Ad-Hoc-Netze sind selbstorganisierende Netze ohne zentrale Infrastruktur, die heutzutage in vielen Bereichen Verwendung finden. Sie bestehen aus drahtlosen Knoten, die zur Erfüllung ihrer Aufgaben miteinander kommunizieren. Jedoch befinden sich nicht notwendigerweise alle Knoten in Reichweite zueinander. Damit entfernte Knoten einander erreichen können, werden Routingverfahren benötigt. Die Etablierung einer beliebigen Route ist jedoch oft nicht ausreichend, denn viele Anwendungen stellen spezielle Dienstgüteanforderungen (QoS-Anforderungen) an die Verbindung, beispielsweise die Gewährleistung einer Mindestbandbreite. Um diese QoS-Anforderungen erfüllen zu können, werden sie bereits bei der Ermittlung einer Route berücksichtigt, und die benötigten Ressourcen werden entlang der Route reserviert. Dazu dienen QoS-Routing- und Reservierungsprotokolle.
In dieser Arbeit wird zunächst der Aspekt der deterministischen Reservierung von Bandbreite in Form von konkreten Zeitslots einer TDMA-basierten MAC-Schicht betrachtet. Da sich die Übertragungen verschiedener Knoten in drahtlosen Netzen gegenseitig stören können, wurde ein Interferenzmodell entwickelt. Dieses identifiziert Bedingungen, unter denen Zeitslots innerhalb eines Netzes für mehr als eine Übertragung verwendet werden können. Zudem definiert es durch Aggregation der Informationen anderer Knoten Möglichkeiten zur Ermittlung der benötigten Informationen, um zu entscheiden, welche Zeitslots für eine störungsfreie Übertragung verwendet werden können.
Weiterhin werden existierende QoS-Routing- und Reservierungsprotokolle auf inhärente Probleme untersucht, wobei der Schwerpunkt auf Protokollen liegt, die deterministische Reservierungen von Zeitslots vornehmen. In diese Kategorie fällt auch das im Rahmen der Arbeit entwickelte Protokoll RBBQR, dessen Hauptziel darin besteht, die identifizierten Probleme zu eliminieren. Ferner wird das ebenfalls zu dieser Kategorie gehörende Protokoll QMRP beschrieben, welches zentralisiert Multicast-Routen inklusive der zugehörigen Reservierungen in teilstationären Netzen ermittelt.
Ein weiterer Bestandteil der Arbeit behandelt die Entwicklung von Simulationskomponenten, welche beispielsweise zur Evaluation von QoS-Routing- und Reservierungsprotokollen genutzt werden können. Das existierende Simulationsframework FERAL wurde um eine Komponente erweitert, die die Verwendung von Kommunikationstechnologien des Netzwerksimulators ns-3 ermöglicht. Weiterhin wurde ein Modul zur Simulation eines CC2420-Transceivers entwickelt, welches in eigenständigen ns-3-Simulationen und in Simulationen mit FERAL verwendet werden kann.
The recently established technologies in the areas of distributed measurement and intelligent
information processing systems, e.g., Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), Ambient
Intelligence/Ambient Assisted Living systems (AmI/AAL), the Internet of Things
(IoT), and Industry 4.0 have increased the demand for the development of intelligent
integrated multi-sensory systems as to serve rapid growing markets [1, 2]. These increase
the significance of complex measurement systems, that incorporate numerous advanced
methodological implementations including electronics circuit, signal processing,
and multi-sensory information fusion. In particular, in multi-sensory cognition applications,
to design such systems, the skill-required tasks, e.g., method selection, parameterization,
model analysis, and processing chain construction are elaborated with immense
effort, which conventionally are done manually by the expert designer. Moreover, the
strong technological competition imposes even more complicated design problems with
multiple constraints, e.g., cost, speed, power consumption,
exibility, and reliability.
