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In this chapter, the quantitative numerical simulation of the behavior of deformable linear objects, such as hoses, wires and leaf springs is studied. We first give a short review of the physical approach and the basic solution principle. Then, we give a more detailed description of some key aspects: We introduce a novel approach concerning dynamics based on an algorithm very similar to the one used for (quasi-) static computation. Then, we look at the plastic workpiece deformation, involving a modified computation algorithm and a special representation of the workpiece shape. Then, we give alternative solutions for two key aspects of the algorithm, and investigate the problem of performing the workpiece simulation efficiently, i.e., with desired precision in a short time. In the end, we introduce the inverse modeling problem which must be solved when the gripper trajectory for a given task shall be generated.

A new and systematic basic approach to force- and vision-based robot manipulation of deformable (non-rigid) linear objects is introduced. This approach reduces the computational needs by using a simple state-oriented model of the objects. These states describe the relation between the deformable and rigid obstacles, and are derived from the object image and its features. We give an enumeration of possible contact states and discuss the main characteristics of each state. We investigate the performance of robust transitions between the contact states and derive criteria and conditions for each of the states and for two sensor systems, i.e. a vision sensor and a force/torque sensor. This results in a new and task-independent approach in regarding the handling of deformable objects and in a sensor-based implementation of manipulation primitives for industrial robots. Thus, the usage of sensor processing is an appropriate solution for our problem. Finally, we apply the concept of contact states and state transitions to the description of a typical assembly task. Experimental results show the feasibility of our approach: A robot performs several contact state transitions which can be combined for solving a more complex task.

Besides the work in the field of manipulating rigid objects, currently, there are several research and development activities going on in the field of manipulating non-rigid or deformable objects. Several papers have been published on international conferences in this field from various projects and countries. But there has been no comprehensive work which provides both a representative overview of the state of the art and identifies the important aspects in this field. Thus, we collected these activities and invited the corresponding working groups to present an overview of their research. Altogether, nineteen authors coming from Japan, Germany, Italy, Greece, United Kingdom, and Australia contributed to this book. Their research work covers all the different aspects that occur when manipulating deformable objects. The contributions can be characterized and grouped by the following four aspects: * object modeling and simulation, * planning and control strategies, * collaborative systems, and * applications and industrial experiences. In the following, we give a short motivation and overview of the single chapters of the book. The simulation of deformable objects is one way to approach the problem of manipulating these objects by robots. Based on a physical model of the object and the occurring constraints, the resulting object shape is calculated. In Chapter 2, Hirai presents an energy-based approach, where the internal energy under the geometric constraints is minimized. Frugoli et al. introduce a force-based approach, where the forces between discrete particles are minimized meeting given constraints. Finally, Remde and Henrich extend the energy-based approach to plastic deformation and give a solution of the inverse simulation problem. Even if the object behavior is predicted by simulation, there is still the question of how to control the robot during a single manipulation operation. An additional question is how to retrieve an overall plan for the concatenated manipulation operations. In Chapter 3, Wada investigates the control problems when positioning multiple points of a planar deformable object. McCarrager proposes a control scheme exploiting the flexibility, rather than minimizing it. Abegg et al. use a simple contact state model to describe typical assembly tasks and to derive robust manipulation primitives. Finally, Ono presents an automatic sewing system and suggests a strategy for unfolding fabric. In several manipulation tasks, it is reasonable to apply more than one robot. Especially in cases, where the deformable object has to take a specific shape. Since the robots working at the same object are influencing each other, different control algorithms have to be introduced. In Chapter 4, Yoshida and Kosuge investigates this problem for the task of bending a sheet of metal and exploits the relation ship between the static object deformation and the bending moments. Tanner and Kyriakopoulos regard the deformable object as underactuated mechanical system and make use of the existence of non-holonomic constraints. Both approaches model the deformable object as finite elements. All of the above aspects have their counterpart in different applications and industrial experiences. In Chapter 5, Rizzi et al. present test cases and applications of their approach to simulate the manipulation of fabric, wires, cables, and soft bags. Buckingham and Graham give an overview of two European projects processing white fish including locating, gripping, and deheading the fish. Maruyama outlines the three development phases of a robot system for performing outage-free maintenance of live-line power supply in Japan. Finally, Kämper presents the development of a flexible automatic cabling unit for the wiring of long-tube lighting with plug components.

