed the best performance, and hence can be used for all four tested solvents. For the polyimide film, failures while exposed to THF were observed, and the PET film can only be used with water and hexane. With the used lab-scale heat exchanger and the full-scale demonstrator competitive overall heat transfer coefficients between 270 W/m²K and 700 W/m²K could be reached for the liquid-liquid (water-water, water-hexane) operation mode without phase change. For the condensation process, overall heat transfer coefficients of up to 1700/m²K could be obtained.
The numerical approach led to a well-functioning coupled model in a very small scale (1 cm²). An upscale, however, failed due to enormous hardware resources necessary required for the simulation of the entire full-scale demonstrator. The main reason for this is the very low thickness of the films, which leads to tiny mesh element sizes (<0.05 mm) necessary to model the deformation of the film. The modelling of the liquid-liquid heat transfer provided an acceptable accuracy (approx. 10%), but at very low rates the deviations were then higher (over 30%). The results of the condensation modelling were ambivalent. One the one hand a physically plausible model was developed, which could map the entire condensation process. On the other hand, the corresponding energy balance revealed major inaccuracy and hence could not be used for the determination of the overall heat transfer and showed the current limits of the FEM-CFD approach.
This dissertation describes an indoor localization system based on oscillating magnetic fields and the underlying processing architecture. The system consists of several fixed anchor points, generating the magnetic fields (transmitter), and wearable magnetic field measurement units, whose position should be determined (receiver). The system is evaluated in different environments and application areas. Additionally, various fields of application are discussed and assessed in ubiquitous and pervasive computing and Ambient Assisted Living. The fusion of magnetic field-based distance information and positions derived from LIDAR distance measurements is described and evaluated.
The system architecture consists of three layers, a physical layer, a layer for position and distance estimation between a magnetic field transmitter and a receiver, and a layer which uses several measurements to different transmitters to estimate the overall position of a wearable measurement unit.
Each layer covers different aspects which have to be taken care of when magnetic field information is processed. Especially the properties of the generated magnetic field information are considered in the processing algorithms.
The physical layer covers the magnetic field generation and magnetic Field-Based information transfer, synchronization of a transmitter and the receivers and the description of the locally measured magnetic fields on the receiver side. After a transfer of this information to a central processing unit, the hardware specific signal levels are transformed to the levels of the theoretical magnetic field models. The values are then used to estimate candidate positions and distances. Due to symmetrical effects of the magnetic fields, it is only possible to reduce the receiver position to 8 points around the transmitter (one position in each of the octants of the coordinate system). The determined positions have a mean error of 108 cm, the average error of the distance is 40 cm.
On top of this, the distance and position information against different transmitters are fused, this covers clock synchronization of transmitters, triggering and scheduling sequences and distance and position based localization and tracking algorithms. The magnetic-field-based indoor localization system has been evaluated in different applications and environments; the mean position error is 60 cm to 70 cm depending on the environment. A comparison against an RF-based indoor localization system shows the robustness of magnetic fields against RF shadows caused by big metal objects.
We additionally present algorithms for regions of interest detection, working on raw magnetic field information and transformed position and distance information. Setups in larger areas can distinguish regions which are further than 50 cm apart, small scale coil setups (3 transmitters in 2m^3) allow to resolve regions below 20 cm.
In the end, we describe a fusion algorithm for a wearable localization system based on 4 LIDAR distance measurement units and magnetic field-based distance estimation. The magnetic field indoor localization system provides distance proximity information which is used to resolve ambiguous position estimates of the LIDAR system. In a room (8m × 10m), we achieve a mean error of 8 cm.
Der Bericht beinhaltet die Punkte "Informationstechnik", "KLUEDO/ELSA", "Literatur- und Sachmittel", "Bewirtschaftung", "Medienbearbeitung", "Benutzung" und "Personelle Änderungen" innerhalb der Universitätsbibliothek Kaiserslautern für das Jahr 2015.