Thus, the conventional human expert based design approach may not be able to cope
with the increasing demand in numbers, complexity, and diversity. To alleviate the issue,
the design automation approach has been the topic for numerous research works [3-14]
and has been commercialized to several products [15-18]. Additionally, the dynamic
adaptation of intelligent multi-sensor systems is the potential solution for developing
dependable and robust systems. Intrinsic evolution approach and self-x properties ,
which include self-monitoring, -calibrating/trimming, and -healing/repairing, are among
the best candidates for the issue. Motivated from the ongoing research trends and based
on the background of our research work [12, 13] among the pioneers in this topic, the
research work of the thesis contributes to the design automation of intelligent integrated
In this research work, the Design Automation for Intelligent COgnitive system with self-
X properties, the DAICOX, architecture is presented with the aim of tackling the design
effort and to providing high quality and robust solutions for multi-sensor intelligent
systems. Therefore, the DAICOX architecture is conceived with the defined goals as
Perform front to back complete processing chain design with automated method
selection and parameterization,
Provide a rich choice of pattern recognition methods to the design method pool,
Associate design information via interactive user interface and visualization along
with intuitive visual programming,
Deliver high quality solutions outperforming conventional approaches by using
Gain the adaptability, reliability and robustness of designed solutions with self-x
Derived from the goals, several scientific methodological developments and implementations,
particularly in the areas of pattern recognition and computational intelligence,
will be pursued as part of the DAICOX architecture in the research work of this thesis.
The method pool is aimed to contain a rich choice of methods and algorithms covering
data acquisition and sensor configuration, signal processing and feature computation,
dimensionality reduction, and classification. These methods will be selected and parameterized
automatically by the DAICOX design optimization to construct a multi-sensory
cognition processing chain. A collection of non-parametric feature quality assessment
functions for the purpose of Dimensionality Reduction (DR) process will be presented.
In addition, to standard DR methods, the variations of feature selection method, in
particular, feature weighting will be proposed. Three different classification categories
shall be incorporated in the method pool. Hierarchical classification approach will be
proposed and developed to serve as a multi-sensor fusion architecture at the decision
level. Beside multi-class classification, one-class classification methods, e.g., One-Class
SVM and NOVCLASS will be presented to extend functionality of the solutions, in particular,
anomaly and novelty detection. DAICOX is conceived to effectively handle the
problem of method selection and parameter setting for a particular application yielding
high performance solutions. The processing chain construction tasks will be carried
out by meta-heuristic optimization methods, e.g., Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Particle
Swarm Optimization (PSO), with multi-objective optimization approach and model
analysis for robust solutions. In addition, to the automated system design mechanisms,
DAICOX will facilitate the design tasks with intuitive visual programming and various
options of visualization. Design database concept of DAICOX is aimed to allow the
reusability and extensibility of the designed solutions gained from previous knowledge.
Thus, the cooperative design of machine and knowledge from the design expert can also
be utilized for obtaining fully enhanced solutions. In particular, the integration of self-x
properties as well as intrinsic optimization into the system is proposed to gain enduring
reliability and robustness. Hence, DAICOX will allow the inclusion of dynamically
reconfigurable hardware instances to the designed solutions in order to realize intrinsic
optimization and self-x properties.
As a result from the research work in this thesis, a comprehensive intelligent multisensor
system design architecture with automated method selection, parameterization,
and model analysis is developed with compliance to open-source multi-platform software.It is integrated with an intuitive design environment, which includes visual programming
concept and design information visualizations. Thus, the design effort is minimized as
investigated in three case studies of different application background, e.g., food analysis
(LoX), driving assistance (DeCaDrive), and magnetic localization. Moreover, DAICOX
achieved better quality of the solutions compared to the manual approach in all cases,
where the classification rate was increased by 5.4%, 0.06%, and 11.4% in the LoX,
DeCaDrive, and magnetic localization case, respectively. The design time was reduced
by 81.87% compared to the conventional approach by using DAICOX in the LoX case
study. At the current state of development, a number of novel contributions of the thesis
are outlined below.
Automated processing chain construction and parameterization for the design of
signal processing and feature computation.
Novel dimensionality reduction methods, e.g., GA and PSO based feature selection
and feature weighting with multi-objective feature quality assessment.
A modification of non-parametric compactness measure for feature space quality
Decision level sensor fusion architecture based on proposed hierarchical classification
approach using, i.e., H-SVM.
A collection of one-class classification methods and a novel variation, i.e.,
Automated design toolboxes supporting front to back design with automated
model selection and information visualization.
