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- Inverses Problem (7)
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#### Fachbereich / Organisatorische Einheit

The Lagrangian field-antifield formalism of Batalin and Vilkovisky (BV) is used to investigate the application of the collec- tive coordinate method to soliton quantisation. In field theories with soliton solutions, the Gaussian fluctuation operator has zero modes due to the breakdown of global symmetries of the Lagrangian in the soliton solutions. It is shown how Noether identities and local symmetries of the Lagrangian arise when collective coordinates are introduced in order to avoid divergences related to these zero modes. This transformation to collective and fluctuation degrees of freedom is interpreted as a canonical transformation in the symplectic field-antifield space which induces a time-local gauge symmetry. Separating the corresponding Lagrangian path integral of the BV scheme in lowest order into harmonic quantum fluctuations and a free motion of the collective coordinate with the classical mass of the soliton, we show how the BV approach clarifies the relation between zero modes, collective coordinates, gauge invariance and the center- of-mass motion of classical solutions in quantum fields. Finally, we apply the procedure to the reduced nonlinear O(3) oe-model.^L

Based on experiences from an autonomous mobile robot project called MOBOT -III, we found hard realtime-constraints for the operating-system-design. ALBATROSS is "A flexible multi-tasking and realtime network-operatingsystem-kernel", not limited to mobile- robot-projects only, but which might be useful also wherever you have to guarantee a high reliability of a realtime-system. The focus in this article is on a communication-scheme fulfilling the demanded (hard realtime-) assurances although not implying time-delays or jitters on the critical informationchannels. The central chapters discuss a locking-free shared buffer management, without the need for interrupts and a way to arrange the communication architecture in order to produce minimal protocol-overhead and short cycle-times. Most of the remaining communication-capacity (if there is any) is used for redundant transfers, increasing the reliability of the whole system. ALBATROSS is actually implemented on a multi-processor VMEbus-system.

This paper refers to the problem of adaptability over an infinite period of time, regarding dynamic networks. A never ending flow of examples have to be clustered, based on a distance measure. The developed model is based on the self-organizing feature maps of Kohonen [6], [7] and some adaptations by Fritzke [3]. The problem of dynamic surface classification is embedded in the SPIN project, where sub-symbolic abstractions, based on a 3-d scanned environment is being done.

The problem to be discussed here, is the usage of neural network clustering techniques on a mobile robot, in order to build qualitative topologic environment maps. This has to be done in realtime, i.e. the internal world model has to be adapted by the flow of sensor- samples without the possibility to stop this data-flow.Our experiments are done in a simulation environment as well as on a robot, called ALICE.

Based on the experiences from an autonomous mobile robot project called MOBOT-III, we found hard realtime-constraints for the operating- system-design. ALBATROSS is "A flexible multi-tasking and realtime network-operating-system-kernel". The focusin this article is on a communication-scheme fulfilling the previous demanded assurances. The centralchapters discuss the shared buffer management and the way to design the communication architecture.Some further aspects beside the strict realtime-requirements like the possibilities to control and watch a running system, are mentioned. ALBATROSS is actually implemented on a multi-processor VMEbus-system.

Based on the idea of using topologic feature-mapsinstead of geometric environment maps in practical mobile robot tasks, we show an applicable way tonavigate on such topologic maps. The main features regarding this kind of navigation are: handling of very inaccurate position (and orientation) information as well as implicit modelling of complex kinematics during an adaptation phase. Due to the lack of proper a-priori knowledge, a re-inforcement based model is used for the translation of navigator commands to motor actions. Instead of employing a backpropagation network for the cen-tral associative memory module (attaching actionprobabilities to sensor situations resp. navigatorcommands) a much faster dynamic cell structure system based on dynamic feature maps is shown. Standard graph-search heuristics like A* are applied in the planning phase.

SPIN-NFDS Learning and Preset Knowledge for Surface Fusion - A Neural Fuzzy Decision System -
(1993)

The problem to be discussed in this paper may be characterized in short by the question: "Are these two surface fragments belonging together (i.e. belonging to the same surface)?" The presented techniques try to benefit from some predefined knowledge as well as from the possibility to refine and adapt this knowledge according to a (changing) real environment, resulting in a combination of fuzzy-decision systems and neural networks. The results are encouraging (fast convergence speed, high accuracy), and the model might be used for a wide range of applications. The general frame surrounding the work in this paper is the SPIN- project, where emphasis is on sub-symbolic abstractions, based on a 3-d scanned environment.

