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- Fraunhofer (ITWM) (203) (entfernen)

In the literature, there are at least two equivalent two-factor Gaussian models for the instantaneous short rate. These are the original two-factor Hull White model (see [3]) and the G2++ one by Brigo and Mercurio (see [1]). Both these models first specify a time homogeneous two-factor short rate dynamics and then by adding a deterministic shift function '(·) fit exactly the initial term structure of interest rates. However, the obtained results are rather clumsy and not intuitive which means that a special care has to be taken for their correct numerical implementation.

In this paper we study the possibilities of sharing profit in combinatorial procurement auctions and exchanges. Bundles of heterogeneous items are offered by the sellers, and the buyers can then place bundle bids on sets of these items. That way, both sellers and buyers can express synergies between items and avoid the well-known risk of exposure (see, e.g., [3]). The reassignment of items to participants is known as the Winner Determination Problem (WDP). We propose solving the WDP by using a Set Covering formulation, because profits are potentially higher than with the usual Set Partitioning formulation, and subsidies are unnecessary. The achieved benefit is then to be distributed amongst the participants of the auction, a process which is known as profit sharing. The literature on profit sharing provides various desirable criteria. We focus on three main properties we would like to guarantee: Budget balance, meaning that no more money is distributed than profit was generated, individual rationality, which guarantees to each player that participation does not lead to a loss, and the core property, which provides every subcoalition with enough money to keep them from separating. We characterize all profit sharing schemes that satisfy these three conditions by a monetary flow network and state necessary conditions on the solution of the WDP for the existence of such a profit sharing. Finally, we establish a connection to the famous VCG payment scheme [2, 8, 19], and the Shapley Value [17].

Determination of interaction between MCT1 and CAII via a mathematical and physiological approach
(2008)

The enzyme carbonic anhydrase isoform II (CAII), catalysing the hydration and dehydration of CO2, enhances transport activity of the monocarboxylate transporter isoform I (MCT1, SLC16A1) expressed in Xenopus oocytes by a mechanism that does not require CAII catalytic activity (Becker et al. (2005) J. Biol. Chem., 280). In the present study, we have investigated the mechanism of the CAII induced increase in transport activity by using electrophysiological techniques and a mathematical model of the MCT1 transport cycle. The model consists of six states arranged in cyclic fashion and features an ordered, mirror-symmetric, binding mechanism were binding and unbinding of the proton to the transport protein is considered to be the rate limiting step under physiological conditions. An explicit rate expression for the substrate °ux is derived using model reduction techniques. By treating the pools of intra- and extracellular MCT1 substrates as dynamic states, the time dependent kinetics are obtained by integration using the derived expression for the substrate °ux. The simulations were compared with experimental data obtained from MCT1-expressing oocytes injected with di®erent amounts of CAII. The model suggests that CAII increases the e®ective rate constants of the proton reactions, possibly by working as a proton antenna.

The level-set method has been recently introduced in the field of shape optimization, enabling a smooth representation of the boundaries on a fixed mesh and therefore leading to fast numerical algorithms. However, most of these algorithms use a Hamilton-Jacobi equation to connect the evolution of the level-set function with the deformation of the contours, and consequently they cannot create any new holes in the domain (at least in 2D). In this work, we propose an evolution equation for the level-set function based on a generalization of the concept of topological gradient. This results in a new algorithm allowing for all kinds of topology changes.

This report discusses two approaches for a posteriori error indication in the linear elasticity solver DDFEM: An indicator based on the Richardson extrapolation and Zienkiewicz-Zhu-type indicator. The solver handles 3D linear elasticity steady-state problems. It uses own input language to describe the mesh and the boundary conditions. Finite element discretization over tetrahedral meshes with first or second order shape functions (hierarchical basis) has been used to resolve the model. The parallelization of the numerical method is based on the domain decomposition approach. DDFEM is highly portable over a set of parallel computer architectures supporting the MPI-standard.