In this research work, due to the complexity of the task, neither all of the identified goals
have been comprehensively reached yet nor has the complete architecture definition been
fully implemented. Based on the currently implemented tools and frameworks, ongoing
development of DAICOX is pursuing towards the complete architecture. The potential
future improvements are the extension of method pool with a richer choice of methods
and algorithms, processing chain breeding via graph based evolution approach, incorporation
of intrinsic optimization, and the integration of self-x properties. According to
these features, DAICOX will improve its aptness in designing advanced systems to serve
the increasingly growing technologies of distributed intelligent measurement systems, in
particular, CPS and Industrie 4.0.
Whole-body vibrations (WBV) have adverse effects on ride comfort and human health. Suspension seats have an important influence on the WBV severity. In this study, WBV were measured on a medium-sized compact wheel loader (CWL) in its typical operations. The effect of short-term exposure to the WBV on the ride comfort was evaluated according to ISO 2631-1:1985 and ISO 2631-1:1997. ISO 2631-1:1997 and ISO 2631-5:2004 were adopted to evaluate the effect of long-term exposure to the WBV on the human health. Reasons for the different evaluation results obtained according to ISO 2631-1:1997 and ISO 2631-5:2004 were explained in this study. The WBV measurements were carried out in cases where the driver wore a lap belt or a four-point seat harness and in the case where the driver did not wear any safety belt. The seat effective amplitude transmissibility (SEAT) and the seat transmissibility in the frequency domain in these three cases were analyzed to investigate the effect of a safety belt on the seat transmissibility. Seat tests were performed on a multi-axis shaking table in laboratory to study the dynamic behavior of a suspension seat under the vibration excitations measured on the CWL. The WBV intensity was reduced by optimizing the vertical and the longitudinal seat suspension systems with the help of computational simulations. For the optimization multi-body models of the seat-dummy system in the laboratory seat tests and the seat-driver system in the field vibration measurements were built and validated.
In a financial market we consider three types of investors trading with a finite
time horizon with access to a bank account as well as multliple stocks: the
fully informed investor, the partially informed investor whose only source of
information are the stock prices and an investor who does not use this infor-
mation. The drift is modeled either as following linear Gaussian dynamics
or as being a continuous time Markov chain with finite state space. The
optimization problem is to maximize expected utility of terminal wealth.
The case of partial information is based on the use of filtering techniques.
Conditions to ensure boundedness of the expected value of the filters are
developed, in the Markov case also for positivity. For the Markov modulated
drift, boundedness of the expected value of the filter relates strongly to port-
folio optimization: effects are studied and quantified. The derivation of an
equivalent, less dimensional market is presented next. It is a type of Mutual
Fund Theorem that is shown here.
Gains and losses eminating from the use of filtering are then discussed in
detail for different market parameters: For infrequent trading we find that
both filters need to comply with the boundedness conditions to be an advan-
tage for the investor. Losses are minimal in case the filters are advantageous.
At an increasing number of stocks, again boundedness conditions need to be
met. Losses in this case depend strongly on the added stocks. The relation
of boundedness and portfolio optimization in the Markov model leads here to
increasing losses for the investor if the boundedness condition is to hold for
all numbers of stocks. In the Markov case, the losses for different numbers
of states are negligible in case more states are assumed then were originally
present. Assuming less states leads to high losses. Again for the Markov
model, a simplification of the complex optimal trading strategy for power
utility in the partial information setting is shown to cause only minor losses.
If the market parameters are such that shortselling and borrowing constraints
are in effect, these constraints may lead to big losses depending on how much
effect the constraints have. They can though also be an advantage for the
investor in case the expected value of the filters does not meet the conditions
All results are implemented and illustrated with the corresponding numerical
Typically software engineers implement their software according to the design of the software
structure. Relations between classes and interfaces such as method-call relations and inheritance
relations are essential parts of a software structure. Accordingly, analyzing several types of
relations will benefit the static analysis process of the software structure. The tasks of this
analysis include but not limited to: understanding of (legacy) software, checking guidelines,
improving product lines, finding structure, or re-engineering of existing software. Graphs with
multi-type edges are possible representation for these relations considering them as edges, while
nodes represent classes and interfaces of software. Then, this multiple type edges graph can
be mapped to visualizations. However, the visualizations should deal with the multiplicity of
relations types and scalability, and they should enable the software engineers to recognize visual
patterns at the same time.