Der Regionalmonitor Hochschulbildung (folgend Regionalmonitor genannt) trägt als interaktive webbasierte Datenbank dazu bei, den Übergang von einer angebotsorientierten zu einer be- darfsorientierten Entwicklung von Studienangeboten im Bereich der wissenschaftlichen Weiterbildung praktisch umzusetzen.. Das Ziel liegt in der Bereitstellung empirischer Daten zur demographischen und wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung in der Region, um die Gestaltung von Studienangeboten stärker als bisher an derzei- tigen und zukünftigen Bedarfen zu orientieren. Der Bericht gibt eine Übersicht über die verwendeten Daten und die technische Umsetzung des Monitors
Advanced sensing systems, sophisticated algorithms, and increasing computational resources continuously enhance the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). To date, despite that some vehicle based approaches to driver fatigue/drowsiness detection have been realized and deployed, objectively and reliably detecting the fatigue/drowsiness state of driver without compromising driving experience still remains challenging. In general, the choice of input sensorial information is limited in the state-of-the-art work. On the other hand, smart and safe driving, as representative future trends in the automotive industry worldwide, increasingly demands the new dimensional human-vehicle interactions, as well as the associated behavioral and bioinformatical data perception of driver. Thus, the goal of this research work is to investigate the employment of general and custom 3D-CMOS sensing concepts for the driver status monitoring, and to explore the improvement by merging/fusing this information with other salient customized information sources for gaining robustness/reliability. This thesis presents an effective multi-sensor approach with novel features to driver status monitoring and intention prediction aimed at drowsiness detection based on a multi-sensor intelligent assistance system -- DeCaDrive, which is implemented on an integrated soft-computing system with multi-sensing interfaces in a simulated driving environment. Utilizing active illumination, the IR depth camera of the realized system can provide rich facial and body features in 3D in a non-intrusive manner. In addition, steering angle sensor, pulse rate sensor, and embedded impedance spectroscopy sensor are incorporated to aid in the detection/prediction of driver's state and intention. A holistic design methodology for ADAS encompassing both driver- and vehicle-based approaches to driver assistance is discussed in the thesis as well. Multi-sensor data fusion and hierarchical SVM techniques are used in DeCaDrive to facilitate the classification of driver drowsiness levels based on which a warning can be issued in order to prevent possible traffic accidents. The realized DeCaDrive system achieves up to 99.66% classification accuracy on the defined drowsiness levels, and exhibits promising features such as head/eye tracking, blink detection, gaze estimation that can be utilized in human-vehicle interactions. However, the driver's state of "microsleep" can hardly be reflected in the sensor features of the implemented system. General improvements on the sensitivity of sensory components and on the system computation power are required to address this issue. Possible new features and development considerations for DeCaDrive are discussed as well in the thesis aiming to gain market acceptance in the future.
Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit konnten neue Konzepte zur regioselektiven Einführung von CF3, SCF3, und SCF2H-Gruppen entwickelt und neue konzeptionelle Perspektiven für die Entwicklung nachhaltiger Fluoralkylierungsreaktionen und Reagenzien eröffnet werden.
Im ersten Teilprojekt gelang es, praktische Eintopfverfahren zu entwickeln, mit denen Trifluormethyl- und Trifluormethylthiolgruppen selektiv in organische Moleküle eingeführt werden. Der maßgebliche Vorteil dieser Methoden ist, dass breit verfügbare aromatische Amine in situ diazotiert und ohne weitere Aufarbeitung weiter umgesetzt werden. Die vorteilhaften Reaktionsbedingungen wie z.B. Katalysatorbeladung, Raumtemperatur, und die hohe Toleranz gegenüber funktionellen Gruppen konnten beibehalten werden.
Im nächsten Teilprojekt wurde aufbauend auf dem Konzept der nukleophilen Difluormethylierung der Organothiocyanate Zugang zu wertvollen Difluormethylthioethern ermöglicht. Dabei werden die Organothiocyanate in situ in Reaktionslösung aus diversen Aryl- und Alkylhalogeniden und –pseudohalogeniden erzeugt, welche anschließend unter Einsatz von TMSCF2H difluormethyliert werden konnten. Der entscheidende Vorteil dieser Methode ist der Einsatz der nachhaltigen CF2H-Quelle, welche aus Fluoroform herstellbar ist.
In einem weiteren Teilpojekt erfolgte die Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Synthese von Trifluormethylthioethern. Dabei können Organothiocyanate unter Decarboxylierung von Trifluoracetaten in Anwesenheit von Eisenkatalysatoren leicht zu den korrespondierenden, wertvollen Trifluormethylthioethern umgesetzt werden. Die Anwendungsbreite konnte an zahlreichen aromatischen, heteroaromatischen und aliphatischen Organothiocyanaten demonstriert werden. In weiterführenden Arbeiten konnte dieses Reaktionskonzepts auf längerkettige perfluorierte Carboxylate erweitert werden.
In einem weiteren Teilprojekt wurde die Sandmeyer Pentafluorethylthiolierung mit Aryldiazoniumsalzen ermöglicht. Sie stellt einen weiteren alternativen Zugang zu den pentafluorethylierten Aromaten dar.
