The advances in sensor technology have introduced smart electronic products with
high integration of multi-sensor elements, sensor electronics and sophisticated signal
processing algorithms, resulting in intelligent sensor systems with a significant level
of complexity. This complexity leads to higher vulnerability in performing their
respective functions in a dynamic environment. The system dependability can be
improved via the implementation of self-x features in reconfigurable systems. The
reconfiguration capability requires capable switching elements, typically in the form
of a CMOS switch or miniaturized electromagnetic relay. The emerging DC-MEMS
switch has the potential to complement the CMOS switch in System-in-Package as
well as integrated circuits solutions. The aim of this thesis is to study the feasibility
of using DC-MEMS switches to enable the self-x functionality at system level.
The self-x implementation is also extended to the component level, in which the
ISE-DC-MEMS switch is equipped with self-monitoring and self-repairing features.
The MEMS electrical behavioural model generated by the design tool is inadequate,
so additional electrical models have been proposed, simulated and validated. The
simplification of the mechanical MEMS model has produced inaccurate simulation
results that lead to the occurrence of stiction in the actual device. A stiction conformity
test has been proposed, implemented, and successfully validated to compensate
the inaccurate mechanical model. Four different system simulations of representative
applications were carried out using the improved behavioural MEMS model, to
show the aptness and the performances of the ISE-DC-MEMS switch in sensitive
reconfiguration tasks in the application and to compare it with transmission gates.
The current design of the ISE-DC-MEMS switch needs further optimization in terms
of size, driving voltage, and the robustness of the design to guarantee high output
yield in order to match the performance of commercial DC MEMS switches.
Vorgestellt wird ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Erdschlussentfernung in hochohmig geerdeten
Netzen. Nach Abklingen der transienten Vorgänge im Fehlerfall stellt sich ein stationärer
Zustand ein, in dem das Netz zunächst weiter betrieben werden kann.
Ausgehend von diesem stationären Fehlerfall wird auf der Basis eines Π-Glieds das Leitungsmodell
des einseitig gespeisten Stichabgangs mit einer Last in der Vier-Leiter-Darstellung
entwickelt. Die Schaltungsanalyse erfolgt mit Hilfe komplexer Rechnung und der Kirchhoffschen
Gesetze. Grundlage der Betrachtungen bildet das Netz mit isoliertem Sternpunkt.
Das entstehende Gleichungssystem ist in seiner Grundform nichtlinear, lässt sich jedoch auf eine
elementar lösbare kubische Gleichung im gesuchten Fehlerentfernungsparameter zurückführen.
Eine weitere Lösungsmöglichkeit bietet das Newton-Raphson-Verfahren.
Durch Verlegen der lastseitigen Leiter-Erd-Kapazitäten an den Abgangsanfang kann das vollständige,
nichtlineare System in ein lineares System überführt werden. Hierbei sind die beiden
Ausprägungen „direkte Lösung mit unsymmetrischer Last“ oder „Ausgleichsrechnung mit
symmetrischer Last“ möglich.
Eine MATLAB®-Implementierung dieser vier Rechenalgorithmen bildet die Basis der weiteren
Alle messtechnischen Untersuchungen erfolgten am Netz-Kraftwerksmodell der TU Kaiserslautern.
Hier wurden verschiedene Fehlerszenarien hinsichtlich Fehlerentfernung, -widerstand und
Größe des gesunden Restnetzes hergestellt, in 480 Einzelmessungen erfasst und mit den Algorithmen
ausgewertet. Dabei wurden auch Messungen an fehlerfreien Abgängen erhoben, um das
Detektionsvermögen der Algorithmen zu testen.
Neben Grundschwingungsbetrachtungen ist die Auswertung aller Datensätze mit der 5. und der
7. Harmonischen ein zentrales Thema. Im Fokus steht die Verwendbarkeit dieser Oberschwingungen
zur Erdschlussentfernungsmessung bzw. -detektion mit den o.g. Algorithmen.
Besondere Bedeutung kommt der Fragestellung zu, inwieweit die für ein Netz mit isoliertem
Sternpunkt konzipierten Algorithmen unter Benutzung der höheren Harmonischen zur Erdschlussentfernungsmessung
in einem gelöschten Netz geeignet sind.