The rotational spinning of viscous jets is of interest in many industrial applications, including pellet manufacturing [4, 14, 19, 20] and drawing, tapering and spinning of glass and polymer fibers [8, 12, 13], see also [15, 21] and references within. In [12] an asymptotic model for the dynamics of curved viscous inertial fiber jets emerging from a rotating orifice under surface tension and gravity was deduced from the three-dimensional free boundary value problem given by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for a Newtonian fluid. In the terminology of [1], it is a string model consisting of balance equations for mass and linear momentum. Accounting for inner viscous transport, surface tension and placing no restrictions on either the motion or the shape of the jet’s center-line, it generalizes the previously developed string models for straight [3, 5, 6] and curved center-lines [4, 13, 19]. Moreover, the numerical results investigating the effects of viscosity, surface tension, gravity and rotation on the jet behavior coincide well with the experiments of Wong et.al. [20].

The optimal design of rotational production processes for glass wool manufacturing poses severe computational challenges to mathematicians, natural scientists and engineers. In this paper we focus exclusively on the spinning regime where thousands of viscous thermal glass jets are formed by fast air streams. Homogeneity and slenderness of the spun fibers are the quality features of the final fabric. Their prediction requires the computation of the fuidber-interactions which involves the solving of a complex three-dimensional multiphase problem with appropriate interface conditions. But this is practically impossible due to the needed high resolution and adaptive grid refinement. Therefore, we propose an asymptotic coupling concept. Treating the glass jets as viscous thermal Cosserat rods, we tackle the multiscale problem by help of momentum (drag) and heat exchange models that are derived on basis of slender-body theory and homogenization. A weak iterative coupling algorithm that is based on the combination of commercial software and self-implemented code for ow and rod solvers, respectively, makes then the simulation of the industrial process possible. For the boundary value problem of the rod we particularly suggest an adapted collocation-continuation method. Consequently, this work establishes a promising basis for future optimization strategies.

This work deals with the modeling and simulation of slender viscous jets exposed to gravity and rotation, as they occur in rotational spinning processes. In terms of slender-body theory we show the asymptotic reduction of a viscous Cosserat rod to a string system for vanishing slenderness parameter. We propose two string models, i.e. inertial and viscous-inertial string models, that differ in the closure conditions and hence yield a boundary value problem and an interface problem, respectively. We investigate the existence regimes of the string models in the four-parametric space of Froude, Rossby, Reynolds numbers and jet length. The convergence regimes where the respective string solution is the asymptotic limit to the rod turn out to be disjoint and to cover nearly the whole parameter space. We explore the transition hyperplane and derive analytically low and high Reynolds number limits. Numerical studies of the stationary jet behavior for different parameter ranges complete the work.

This paper analyzes and solves a patient transportation problem arising in several large hospitals. The aim is to provide an efficient and timely transport service to patients between several locations on a hospital campus. Transportation requests arrive in a dynamic fashion and the solution methodology must therefore be capable of quickly inserting new requests in the current vehicle routes. Contrary to standard dial-a-ride problems, the problem under study contains several complicating constraints which are specific to a hospital context. The paper provides a detailed description of the problem and proposes a two-phase heuristic procedure capable of handling its many features. In the first phase a simple insertion scheme is used to generate a feasible solution, which is improved in the second phase with a tabu search algorithm. The heuristic procedure was extensively tested on real data provided by a German hospital. Results show that the algorithm is capable of handling the dynamic aspect of the problem and of providing high quality solutions. In particular, it succeeded in reducing waiting times for patients while using fewer vehicles.

Within this paper we review image distortion measures. A distortion measure is a criterion that assigns a "quality number" to an image. We distinguish between mathematical distortion measures and those distortion measures in-cooperating a priori knowledge about the imaging devices ( e.g. satellite images), image processing algorithms or the human physiology. We will consider representative examples of different kinds of distortion measures and are going to discuss them.