Advanced sensing systems, sophisticated algorithms, and increasing computational resources continuously enhance the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). To date, despite that some vehicle based approaches to driver fatigue/drowsiness detection have been realized and deployed, objectively and reliably detecting the fatigue/drowsiness state of driver without compromising driving experience still remains challenging. In general, the choice of input sensorial information is limited in the state-of-the-art work. On the other hand, smart and safe driving, as representative future trends in the automotive industry worldwide, increasingly demands the new dimensional human-vehicle interactions, as well as the associated behavioral and bioinformatical data perception of driver. Thus, the goal of this research work is to investigate the employment of general and custom 3D-CMOS sensing concepts for the driver status monitoring, and to explore the improvement by merging/fusing this information with other salient customized information sources for gaining robustness/reliability. This thesis presents an effective multi-sensor approach with novel features to driver status monitoring and intention prediction aimed at drowsiness detection based on a multi-sensor intelligent assistance system -- DeCaDrive, which is implemented on an integrated soft-computing system with multi-sensing interfaces in a simulated driving environment. Utilizing active illumination, the IR depth camera of the realized system can provide rich facial and body features in 3D in a non-intrusive manner. In addition, steering angle sensor, pulse rate sensor, and embedded impedance spectroscopy sensor are incorporated to aid in the detection/prediction of driver's state and intention. A holistic design methodology for ADAS encompassing both driver- and vehicle-based approaches to driver assistance is discussed in the thesis as well. Multi-sensor data fusion and hierarchical SVM techniques are used in DeCaDrive to facilitate the classification of driver drowsiness levels based on which a warning can be issued in order to prevent possible traffic accidents. The realized DeCaDrive system achieves up to 99.66% classification accuracy on the defined drowsiness levels, and exhibits promising features such as head/eye tracking, blink detection, gaze estimation that can be utilized in human-vehicle interactions. However, the driver's state of "microsleep" can hardly be reflected in the sensor features of the implemented system. General improvements on the sensitivity of sensory components and on the system computation power are required to address this issue. Possible new features and development considerations for DeCaDrive are discussed as well in the thesis aiming to gain market acceptance in the future.
Redox-neutral decarboxylative coupling reactions have emerged as a powerful strategy for C-C bond formation. However, the existing reaction conditions possess limitations, such as the coupling of aryl halides restricted to ortho-substituted benzoic acids; alkenyl halides were not applicable in decarboxylative coupling reaction. Within this thesis, the developments of Pd/Cu bimetallic catalyst systems are presented to overcome the limitations.
In the first part of the PhD work, a customized bimetallic PdII/CuI catalyst system was successfully developed to facilitate the decarboxylative cross-coupling of non-ortho-substituted aromatic carboxylates with aryl chlorides. The restriction of decarboxylative cross-coupling reactions to ortho-substituted or heterocyclic carboxylate substrates was overcome by holistic optimization of this bimetallic Cu/Pd catalyst system. All kinds of benzoic acids regardless of their substitution pattern now can be applied in decarboxylative cross-coupling reaction. This confirms prediction by DFT studies that the previously observed limitation to certain activated carboxylates is not intrinsic. The catalyst system also presents higher performance in the coupling of ortho-substituted benzoates, giving much higher yields than those previously reported. ortho-Methyl benzoate and ortho-phenyl benzoate which have never before been converted in decarboxylative coupling reactions, gave reasonable yields. These together further confirm the superiority of the new protocol.
In the second part of the PhD work, arylalkenes syntheses via two different Pd/Cu bimetallic-catalyzed decarboxylative couplings have been developed. This part consists of two projects: 2a) decarboxylative coupling of alkenyl halides; 2b) decarboxylative Mizoroki-Heck coupling of aryl halides with α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids.
In project 2a, widely available, inexpensive, bench-stable aromatic carboxylic acids are used as nucleophile precursors instead of expensive and sensitive organometallic reagents that are commonly used in previously reported transition-metal catalyzed cross-couplings of alkenyl halides. With this protocol, alkenyl halides for the first time are used in decarboxylative coupling reaction, allowing regiospecific synthesis of a broad range of (hetero)arylalkenes in high yields. Unwanted double bond isomerization, a common side reaction in the alternative Heck reactions especially in the coupling of cycloalkenes or aliphatic alkenes, did not take place in this decarboxylative coupling reaction. Polysubstituted alkenes that hard to access with Heck reaction are also produced in good yields. The reaction can easily be scaled up to gram scale. The synthetic utility of this reaction was also demonstrated by synthesizing an important intermediate of fungicidal compound in high yield within 2 steps.
In project 2b, a Cu/Pd bimetallic catalyzed decarboxylative Mizoroki-Heck coupling of aryl halides with α, β-unsaturated carboxylic acids was successfully developed in which the carboxylate group directs the arylation into its β-position before being tracelessly removed via protodecarboxylation. It opens up a convenient synthesis of unsymmetrical 1,1-disubstituted alkenes from widely available precursors. This reaction features good regioselectivity, which is complementary to that of traditional Heck reactions, and also presents excellent functional group tolerance. Moreover, a one-pot 3-step 1,1-diarylethylene synthesis from methyl acrylate was achieved, where solvent changes or isolation of intermediates are not required. This subproject presents an example of carboxylic acids utility in synthesizing valuable compounds which are hard to access via conventional methodologies.
