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A Nonlinear Ray Theory
(1994)

A proof of the famous Huygens" method of wavefront construction is reviewed and it is shown that the method is embedded in the geometrical optics theory for the calculation of the intensity of the wave based on high frequency approximation. It is then shown that Huygens" method can be extended in a natural way to the construction of a weakly nonlinear wavefront. This is an elegant nonlinear ray theory based on an approximation published by the author in 1975 which was inspired by the work of Gubkin. In this theory, the wave amplitude correction is incorporated in the eikonal equation itself and this leads to a sytem of ray equations coupled to the transport equation. The theory shows that the nonlinear rays stretch due to the wave amplitude, as in the work of Choquet-Bruhat (1969), followed by Hunter, Majda, Keller and Rosales, but in addition the wavefront rotates due to a non-uniform distribution of the amplitude on the wavefront. Thus the amplitude of the wave modifies the rays and the wavefront geometry, which in turn affects the growth and decay of the amplitude. Our theory also shows that a compression nonlinear wavefront may develop a kink but an expansion one always remains smooth. In the end, an exact solution showing the resolution of a linear caustic due to nonlinearity has been presented. The theory incorporates all features of Whitham" s geometrical shock dynamics.

Based on normalized coprime factorizations with respect to indefinite metrics and the construction of suitable characteristic functions, the Ober balanced canonical forms for the classes of bounded real and positive real are derived. This uses a matrix representation of the shift realization with respect to a basis related to sets of orthogonal polynomials.

The edge enhancement property of a nonlinear diffusion equation with a suitable expression for the diffusivity is an important feature for image processing. We present an algorithm to solve this equation in a wavelet basis and discuss its one dimensional version in some detail. Sample calculations demonstrate principle effects and treat in particular the case of highly noise perturbed signals. The results are discussed with respect to performance, efficiency, choice of parameters and are illustrated by a large number of figures. Finally, a comparison with a Fourier method and a finite volume method is performed.

Whenever new parts of a car have been developed, the manufacturer needs an estimation of the lifetime of this new part. On one hand the construction must not be too weak, so that the part holds long enough to satisfy the customer, but on the other hand, if the construction is too excessive, the part gets too heavy.; One is interested in methods that only need few measured data from the specimen itself, but use data about the material, because constructing and testing of specimen is expensive.

Monte-Carlo methods are widely used numerical tools in various fields of application, like rarefied gas dynamics, vacuum technology, stellar dynamics or nuclear physics. A central part in all applications is the generation of random variates according to a given probability law. Fundamental techniques to generate non-uniform random variates are the inversion principle or the acceptance-rejection method. Both procedures can be quite time-consuming if the given probability law has a complicated structure.; In this paper we consider probability laws depending on a small parameter and investigate the use of asmptotic expansions to generate random variates. The results given in the paper are restrictedto first order expansions. We show error estimates for the discrepancy as well as for the bounded Lipschitz distance of the asymptotic expansion. Furthermore the integration error for some special classes of functions is given. The efficiency of the method is proved by a numerical example from rarefied gas flows.

In spite of its lack of theoretical justification, nonlinear diffusion filtering has become a powerful image enhancement tool in the recent years. The goal of the present paper is to provide a mathematical foundation for nonlinear diffusion filtering as a scale-space transformation which is flexible enough to simplify images without loosing the capability of enhancing edges. By stuying the Lyapunow functional, it is shown that nonlinear diffusion reduces Lp norms and central moments and increases the entropy of images. The proposed anisotropic class utilizes a diffusion tensor which may be adapted to the image structure. It permits existence, uniqueness and regularity results, the solution depends continuously on the initial image, and it fulfills an extremum principle. All considerations include linear and certain nonlinear isotropic models and apply to m-dimensional vector-valued images. The results are juxtaposed to linear and morphological scale-spaces.

In this paper we deal with the problem of computing the stresses in stationary loaded bearings. A method to obtain the pressure in the lubrication fluid, which is given as a solution of Reynolds" differential equation, is presented. Furthermore, using the theory of plain stress, the stresses in the bearing shell are described by derivatives of biharmonic functions. A spline interpolation method for computing these functions is developed and an estimate for the error on the boundaries is presented. Finally the described methods are tested theoretically as well as with real examples.

Particle methods to simulate rarefied gas flows have found an increasing interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics during the last decade, see for example [1], [2], [3] and [4]. The general goal is to develop numerical schemes which are reliable enough to substitute real windtunnel experiments, needed for example in space research, by computer experiments. In order to achieve this goal one needs numerical methods solving the Boltzmann equation including all important physical effects. In general this means 3D computations for a chemically reacting rarefied gas. With codes of this kind at hand, Boltzmann simulation becomes a powerful tool in studying rarefied gas phenomena.

In this article a diffusion equation is obtained as a limit of a reversible kinetic equation with an ad hoc scaling. The diffusion is produced by the collisions of the particles with the boundary. These particles are assumed to be reflected according to a reversible law having convenient mixing properties. Optimal convergence results are obtained in a very simple manner. This is made possible because the model, based on Arnold" s cat map can be handled with Fourier series instead of the symbolic dynamics associated to a Markow partition.

Particle Methods
(1994)

Linear half-space problems can be used to solve domain decomposition problems between Boltzmann and aerodynamic equations. A new fast numerical method computing the asymptotic states and outgoing distributions for a linearized BGK half-space problem is presented. Relations with the so-called variational methods are discussed. In particular, we stress the connection between these methods and Chapman-Enskog type expansions.

A nonequilibrium situation governed by kinetic equations with strongly contrasted Knudsen numbers in different subdomains is discussed. We consider a domain decomposition problem for Boltzmann- and Euler equations, establish the correct coupling conditions and prove the validity of the obtained coupled solution. Moreover numerical examples comparing different types of coupling conditions are presented.

We consider the numerical computation of nonlinear functionals of distribution functions approximated by point measures. Two methods are described and estimates for the speed of convergence as the number of points tends to infinity are given. Moreover numerical results for the entropy functional are presented.

A Case Study on Specifikation,Detection and Resolution of IN Feature Interactions with Estelle
(1994)

We present an approach for the treatment of Feature Interactions in Intelligent Networks. The approach is based on the formal description technique Estelle and consists of three steps. For the first step, a specification style supporting the integration of additional features into a basic service is introduced . As a result, feature integration is achieved by adding specification text, i.e . on a purely syntactical level. The second step is the detection of feature interactions resulting from the integration of additional features. A formal criterion is given that can be used for the automatic detection of a particular class of feature interactions. In the third step, previously detected feature interactions are resolved. An algorithm has been devised that allows the automatical incorporation of high-level design decisions into the formal specification. The presented approach is applied to the Basic Call Service and several supplementary interacting features.