For some decades radiation therapy has been proved successful in cancer treatment. It is the major task of clinical radiation treatment planning to realise on the one hand a high level dose of radiation in the cancer tissue in order to obtain maximum tumour control. On the other hand it is obvious that it is absolutely necessary to keep in the tissue outside the tumour, particularly in organs at risk, the unavoidable radiation as low as possible. No doubt, these two objectives of treatment planning high level dose in the tumour, low radiation outside the tumour have a basically contradictory nature. Therefore, it is no surprise that inverse mathematical models with dose distribution bounds tend to be infeasible in most cases. Thus, there is need for approximations compromising between overdosing the organs at risk and underdosing the target volume. Differing from the currently used time consuming iterative approach, which measures deviation from an ideal (non-achievable) treatment plan using recursively trial-and-error weights for the organs of interest, we go a new way trying to avoid a priori weight choices and consider the treatment planning problem as a multiple objective linear programming problem: with each organ of interest, target tissue as well as organs at risk, we associate an objective function measuring the maximal deviation from the prescribed doses. We build up a data base of relatively few efficient solutions representing and approximating the variety of Pareto solutions of the multiple objective linear programming problem. This data base can be easily scanned by physicians looking for an adequate treatment plan with the aid of an appropriate online tool.
Wicksell's corpuscle problem deals with the estimation of the size distribution of a population of particles, all having the same shape, using a lower imensional sampling probe. This problem was originary formulated for particle systems occurring in life sciences but its solution is of actual and increasing interest in materials science. From a mathematical point of view, Wicksell's problem is an inverse problem where the interesting size distribution is the unknown part of a Volterra equation. The problem is often regarded ill-posed, because the structure of the integrand implies unstable numerical solutions. The accuracy of the numerical solutions is considered here using the condition number, which allows to compare different numerical methods with different (equidistant) class sizes and which indicates, as one result, that a finite section thickness of the probe reduces the numerical problems. Furthermore, the relative error of estimation is computed which can be split into two parts. One part consists of the relative discretization error that increases for increasing class size, and the second part is related to the relative statistical error which increases with decreasing class size. For both parts, upper bounds can be given and the sum of them indicates an optimal class width depending on some specific constants.
This paper deals with the characterization of microscopically heterogeneous, but macroscopically homogeneous spatial structures. A new method is presented which is strictly based on integral-geometric formulae such as Crofton's intersection formulae and Hadwiger's recursive de nition of the Euler number. The corresponding algorithms have clear advantages over other techniques. As an example of application we consider the analysis of spatial digital images produced by means of Computer Assisted Tomo- graphy.
A general approach to the construction of discrete equilibrium dis- tributions is presented. Such distribution functions can be used to set up Kinetic Schemes as well as Lattice Boltzmann methods. The general principles are also applied to the construction of Chapman Enskog dis- tributions which are used in Kinetic Schemes for compressible Navier Stokes equations.
The relation between the Lattice Boltzmann Method, which has re- cently become popular, and the Kinetic Schemes, which are routinely used in Computational Fluid Dynamics, is explored. A new discrete velocity model for the numerical solution of Navier-Stokes equations for incom- pressible uid ow is presented by combining both the approaches. The new scheme can be interpreted as a pseudo-compressibility method and, for a particular choice of parameters, this interpretation carries over to the Lattice Boltzmann Method.