Lecture notes written to accompany a one semester course introducing to differential manifolds. Beyond the basic notions differential forms including Stokes' theorem are treated, as well as vector fields and flows on a differential manifold.
Rigidness of the Internet causes its architectural design issues such as interdependencies among the layers, no cross-layer information exchange, and applications dependency on the underlying protocols implementation.
G-Lab (i.e., http://www.german-lab.de/) is a research project for Future Internet Architecture (FIA), which focuses on problems of the Internet such as rigidness, mobility, and addressing. Where the focus of ICSY (i.e., www.icsy) was on providing the flexibility in future network architectures. An approach so-called Service Oriented Network Architecture (SONATE) is proposed to compose the protocols dynamically. SONATE is based on principles of the service-oriented architecture (SOA), where protocols are decomposed in software modules and later they are put together on demand to provide the desired service.
This composition of functionalities can be performed at various time-epochs (e.g., run-time, design-time, deployment-time). However, these epochs have trade-off in terms of the time-complexity (i.e., required setup time) and the provided flexibility. The design-time is the least time critical in comparison to other time phases, which makes it possible to utilize human-analytical capability. However, the design-time lacks the real-time knowledge of requirements and network conditions, what results in inflexible protocol graphs, and they cannot be changed at later stages on changing requirements. Contrary to the design-time, the run-time is most time critical where an application is waiting for a connection to be established, but at the same time it has maximum information to generate a protocol graph suitable to the given requirements.
Considering limitations above of different time-phases, in this thesis, a novel intermediate functional composition approach (i.e., Template-Based Composition) has been presented to generate requirements aware protocol graphs. The template-based composition splits the composition process across different time-phases to exploit the less time critical nature and human-analytical availability of the design-time, ability to instantaneously deploy new functionalities of the deployment time and maximum information availability of the run-time. The approach is successfully implemented , demonstrated and evaluated based on its performance to know the implications for the practical use.
When designing autonomous mobile robotic systems, there usually is a trade-off between the three opposing goals of safety, low-cost and performance.
If one of these design goals is approached further, it usually leads to a recession of one or even both of the other goals.
If for example the performance of a mobile robot is increased by making use of higher vehicle speeds, then the safety of the system is usually decreased, as, under the same circumstances, faster robots are often also more dangerous robots.
This decrease of safety can be mitigated by installing better sensors on the robot, which ensure the safety of the system, even at high speeds.
However, this solution is accompanied by an increase of system cost.
In parallel to mobile robotics, there is a growing amount of ambient and aware technology installations in today's environments - no matter whether in private homes, offices or factory environments.
Part of this technology are sensors that are suitable to assess the state of an environment.
For example, motion detectors that are used to automate lighting can be used to detect the presence of people.
This work constitutes a meeting point between the two fields of robotics and aware environment research.
It shows how data from aware environments can be used to approach the abovementioned goal of establishing safe, performant and additionally low-cost robotic systems.
Sensor data from aware technology, which is often unreliable due to its low-cost nature, is fed to probabilistic methods for estimating the environment's state.
Together with models, these methods cope with the uncertainty and unreliability associated with the sensor data, gathered from an aware environment.
The estimated state includes positions of people in the environment and is used as an input to the local and global path planners of a mobile robot, enabling safe, cost-efficient and performant mobile robot navigation during local obstacle avoidance as well as on a global scale, when planning paths between different locations.
The probabilistic algorithms enable graceful degradation of the whole system.
Even if, in the extreme case, all aware technology fails, the robots will continue to operate, by sacrificing performance while maintaining safety.
All the presented methods of this work have been validated using simulation experiments as well as using experiments with real hardware.
Synapses play a central role in the information propagation in the nervous system. A better understanding of synaptic structures and processes is vital for advancing nervous disease research. This work is part of an interdisciplinary project that aims at the quantitative examination of components of the neuromuscular junction, a synaptic connection between a neuron and a muscle cell.
The research project is based on image stacks picturing neuromuscular junctions captured by modern electron microscopes, which permit the rapid acquisition of huge amounts of image data at a high level of detail. The large amount and sheer size of such microscopic data makes a direct visual examination infeasible, though.
This thesis presents novel problem-oriented interactive visualization techniques that support the segmentation and examination of neuromuscular junctions.
First, I introduce a structured data model for segmented surfaces of neuromuscular junctions to enable the computational analysis of their properties. However, surface segmentation of neuromuscular junctions is a very challenging task due to the extremely intricate character of the objects of interest. Hence, such problematic segmentations are often performed manually by non-experts and thus requires further inspection.
With NeuroMap, I develop a novel framework to support proofreading and correction of three-dimensional surface segmentations. To provide a clear overview and to ease navigation within the data, I propose the surface map, an abstracted two-dimensional representation using key features of the surface as landmarks. These visualizations are augmented with information about automated segmentation error estimates. The framework provides intuitive and interactive data correction mechanisms, which in turn permit the expeditious creation of high-quality segmentations.