Schließlich wird das Verfahren auf Abgänge mit inhomogenem Leitermaterial erweitert, da auch
diese Konstellation von praktischer Bedeutung ist.
In embedded systems, there is a trend of integrating several different functionalities on a common platform. This has been enabled by increasing processing power and the arise of integrated system-on-chips.
The composition of safety-critical and non-safety-critical applications results in mixed-criticality systems. Certification Authorities (CAs) demand the certification of safety-critical applications with strong confidence in the execution time bounds. As a consequence, CAs use conservative assumptions in the worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis which result in more pessimistic WCETs than the ones used by designers. The existence of certified safety-critical and non-safety-critical applications can be represented by dual-criticality systems, i.e., systems with two criticality levels.
In this thesis, we focus on the scheduling of mixed-criticality systems which are subject to certification. Scheduling policies cognizant of the mixed-criticality nature of the systems and the certification requirements are needed for efficient and effective scheduling. Furthermore, we aim at reducing the certification costs to allow faster modification and upgrading, and less error-prone certification. Besides certification aspects, requirements of different operational modes result in challenging problems for the scheduling process. Despite the mentioned problems, schedulers require a low runtime overhead for an efficient execution at runtime.
The presented solutions are centered around time-triggered systems which feature a low runtime overhead. We present a transformation to include event-triggered activities, represented by sporadic tasks, already into the offline scheduling process. Further, this transformation can also be applied on periodic tasks to shorten the length of schedule tables which reduces certification costs. These results can be used in our method to construct schedule tables which creates two schedule tables to fulfill the requirements of dual-criticality systems using mode changes at runtime. Finally, we present a scheduler based on the slot-shifting algorithm for mixed-criticality systems. In a first version, the method schedules dual-criticality jobs without the need for mode changes. An already certified schedule table can be used and at runtime, the scheduler reacts to the actual behavior of the jobs and thus, makes effective use of the available resources. Next, we extend this method to schedule mixed-criticality job sets with different operational modes. As a result, we can schedule jobs with varying parameters in different modes.
The heterogeneity of today's access possibilities to wireless networks imposes challenges for efficient mobility support and resource management across different Radio Access Technologies (RATs). The current situation is characterized by the coexistence of various wireless communication systems, such as GSM, HSPA, LTE, WiMAX, and WLAN. These RATs greatly differ with respect to coverage, spectrum, data rates, Quality of Service (QoS), and mobility support.
In real systems, mobility-related events, such as Handover (HO) procedures, directly affect resource efficiency and End-To-End (E2E) performance, in particular with respect to signaling efforts and users' QoS. In order to lay a basis for realistic multi-radio network evaluation, a novel evaluation methodology is introduced in this thesis.
A central hypothesis of this thesis is that the consideration and exploitation of additional information characterizing user, network, and environment context, is beneficial for enhancing Heterogeneous Access Management (HAM) and Self-Optimizing Networks (SONs). Further, Mobile Network Operator (MNO) revenues are maximized by tightly integrating bandwidth adaptation and admission control mechanisms as well as simultaneously accounting for user profiles and service characteristics. In addition, mobility robustness is optimized by enabling network nodes to tune HO parameters according to locally observed conditions.
For establishing all these facets of context awareness, various schemes and algorithms are developed and evaluated in this thesis. System-level simulation results demonstrate the potential of context information exploitation for enhancing resource utilization, mobility support, self-tuning network operations, and users' E2E performance.
In essence, the conducted research activities and presented results motivate and substantiate the consideration of context awareness as key enabler for cognitive and autonomous network management. Further, the performed investigations and aspects evaluated in the scope of this thesis are highly relevant for future 5G wireless systems and current discussions in the 5G infrastructure Public Private Partnership (PPP).