World models for mobile robots as introduced in many projects, are mostly redundant regarding similar situations detected in different places. The present paper proposes a method for dynamic generation of a minimal world model based on these redundancies. The technique is an extention of the qualitative topologic world modelling methods. As a central aspect the reliability regarding errortolerance and stability will be emphasized. The proposed technique demands very low constraints on the kind and quality of the employed sensors as well as for the kinematic precision of the utilized mobile platform. Hard realtime constraints can be handled due to the low computational complexity. The principal discussions are supported by real-world experiments with the mobile robot "

This article will discuss a qualitative, topological and robust world-modelling technique with special regard to navigation-tasks for mobile robots operating in unknownenvironments. As a central aspect, the reliability regarding error-tolerance and stability will be emphasized. Benefits and problems involved in exploration, as well as in navigation tasks, are discussed. The proposed method demands very low constraints for the kind and quality of the employed sensors as well as for the kinematic precision of the utilized mobile platform. Hard real-time constraints can be handled due to the low computational complexity. The principal discussions are supported by real-world experiments with the mobile robot

Self-localization in unknown environments respectively correlation of current and former impressions of the world is an essential ability for most mobile robots. The method,proposed in this article is the construction of a qualitative, topological world model as a basis for self-localization. As a central aspect the reliability regarding error-tolerance and stability will be emphasized. The proposed techniques demand very low constraints for the kind and quality of the employed sensors as well as for the kinematic precisionof the utilized mobile platform. Hard real-time constraints can be handled due to the low computational complexity. The principal discussions are supported by real-world experiments with the mobile robot.

Visual Search has been investigated by many researchers inspired by the biological fact, that the sensory elements on the mammal retina are not equably distributed. Therefore the focus of attention (the area of the retina with the highest density of sensory elements) has to be directed in a way to efficiently gather data according to certain criteria. The work discussed in this article concentrates on applying a laser range finder instead of a silicon retina. The laser range finder is maximal focused at any time, but therefore a low resolution total-scene-image, available with camera-like devices from scratch on, cannot be used here. By adapting a couple of algorithms, the edge-scanning module steering the laser range finder is able to trace a detected edge. Based on the data scanned so far , two questions have to be answered. First: "Should the actual (edge-) scanning be interrupted in order to give another area of interest a chance of being investigated?" and second: "Where to start a new edge-scanning, after being interrupted?". These two decision-problems might be solved by a range of decision systems. The correctness of the decisions depends widely on the actual environment and the underlying rules may not be well initialized with a-priori knowledge. So we will present a version of a reinforcement decision system together with an overall scheme for efficiently controlling highly focused devices.

ALICE
(1994)

Abstract: We calculate exact analytical expressions for O(alpha s) 3-jet and O (alpha^2 s ) 4-jet cross sections in polarized deep inelastic lepton nucleon scattering. Introducing an invariant jet definition scheme, we present differential distributions of 3- and 4-jet cross sections in the basic kinematical variables x and W^2 as well as total jet cross sections and show their dependence on the chosen spin-dependent (polarized) parton distributions. Noticebly differences in the predictions are found for the two extreme choices, i.e. a large negative sea-quark density or a large positive gluon density. Therefore, it may be possible to discriminate between different parametrizations of polarized parton densities, and hence between the different physical pictures of the proton spin underlying these parametrizations.

We propose and study a strongly coupled PDE-ODE system with tissue-dependent degenerate diffusion and haptotaxis that can serve as a model prototype for cancer cell invasion through the
extracellular matrix. We prove the global existence of weak solutions and illustrate the model behaviour by numerical simulations for a two-dimensional setting.

We propose and study a strongly coupled PDE-ODE-ODE system modeling cancer cell invasion through a tissue network
under the go-or-grow hypothesis asserting that cancer cells can either move or proliferate. Hence our setting features
two interacting cell populations with their mutual transitions and involves tissue-dependent degenerate diffusion and
haptotaxis for the moving subpopulation. The proliferating cells and the tissue evolution are characterized by way of ODEs
for the respective densities. We prove the global existence of weak solutions and illustrate the model behaviour by
numerical simulations in a two-dimensional setting.

A new method is used to investigate the tunneling between two weakly-linked Bose-Einstein con- densates confined in double-well potential traps. The nonlinear interaction between the atoms in each well contributes to a finite chemical potential, which, with consideration of periodic instantons, leads to a remarkably high tunneling frequency. This result can be used to interpret the newly found Macroscopic Quantum Self Trapping (MQST) effect. Also a new kind of first-order crossover between different regions is predicted.