Manipulating deformable linear objects - Vision-based recognition of contact state transitions -
(1999)

A new and systematic approach to machine vision-based robot manipulation of deformable (non-rigid) linear objects is introduced. This approach reduces the computational needs by using a simple state-oriented model of the objects. These states describe the relation of the object with respect to an obstacle and are derived from the object image and its features. Therefore, the object is segmented from a standard video frame using a fast segmentation algorithm. Several object features are presented which allow the state recognition of the object while being manipulated by the robot.

Diese Arbeit skizziert einen allgemeinen Ansatz zur Montage deformierbarer linearer Werkstücke (wie Kabel, Drähte, Schläuche, Blattfedern) mit Industrierobotern. Hierzu werden insbesondere die folgenden zwei Aspekte betrachtetet. Erstens die zuverlässige Ausführung der Montage unter Berücksichtigung der Werkstückdeformation und anderer Unsicherheiten, zweitens die numerische Simulation des Werkstückverhaltens. Zur robusten Ausführung der Montage wird das aus der Montage starrer Werkstücke bekannte Konzept der Manipulation-Skills auf deformierbare Werkstücke übertragen. Bei der numerischen Simulation wird insbesondere die Bestimmung der Greifertrajektorie bei gegebener Aufgabenstellung betrachtet.

The task of handling non-rigid one-dimensional objects by a robot manipulation system is investigated. To distinguish between different non-rigid object behaviors, five classes of deformable objects from a robotic point of view are proposed. Additionally, an enumeration of all possible contact states of one-dimensional objects with polyhedral obstacles is provided. Finally, the qualitative motion behavior of linear objects is analyzed for stable point contacts. Experiments with different materials validate the analytical results.

We present a parallel control architecture for industrial robot cells. It is based on closed functional components arranged in a flat communication hierarchy. The components may be executed by different processing elements, and each component itself may run on multiple processing elements. The system is driven by the instructions of a central cell control component. We set up necessary requirements for industrial robot cells and possible parallelization levels. These are met by the suggested robot control architecture. As an example we present a robot work cell and a component for motion planning, which fits well in this concept.

Beim Greifen deformierbarer oder zerbrechlicher Werkstücke kommen der Greifgeschwindigkeit sowie der Greifkraft besondere Bedeutung zu. In dieser Arbeit wird eine universelle Steuerung für pneumatische Greifer beschrieben, die eine einfache Einstellung dieser Größen über zwei spannungsgesteuerte Proportionalventile gestattet. Diese Anordnung wird für eine Einflußanalyse von Greifkraft und Greifgeschwindigkeit beim Greifen von Kabeln und Kabelbäumen genutzt, welche sich als robust und unproblematisch erwiesen haben.

This paper deals with the robust manipulation of deformable linear objects such as hoses or wires. We propose manipulation based on thequalitative contact state between the deformable workpiece and a rigid environment. First, we give an enumeration of possible contact states and discuss the main characteristics of each state. Second, we investigate the transitions which are possible between the contact states and derive criteria and conditions for each of them. Finally, we apply the concept of contact states and state transitions to the description of a typical assembly task.

This paper deals with the problem of picking-up deformable linear workpieces such as cables or ropes with an industrial robot. First, we give a motivation and problem definition. Based on a brief conceptual discussion of possible approaches we derive an algorithm for picking-up hanging deformable linear objects using two light barriers as sensor system. For this hardware, a skill-based approach is described and the parameters and major influence factors are discussed. In an experi- mental study, the feasibility and reliability under diverse conditions are investigated. The algorithm is found to be very reliable, if certain boundary conditions are met.

In this paper, we investigate the efficient simulation of deformable linear objects. Based on the state of the art, we extend the principle of minimizing the potential energy by considering plastic deformation and describe a novel approach for treating workpiece dynamics. The major influence factors on precision and computation time are identified and investigated experimentally. Finally, we discuss the usage of parallel processing in order to reduce the computation time.