To advance the usage of visualizations for analyzing the static structure of software systems,
I tracked difierent development phases of the interactive multi-matrix visualization (IMMV)
showing an extended user study at the end. Visual structures were determined and classified
systematically using IMMV compared to PNLV in the extended user study as four categories:
High degree, Within-package edges, Cross-package edges, No edges. In addition to these structures
that were found in these handy tools, other structures that look interesting for software
engineers such as cycles and hierarchical structures need additional visualizations to display
them and to investigate them. Therefore, an extended approach for graph layout was presented
that improves the quality of the decomposition and the drawing of directed graphs
according to their topology based on rigorous definitions. The extension involves describing
and analyzing the algorithms for decomposition and drawing in detail giving polynomial time
complexity and space complexity. Finally, I handled visualizing graphs with multi-type edges
using small-multiples, where each tile is dedicated to one edge-type utilizing the topological
graph layout to highlight non-trivial cycles, trees, and DAGs for showing and analyzing the
static structure of software. Finally, I applied this approach to four software systems to show
Die Bewertung bestehender Bauteile unterscheidet sich grundsätzlich von der Bemessung neu zu erstellender Bauteile, da im Gegensatz zur Neubausituation bemessungsrelevante Parameter am Bestandstragwerk ermittelt werden können. Trotzdem müssen baustatische Nachweise in beiden Fällen auf Basis der aktuellen technischen Baubestimmungen geführt werden, deren Sicherheits- und Nachweiskonzept zur Erstellung von Neubauten konzipiert wurde und berücksichtigt, dass die tatsächlichen Bauteilkennwerte zum Zeitpunkt der Bemessung mit Unsicherheiten behaftet sind.
Bestehende Tragwerke können und müssen in vielen Fällen die darin enthaltenen Anforderungen nicht erfüllen, da im Vergleich zur Neubausituation eine Vielzahl von Tragwerksinformationen vorliegen, die eine Absenkung der im Zuverlässigkeitskonzept enthaltenen Unsicherheitsfaktoren begründen.
Aus diesem Grund wird innerhalb der vorliegenden Arbeit ein zur Bewertung bestehender Wasserbauwerke angepasstes, semiprobabilistisches Nachweiskonzept erarbeitet, das auf den wahrscheinlichkeitstheoretischen Festlegungen des Eurocode beruht. Im Vergleich zum aktuellen Nachweiskonzept zeichnet es sich durch die Berücksichtigung von im Rahmen einer qualifizierten Bestandsaufnahme am Tragwerk festgestellten Bauteilkennwerten und Einwirkungen sowie angepassten Zuverlässigkeitselementen aus.
Innerhalb einer probabilistischen Querschnittsanalyse werden weiterhin die zur Zuverlässigkeitsbewertung bestehender Wasserbauwerke aus Beton maßgebenden Basisvariablen identifiziert und es wird nachgewiesen, dass auch die Zuverlässigkeitselemente des modifizierten Nachweiskonzeptes dem Format nach den wahrscheinlichkeitstheoretischen Festlegungen des Eurocodes entsprechen.
Darüber hinaus wird gezeigt, dass die Konstruktionsweise zur Errichtung von unbewehrten Gewichtsstützwänden alter Schleusen zu einem Zuverlässigkeitsniveau führt, wie es aktuell auch innerhalb des Eurocodes gefordert wird.
This tutorial describes how to accurately measure signal power using the FFT. The different effects that introduce errors during FFT processing are described and it is explained how they can be avoided or compensated.
We present a new approach to handle uncertain combinatorial optimization problems that uses solution ranking procedures to determine the degree of robustness of a solution. Unlike classic concepts for robust optimization, our approach is not purely based on absolute quantitative performance, but also includes qualitative aspects that are of major importance for the decision maker.
We discuss the two variants, solution ranking and objective ranking robustness, in more detail, presenting problem complexities and solution approaches. Using an uncertain shortest path problem as a computational example, the potential of our approach is demonstrated in the context of evacuation planning due to river flooding.
We consider the problem to evacuate several regions due to river flooding, where sufficient time is given to plan ahead. To ensure a smooth evacuation procedure, our model includes the decision which regions to assign to which shelter, and when evacuation orders should be issued, such that roads do not become congested.
Due to uncertainty in weather forecast, several possible scenarios are simultaneously considered in a robust optimization framework. To solve the resulting integer program, we apply a Tabu search algorithm based on decomposing the problem into better tractable subproblems. Computational experiments on random instances and an instance based on Kulmbach, Germany, data show considerable improvement compared to an MIP solver provided with a strong starting solution.