This work establishes the novel category of coordinated Wireless Backhaul Networks (WBNs) for energy-autarkic point-to-point radio backhauling. The networking concept is based on three major building blocks: cost-efficient radio transceiver hardware, a self-organizing network operations framework, and power supply from renewable energy sources. The aim of this novel backhauling approach is to combine carrier-grade network performance with reduced maintenance effort as well as independent and self-sufficient power supply. In order to facilitate the success prospects of this concept, the thesis comprises the following major contributions: Formal, multi-domain system model and evaluation methodology
First, adapted from the theory of cyber-physical systems, the author devises a multi-domain evaluation methodology and a system-level simulation framework for energy-autarkic coordinated WBNs, including a novel balanced scorecard concept. Second, the thesis specifically addresses the topic of Topology Control (TC) in point-to-point radio networks and how it can be exploited for network management purposes. Given a set of network nodes equipped with multiple radio transceivers and known locations, TC continuously optimizes the setup and configuration of radio links between network nodes, thus supporting initial network deployment, network operation, as well as topology re-configuration. In particular, the author shows that TC in WBNs belongs to the class of NP-hard quadratic assignment problems and that it has significant impact in operational practice, e.g., on routing efficiency, network redundancy levels, service reliability, and energy consumption. Two novel algorithms focusing on maximizing edge connectivity of network graphs are developed.
Finally, this work carries out an analytical benchmarking and a numerical performance analysis of the introduced concepts and algorithms. The author analytically derives minimum performance levels of the the developed TC algorithms. For the analyzed scenarios of remote Alpine communities and rural Tanzania, the evaluation shows that the algorithms improve energy efficiency and more evenly balance energy consumption across backhaul nodes, thus significantly increasing the number of available backhaul nodes compared to state-of-the-art TC algorithms.
Real-time systems are systems that have to react correctly to stimuli from the environment within given timing constraints.
Today, real-time systems are employed everywhere in industry, not only in safety-critical systems but also in, e.g., communication, entertainment, and multimedia systems.
With the advent of multicore platforms, new challenges on the efficient exploitation of real-time systems have arisen:
First, there is the need for effective scheduling algorithms that feature low overheads to improve the use of the computational resources of real-time systems.
The goal of these algorithms is to ensure timely execution of tasks, i.e., to provide runtime guarantees.
Additionally, many systems require their scheduling algorithm to flexibly react to unforeseen events.
Second, the inherent parallelism of multicore systems leads to contention for shared hardware resources and complicates system analysis.
At any time, multiple applications run with varying resource requirements and compete for the scarce resources of the system.
As a result, there is a need for an adaptive resource management.
Achieving and implementing an effective and efficient resource management is a challenging task.
The main goal of resource management is to guarantee a minimum resource availability to real-time applications.
A further goal is to fulfill global optimization objectives, e.g., maximization of the global system performance, or the user perceived quality of service.
In this thesis, we derive methods based on the slot shifting algorithm.
Slot shifting provides flexible scheduling of time-constrained applications and can react to unforeseen events in time-triggered systems.
For this reason, we aim at designing slot shifting based algorithms targeted for multicore systems to tackle the aforementioned challenges.
The main contribution of this thesis is to present two global slot shifting algorithms targeted for multicore systems.
Additionally, we extend slot shifting algorithms to improve their runtime behavior, or to handle non-preemptive firm aperiodic tasks.
In a variety of experiments, the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithms are evaluated and confirmed.
Finally, the thesis presents an implementation of a slot-shifting-based logic into a resource management framework for multicore systems.
Thus, the thesis closes the circle and successfully bridges the gap between real-time scheduling theory and real-world implementations.
We prove applicability of the slot shifting algorithm to effectively and efficiently perform adaptive resource management on multicore systems.
Specification of asynchronous circuit behaviour becomes more complex as the
complexity of today’s System-On-a-Chip (SOC) design increases. This also causes
the Signal Transition Graphs (STGs) – interpreted Petri nets for the specification
of asynchronous circuit behaviour – to become bigger and more complex, which
makes it more difficult, sometimes even impossible, to synthesize an asynchronous
circuit from an STG with a tool like petrify [CKK+96] or CASCADE [BEW00].
It has, therefore, been suggested to decompose the STG as a first step; this
leads to a modular implementation [KWVB03] [KVWB05], which can reduce syn-
thesis effort by possibly avoiding state explosion or by allowing the use of library
elements. A decomposition approach for STGs was presented in [VW02] [KKT93]
[Chu87a]. The decomposition algorithm by Vogler and Wollowski [VW02] is based
on that of Chu [Chu87a] but is much more generally applicable than the one in
[KKT93] [Chu87a], and its correctness has been proved formally in [VW02].
