Hexagonal BN films have been deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering with simultaneous ion plating. The elastic properties of the films grown on silicon substrates under identical coating conditions have been de-termined by Brillouin light scattering from thermally excited surface phonons. Four of the five independent elastic constants of the deposited material are found to be c11 = 65 GPa, c13 = 7 GPa, c33 = 92 GPa and c44 = 53 GPa exhibiting an elastic anisotropy c11/c33 of 0.7. The Young's modulus determined with load indentation is distinctly larger than the corresponding value taken from Brillouin light scattering. This discrepancy is attributed to the specific morphology of the material with nanocrystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix.
The magnetic anisotropy of Co/Cu~001! films has been investigated by the magneto-optical Kerr effect, both in the pseudomorphic growth regime and above the critical thickness where strain relaxation sets in. A clear correlation between the onset of strain relaxation as measured by means of reflection high-energy electron diffraction and changes of the magnetic anisotropy has been found.
The first observation of spatiotemporal self-focusing of spin waves is reported. The experimental results are obtained for dipolar spin waves in yttrium-iron-garnet films by means of a newly developed space- and time-resolved Brillouin light scattering technique. They demonstrate self-focusing of a moving wave pulse in two spatial dimensions, and formation of localized two-dimensional wave packets, the collapse of which is stopped by dissipation. The experimental results are in good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations.
An unusual interlayer coupling, recently discovered in layered magnetic systems, is analysed from the experimental and theoretical points of view. This coupling favours the 90 orientation of the magnetization of the adjacent magnetic films. It can be phenomenologically described by a term in the energy expression, which is biquadratic with respect to the magnetizations of the two films. The main experimental findings, as well as the theoretical models, explaining the phenomenon are discussed.
The room-temperature wall energy sw 54.0310 23 J/m 2 of an exchange-coupled Tb 19.6 Fe 74.7 Co 5.7 /Dy 28.5 Fe 43.2 Co 28.3 double layer stack can be reduced by introducing a soft magnetic intermediate layer in between both layers exhibiting a significantly smaller anisotropy compared to Tb FeCo and Dy FeCo. sw will decrease linearly with increasing intermediate layer thickness, d IL , until the wall is completely located within the intermediate layer for d IL > d w , where d w denotes the wall thickness. Thus, d w can be obtained from the plot sw versus d IL .We determined sw and d w on Gd FeCo intermediate layers with different anisotropy behavior ~perpendicular and in-plane easy axis! and compared the results with data obtained from Brillouin light-scattering measurements, where exchange stiffness, A, and uniaxial anisotropy, K u , could be determined. With the knowledge of A and K u , wall energy and thickness were calculated and showed an excellent agreement with the magnetic measurements. A ten times smaller perpendicular anisotropy of Gd 28.1 Fe 71.9 in comparison to Tb FeCo and Dy FeCo resulted in a much smaller sw 51.1310 23 J/m 2 and d w 524 nm at 300 K. A Gd 34.1 Fe 61.4 Co 4.5 with in-plane anisotropy at room temperature showed a further reduced sw 50.3310 23 J/m 2 and d w 517 nm. The smaller wall energy was a result of a different wall structure compared to perpendicular layers.
We report on the exchange bias effect as a function of the in-plane direction of the applied field in twofold symmetric, epitaxial Ni 80 Fe 20 /Fe 50 Mn 50 bilayers grown on Cu~110! single-crystal substrates. An enhancement of the exchange bias field, H eb , up to a factor of 2 is observed if the external field is nearly, but not fully aligned perpendicular to the symmetry direction of the exchange bias field. From the measurement of the exchange bias field as a function of the in-plane angle of the applied field, the unidirectional, uniaxial and fourfold anisotropy contributions are determined with high precision. The symmetry direction of the unidirectional anisotropy switches with increasing NiFe thickness from  to .
We present results of anisotropy and exchange-coupling studies of asymmetric Co/Cr/Fe trilayers and superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Cr~001!/Mg~001! buffers and substrates. The magnetic properties have been investigated using both the longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance. The hysteresis data obtained from the trilayer system were fit to a theoretical model which contains both bilinear and biquadratic coupling. The effective in-plane anisotropy was found to be of fourfold symmetry with the same easy-axis orientation for both the Fe and Co layers. An analysis of the easy-axis hysteresis loops indicates long-period oscillatory coupling and also suggests a short periodic coupling. We show that weakly antiferromagnetically coupled asymmetric films might serve as potential candidates for improved spin-valve systems.
Programs are linguistic structures which contain identifications of individuals: memory locations, data types, classes, objects, relations, functions etc. must be identified selectively or definingly. The first part of the essay which deals with identification by showing and designating is rather short, whereas the remaining part dealing with paraphrasing is rather long. The reason is that for an identification by showing or designating no linguistic compositions are needed, in contrast to the case of identification by paraphrasing. The different types of functional paraphrasing are covered here in great detail because the concept of functional paraphrasing is the foundation of functional programming. The author had to decide whether to cover this subject here or in his essay Purpose versus Form of Programs where the concept of functional programming is presented. Finally, the author came to the conclusion that this essay on identification is the more appropriate place.