While analyzing such segmented synapse data, the formulation of specific research questions is often impossible due to missing insight into the data. I address this problem by designing a generic parameter space for segmented structures from biological image data. Furthermore, I introduce a graphical interface to aid its exploration, combining both parameter selection as well as data representation.
This Ph.D. project as a landscape research practice focuses on the less widely studied aspects of urban agriculture landscape and its application in recreation and leisure, as well as landscape beautification. I research on the edible landscape planning and design, its criteria, possibilities, and traditional roots for the particular situation of Iranian cities and landscapes. The primary objective is preparing a conceptual and practical framework for Iranian professions to integrate the food landscaping into the new greenery and open spaces developments. Furthermore, finding the possibilities of synthesis the traditional utilitarian gardening with the contemporary pioneer viewpoints of agricultural landscapes is the other significant proposed achievement.
Finished tasks and list of achieved results:
• Recognition the software and hardware principles of designing the agricultural landscape based on the Persian gardens
• Multidimensional identity of agricultural landscape in Persian gardens
• Principles of architectural integration and the characteristics of the integrative landscape in Persian gardens
• Distinctive characteristics of agricultural landscape in Persian garden
• Introducing the Persian and historical gardens as the starting point for reentering the agricultural phenomena into the Iranian cities and landscape
• Assessment the structure of Persian gardens based on the new achievements and criteria of designing the urban agriculture
• Investigate the role of Persian gardens in envisioning the urban agriculture in
Iranian cities’ landscape.
Reading as a cultural skill is acquired over a long period of training. This thesis supports the idea that reading is based on specific strategies that result from modification and coordination of earlier developed object recognition strategies. The reading-specific processing strategies are considered to be more analytic compared to object recognition strategies, which are described as holistic. To enable proper reading skills these strategies have to become automatized. Study 1 (Chapter 4) examined the temporal and visual constrains of letter recognition strategies. In the first experiment two successively presented stimuli (letters or non-letters) had to be classified as same or different. The second stimulus could either be presented in isolation or surrounded by a shape, which was either similar (congruent) or different (incongruent) in its geometrical properties to the stimulus itself. The non-letter pairs were presented twice as often as the letter pairs. The results demonstrated a preference for the holistic strategy also in letters, even if the non- letter set was presented twice as often as the letter set, showing that the analytic strategy does not replace the holistic one completely, but that the usage of both strategies is task-sensitive. In Experiment 2, we compared the Global Precedence Effect (GPE) for letters and non-letters in central viewing, with the global stimulus size close to the functional visual field in whole word reading (6.5◦ of visual angle) and local stimuli close to the critical size for fluent reading of individual letters (0.5◦ of visual angle). Under these conditions, the GPE remained robust for non-letters. For letters, however, it disappeared: letters showed no overall response time advantage for the global level and symmetric congruence effects (local-to-global as well as global-to-local interference). These results indicate that reading is based on resident analytic visual processing strategies for letters. In Study 2 (Chapter 5) we replicated the latter result with a large group of participants as part of a study in which pairwise associations of non-letters and phonological or non-phonological sounds were systematically trained. We investigated whether training would eliminate the GPE also for non-letters. We observed, however, that the differentiation between letters and non-letter shapes persists after training. This result implies that pairwise association learning is not sufficient to overrule the process differentiation in adults. In addition, subtle effects arising in the letter condition (due to enhanced power) enable us to further specify the differentiation in processing between letters and non-letter shapes. The influence of reading ability on the GPE was examined in Study 3 (Chapter 6). Children with normal reading skills and children with poor reading skills were instructed to detect a target in Latin or Hebrew Navon letters. Children with normal reading skills showed a GPE for Latin letters, but not for Hebrew letters. In contrast, the dyslexia group did not show GPE for either kind of stimuli. These results suggest that dyslexic children are not able to apply the same automatized letter processing strategy as children with normal reading skills do. The difference between the analytic letter processing and the holistic non-letter processing was transferred to the context of whole word reading in Study 4 (Chapter 7). When participants were instructed to detect either a letter or a non-letter in a mixed character string, for letters the reaction times and error rates increased linearly from the left to the right terminal position in the string, whereas for non-letters a symmetrical U-shaped function was observed. These results suggest, that the letter-specific processing strategies are triggered automatically also for more word-like material. Thus, this thesis supports and expands prior results of letter-specific processing and gives new evidences for letter-specific processing strategies.
This work introduces a promising concept for the preparation of new nano-sized receptors. Mixed monolayer protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for low molecular weight compounds were prepared featuring functional groups on their surfaces. It has been shown that these AuNPs can engage in interactions with peptides in aqueous media. Quantitative binding information was obtained from DOSY-NMR titrations indicating that nanoparticles containing a combination of three orthogonal functional groups are more efficient in binding to dipeptides than mono or difunctionalised analogues. The strategy is highly modular and easily allows adapting the receptor selectivity to a
given substrate by varying the type, number, and ratio of binding sites on the nanoparticle