In this paper we deal with an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem, the k-cardinality tree problem in node weighted graphs. This problem has several applications , which justify the need for efficient methods to obtain good solutions. We review existing literature on the problem. Then we prove that under the condition that the graph contains exactly one trough, the problem can be solved in ploynomial time. For the general NP-hard problem we implemented several local search methods to obtain heuristics solutions, which are qualitatively better than solutions found by constructive heuristics and which require significantly less time than needed to obtain optimal solutions. We used the well known concepts of genetic algorithms and tabu search with useful extensions. We show that all the methods find optimal solutions for the class of graphs containing exactly one trough. The general performance of our methods as compared to other heuristics is illustrated by numerical results.
Given a finite set of points in the plane and a forbidden region R, we want to find a point X not an element of int(R), such that the weighted sum to all given points is minimized. This location problem is a variant of the well-known Weber Problem, where we measure the distance by polyhedral gauges and allow each of the weights to be positive or negative. The unit ball of a polyhedral gauge may be any convex polyhedron containing the origin. This large class of distance functions allows very general (practical) settings - such as asymmetry - to be modeled. Each given point is allowed to have its own gauge and the forbidden region R enables us to include negative information in the model. Additionally the use of negative and positive weights allows to include the level of attraction or dislikeness of a new facility. Polynomial algorithms and structural properties for this global optimization problem (d.c. objective function and a non-convex feasible set) based on combinatorial and geometrical methods are presented.
In this paper a new trend is introduced into the field of multicriteria location problems. We combine the robustness approach using the minmax regret criterion together with Pareto-optimality. We consider the multicriteria Weber location problem which consists of simultaneously minimizing a number of weighted sum-distance functions and the set of Pareto-optimal locations as its solution concept. For this problem, we characterize the Pareto-optimal solutions within the set of robust locations for the original weighted sum-distance functions. These locations have both the properties of stability and non-domination which are required in robust and multicriteria programming.
The problem of finding an optimal location X* minimizing the maximum Euclidean distance to existing facilities is well solved by e.g. the Elzinga-Hearn algorithm. In practical situations X* will however often not be feasible. We therefore suggest in this note a polynomial algorithm which will find an optimal location X^F in a feasible subset F of the plane R^2
In the following, we discuss a procedure for interpolating a spatial-temporal stochastic process. We stick to a particular, moderately general model but the approach can be easily transered to other similar problems. The original data, which motivated this work, are measurements of gas concentrations (SO2, NO, O2) and several meteorological parameters (temperature, sun radiation, procipitation, wind speed etc.). These date have been and are still recorded twice every hour at several irregularly located places in the forests of the state Rheinland-Pfalz as part of a program monitoring the air pollution in the forests.
In this paper we consider the problem of finding in a given graph a minimal weight subtree of connected subgraph, which has a given number of edges. These NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems have various applications in the oil industry, in facility layout and graph partitioning. We will present different heuristic approaches based on spanning tree and shortest path methods and on an exact algorithm solving the problem in polynomial time if the underlying graph is a tree. Both the edge- and node weighted case are investigated and extensive numerical results on the behaviour of the heuristics compared to optimal solutions are presented. The best heuristic yielded results within an error margin of less than one percent from optimality for most cases. In a large percentage of tests even optimal solutions have been found.
The system of shallow water waves is one of the classical examples for nonlinear, twodimensional conservation laws. The paper investigates a simple kinetic equation depending on a parameter e which leads for e to 0 to the system of shallow water waves. The corresponding equilibrium distribution function has a compact support which depends on the eigenvalues of the hyperbolic system. It is shown that this kind of kinetic approach is restricted to a special class of nonlinear conservation laws. The kinetic model is used to develop a simple particle method for the numerical solution of shallow water waves. The particle method can be implemented in a straightforward way and produces in test examples sufficiently accurate results.
Based on normalized coprime factorizations with respect to indefinite metrics and the construction of suitable characteristic functions, the Ober balanced canonical forms for the classes of bounded real and positive real are derived. This uses a matrix representation of the shift realization with respect to a basis related to sets of orthogonal polynomials.
Whenever new parts of a car have been developed, the manufacturer needs an estimation of the lifetime of this new part. On one hand the construction must not be too weak, so that the part holds long enough to satisfy the customer, but on the other hand, if the construction is too excessive, the part gets too heavy.; One is interested in methods that only need few measured data from the specimen itself, but use data about the material, because constructing and testing of specimen is expensive.