Im darauffolgenden Teilprojekt wurden alternative, nachhaltigere Synthesewege zu den gängigen elektrophilen SCF3-Reagenzien ausgehend von Me4NSCF3 mittels einfacher Salzmetatese realisiert. Besonders erwähnenswert hierbei ist, dass eine in situ Generierung dieser sensiblen Reagenzien die komplizierte Handhabung vereinfacht.
Im letzten Teilprojekt wurden sowohl elektrophile als auch nukleophile Reagenzien zur regioselektiven Einführung von Phosphorothioat-Gruppen entwickelt. Die Anwendungsmöglichkeiten wurden anhand kupferkatalysierten Sandmeyer Reaktion von Aryldiazoniumsalzen, einer palladiumkatalysierten Umsetzung von Aryliodiden und einer kupferkatalysierten Umsetzung von Arylboronsäuren gezeigt.
Zusammengefassend wurden in dieser Arbeit nachhaltige Methoden zur regioselektiven Einführung von CF3, SCF3, SCF2H und SP(O)(OMe)2-Gruppen entwickelt. Dabei wurde das Reaktionskonzept der Sandmeyer Reaktion angewandt. Die wesentlichen Vorteile dabei sind der Einsatz geringer Mengen der Kupferkatalysatoren, die milden Reaktionsbedingungen, sowie die hohe Toleranz gegenüber funktioneller Gruppen, wodurch sich diese Verfahren auch besonders in späten Synthesestufen anbietet.
Redox-neutral decarboxylative coupling reactions have emerged as a powerful strategy for C-C bond formation. However, the existing reaction conditions possess limitations, such as the coupling of aryl halides restricted to ortho-substituted benzoic acids; alkenyl halides were not applicable in decarboxylative coupling reaction. Within this thesis, the developments of Pd/Cu bimetallic catalyst systems are presented to overcome the limitations.
In the first part of the PhD work, a customized bimetallic PdII/CuI catalyst system was successfully developed to facilitate the decarboxylative cross-coupling of non-ortho-substituted aromatic carboxylates with aryl chlorides. The restriction of decarboxylative cross-coupling reactions to ortho-substituted or heterocyclic carboxylate substrates was overcome by holistic optimization of this bimetallic Cu/Pd catalyst system. All kinds of benzoic acids regardless of their substitution pattern now can be applied in decarboxylative cross-coupling reaction. This confirms prediction by DFT studies that the previously observed limitation to certain activated carboxylates is not intrinsic. The catalyst system also presents higher performance in the coupling of ortho-substituted benzoates, giving much higher yields than those previously reported. ortho-Methyl benzoate and ortho-phenyl benzoate which have never before been converted in decarboxylative coupling reactions, gave reasonable yields. These together further confirm the superiority of the new protocol.
In the second part of the PhD work, arylalkenes syntheses via two different Pd/Cu bimetallic-catalyzed decarboxylative couplings have been developed. This part consists of two projects: 2a) decarboxylative coupling of alkenyl halides; 2b) decarboxylative Mizoroki-Heck coupling of aryl halides with α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids.
In project 2a, widely available, inexpensive, bench-stable aromatic carboxylic acids are used as nucleophile precursors instead of expensive and sensitive organometallic reagents that are commonly used in previously reported transition-metal catalyzed cross-couplings of alkenyl halides. With this protocol, alkenyl halides for the first time are used in decarboxylative coupling reaction, allowing regiospecific synthesis of a broad range of (hetero)arylalkenes in high yields. Unwanted double bond isomerization, a common side reaction in the alternative Heck reactions especially in the coupling of cycloalkenes or aliphatic alkenes, did not take place in this decarboxylative coupling reaction. Polysubstituted alkenes that hard to access with Heck reaction are also produced in good yields. The reaction can easily be scaled up to gram scale. The synthetic utility of this reaction was also demonstrated by synthesizing an important intermediate of fungicidal compound in high yield within 2 steps.
In project 2b, a Cu/Pd bimetallic catalyzed decarboxylative Mizoroki-Heck coupling of aryl halides with α, β-unsaturated carboxylic acids was successfully developed in which the carboxylate group directs the arylation into its β-position before being tracelessly removed via protodecarboxylation. It opens up a convenient synthesis of unsymmetrical 1,1-disubstituted alkenes from widely available precursors. This reaction features good regioselectivity, which is complementary to that of traditional Heck reactions, and also presents excellent functional group tolerance. Moreover, a one-pot 3-step 1,1-diarylethylene synthesis from methyl acrylate was achieved, where solvent changes or isolation of intermediates are not required. This subproject presents an example of carboxylic acids utility in synthesizing valuable compounds which are hard to access via conventional methodologies.