This dissertation begins with Petri net background described in chapter 2.
It starts with a class of Petri nets called a place/transition (P/T) nets. Then
STGs, the subclass of P/T nets, is viewed. Background in net decomposition
is presented in chapter 3. It begins with the structural decomposition of P/T
nets for analysis purposes – liveness and boundedness of the net. Then STG
decomposition for synthesis from [VW02] is described.
The decomposition method from [VW02] still could be improved to deal with
STGs from real applications and to give better decomposition results. Some
improvements for [VW02] to improve decomposition result and increase algorithm
efficiency are discussed in chapter 4. These improvement ideas are suggested in
[KVWB04] and some of them are have been proved formally in [VK04].
The decomposition method from [VW02] is based on net reduction to find
an output block component. A large amount of work has to be done to reduce
an initial specification until the final component is found. This reduction is not
always possible, which causes input initially classified as irrelevant to become
relevant input for the component. But under certain conditions (e.g. if structural
auto-conflicts turn out to be non-dynamic) some of them could be reclassified as
irrelevant. If this is not done, the specifications become unnecessarily large, which
intern leads to unnecessarily large implemented circuits. Instead of reduction, a
new approach, presented in chapter 5, decomposes the original net into structural
components first. An initial output block component is found by composing the
structural components. Then, a final output block component is obtained by net
As we cope with the structure of a net most of the time, it would be useful
to have a structural abstraction of the net. A structural abstraction algorithm
[Kan03] is presented in chapter 6. It can improve the performance in finding an
output block component in most of the cases [War05] [Taw04]. Also, the structure
net is in most cases smaller than the net itself. This increases the efficiency of the
decomposition algorithm because it allows the transitions contained in a node of
the structure graph to be contracted at the same time if the structure graph is
used as internal representation of the net.
Chapter 7 discusses the application of STG decomposition in asynchronous
circuit design. Application to speed independent circuits is discussed first. Af-
ter that 3D circuits synthesized from extended burst mode (XBM) specifications
are discussed. An algorithm for translating STG specifications to XBM specifi-
cations was first suggested by [BEW99]. This algorithm first derives the state
machine from the STG specification, then translates the state machine to XBM
specification. An XBM specification, though it is a state machine, allows some
concurrency. These concurrencies can be translated directly, without deriving
all of the possible states. An algorithm which directly translates STG to XBM
specifications, is presented in chapter 7.3.1. Finally DESI, a tool to decompose
STGs and its decomposition results are presented.
Seit Aufkommen der Halbleiter-Technologie existiert ein Trend zur Miniaturisierung elektronischer Systeme. Dies, steigende Anforderungen sowie die zunehmende Integration verschiedener Sensoren zur Interaktion mit der Umgebung lassen solche eingebetteten Systeme, wie sie zum Beispiel in mobilen Geräten oder Fahrzeugen vorkommen, zunehmend komplexer werden. Die Folgen sind ein Anstieg der Entwicklungszeit und ein immer höherer Bauteileaufwand, bei gleichzeitig geforderter Reduktion von Größe und Energiebedarf. Insbesondere der Entwurf von Multi-Sensor-Systemen verlangt für jeden verwendeten Sensortyp jeweils gesondert nach einer spezifischen Sensorelektronik und steht damit den Forderungen nach Miniaturisierung und geringem Leistungsverbrauch entgegen.
In dieser Forschungsarbeit wird das oben beschriebene Problem aufgegriffen und die Entwicklung eines universellen Sensor-Interfaces für eben solche Multi-Sensor-Systeme erörtert. Als ein einzelner integrierter Baustein kann dieses Interface bis zu neun verschiedenen Sensoren unterschiedlichen Typs als Sensorelektronik dienen. Die aufnehmbaren Messgrößen umfassen: Spannung, Strom, Widerstand, Kapazität, Induktivität und Impedanz.
Durch dynamische Rekonfigurierbarkeit und applikationsspezifische Programmierung wird eine variable Konfiguration entsprechend der jeweiligen Anforderungen ermöglicht. Sowohl der Entwicklungs- als auch der Bauteileaufwand können dank dieser Schnittstelle, die zudem einen Energiesparmodus beinhaltet, erheblich reduziert werden.
Die flexible Struktur ermöglicht den Aufbau intelligenter Systeme mit sogenannten Self-x Charakteristiken. Diese betreffen Fähigkeiten zur eigenständigen Systemüberwachung, Kalibrierung oder Reparatur und tragen damit zu einer erhöhten Robustheit und Fehlertoleranz bei. Als weitere Innovation enthält das universelle Interface neuartige Schaltungs- und Sensorkonzepte, beispielsweise zur Messung der Chip-Temperatur oder Kompensation thermischer Einflüsse auf die Sensorik.
Zwei unterschiedliche Anwendungen demonstrieren die Funktionalität der hergestellten Prototypen. Die realisierten Applikationen haben die Lebensmittelanalyse sowie die dreidimensionale magnetische Lokalisierung zum Gegenstand.
The objective of this thesis consists in developing systematic event-triggered control designs for specified event generators, which is an important alternative to the traditional periodic sampling control. Sporadic sampling inherently arising in event-triggered control is determined by the event-triggering conditions. This feature invokes the desire of
finding new control theory as the traditional sampled-data theory in computer control.
Developing controller coupling with the applied event-triggering condition to maximize the control performance is the essence for event-triggered control design. In the design the stability of the control system needs to be ensured with the first priority. Concerning variant control aims they should be clearly incorporated in the design procedures. Considering applications in embedded control systems efficient implementation requires a low complexity of embedded software architectures. The thesis targets at offering such a design to further complete the theory of event-triggered control designs.
In this thesis we studied and investigated a very common but a long existing noise problem and we provided a solution to this problem. The task is to deal with different types of noise that occur simultaneously and which we call hybrid. Although there are individual solutions for specific types one cannot simply combine them because each solution affects the whole speech. We developed an automatic speech recognition system DANSR ( Dynamic Automatic Noisy Speech Recognition System) for hybrid noisy environmental noise. For this we had to study all of speech starting from the production of sounds until their recognition. Central elements are the feature vectors on which pay much attention. As an additional effect we worked on the production of quantities for psychoacoustic speech elements.
The thesis has four parts:
1) The first part we give an introduction. The chapter 2 and 3 give an overview over speech generation and recognition when machines are used. Also noise is considered.
2) In the second part we describe our general system for speech recognition in a noisy environment. This is contained in the chapters 4-10. In chapter 4 we deal with data preparation. Chapter 5 is concerned with very strong noise and its modeling using Poisson distribution. In the chapters 5-8 we deal with parameter based modeling. Chapter 7 is concerned with autoregressive methods in relation to the vocal tract. In the chapters 8 and 9 we discuss linear prediction and its parameters. Chapter 9 is also concerned with quadratic errors, the decomposition into sub-bands and the use of Kalman filters for non-stationary colored noise in chapter 10. There one finds classical approaches as long we have used and modified them. This includes covariance mehods, the method of Burg and others.
3) The third part deals firstly with psychoacoustic questions. We look at quantitative magnitudes that describe them. This has serious consequences for the perception models. For hearing we use different scales and filters. In the center of the chapters 12 and 13 one finds the features and their extraction. The fearures are the only elements that contain information for further use. We consider here Cepstrum features and Mel frequency cepstral coefficients(MFCC), shift invariant local trigonometric transformed (SILTT), linear predictive coefficients (LPC), linear predictive cepstral coefficients (LPCC), perceptual linear predictive (PLP) cepstral coefficients. In chapter 13 we present our extraction methods in DANSR and how they use window techniques And discrete cosine transform (DCT-IV) as well as their inverses.
4) The fourth part considers classification and the ultimate speech recognition. Here we use the hidden Markov model (HMM) for describing the speech process and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for the acoustic modelling. For the recognition we use forward algorithm, the Viterbi search and the Baum-Welch algorithm. We also draw the connection to dynamic time warping (DTW). In the rest we show experimental results and conclusions.