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Embedded systems have become ubiquitous in everyday life, and especially in the automotive industry. New applications challenge their design by introducing a new class of problems that are based on a detailed analysis of the environmental situation. Situation analysis systems rely on models and algorithms of the domain of computational geometry. The basic model is usually an Euclidean plane, which contains polygons to represent the objects of the environment. Usual implementations of computational geometry algorithms cannot be directly used for safety-critical systems. First, a strict analysis of their correctness is indispensable and second, nonfunctional requirements with respect to the limited resources must be considered. This thesis proposes a layered approach to a polygon-processing system. On top of rational numbers, a geometry kernel is formalised at first. Subsequently, geometric primitives form a second layer of abstraction that is used for plane sweep and polygon algorithms. These layers do not only divide the whole system into manageable parts but make it possible to model problems and reason about them at the appropriate level of abstraction. This structure is used for the verification as well as the implementation of the developed polygon-processing library.

Nowadays, accounting, charging and billing users' network resource consumption are commonly used for the purpose of facilitating reasonable network usage, controlling congestion, allocating cost, gaining revenue, etc. In traditional IP traffic accounting systems, IP addresses are used to identify the corresponding consumers of the network resources. However, there are some situations in which IP addresses cannot be used to identify users uniquely, for example, in multi-user systems. In these cases, network resource consumption can only be ascribed to the owners of these hosts instead of corresponding real users who have consumed the network resources. Therefore, accurate accountability in these systems is practically impossible. This is a flaw of the traditional IP address based IP traffic accounting technique. This dissertation proposes a user based IP traffic accounting model which can facilitate collecting network resource usage information on the basis of users. With user based IP traffic accounting, IP traffic can be distinguished not only by IP addresses but also by users. In this dissertation, three different schemes, which can achieve the user based IP traffic accounting mechanism, are discussed in detail. The inband scheme utilizes the IP header to convey the user information of the corresponding IP packet. The Accounting Agent residing in the measured host intercepts IP packets passing through it. Then it identifies the users of these IP packets and inserts user information into the IP packets. With this mechanism, a meter located in a key position of the network can intercept the IP packets tagged with user information, extract not only statistic information, but also IP addresses and user information from the IP packets to generate accounting records with user information. The out-of-band scheme is a contrast scheme to the in-band scheme. It also uses an Accounting Agent to intercept IP packets and identify the users of IP traffic. However, the user information is transferred through a separated channel, which is different from the corresponding IP packets' transmission. The Multi-IP scheme provides a different solution for identifying users of IP traffic. It assigns each user in a measured host a unique IP address. Through that, an IP address can be used to identify a user uniquely without ambiguity. This way, traditional IP address based accounting techniques can be applied to achieve the goal of user based IP traffic accounting. In this dissertation, a user based IP traffic accounting prototype system developed according to the out-of-band scheme is also introduced. The application of user based IP traffic accounting model in the distributed computing environment is also discussed.

This dissertation is intended to transport the theory of Serre functors into the context of A-infinity-categories. We begin with an introduction to multicategories and closed multicategories, which form a framework in which the theory of A-infinity-categories is developed. We prove that (unital) A-infinity-categories constitute a closed symmetric multicategory. We define the notion of A-infinity-bimodule similarly to Tradler and show that it is equivalent to an A-infinity-functor of two arguments which takes values in the differential graded category of complexes of k-modules, where k is a commutative ground ring. Serre A-infinity-functors are defined via A-infinity-bimodules following ideas of Kontsevich and Soibelman. We prove that a unital closed under shifts A-infinity-category over a field admits a Serre A-infinity-functor if and only if its homotopy category admits an ordinary Serre functor. The proof uses categories and Serre functors enriched in the homotopy category of complexes of k-modules. Another important ingredient is an A-infinity-version of the Yoneda Lemma.

The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a numerical solver for the Navier-Stokes equations, based on an underlying molecular dynamic model. Recently, it has been extended towardsthe simulation of complex fluids. We use the asymptotic expansion technique to investigate the standard scheme, the initialization problem and possible developments towards moving boundary and fluid-structure interaction problems. At the same time, it will be shown how the mathematical analysis can be used to understand and improve the algorithm. First of all, we elaborate the tool "asymptotic analysis", proposing a general formulation of the technique and explaining the methods and the strategy we use for the investigation. A first standard application to the LBM is described, which leads to the approximation of the Navier-Stokes solution starting from the lattice Boltzmann equation. As next, we extend the analysis to investigate origin and dynamics of initial layers. A class of initialization algorithms to generate accurate initial values within the LB framework is described in detail. Starting from existing routines, we will be able to improve the schemes in term of efficiency and accuracy. Then we study the features of a simple moving boundary LBM. In particular, we concentrate on the initialization of new fluid nodes created by the variations of the computational fluid domain. An overview of existing possible choices is presented. Performing a careful analysis of the problem we propose a modified algorithm, which produces satisfactory results. Finally, to set up an LBM for fluid structure interaction, efficient routines to evaluate forces are required. We describe the Momentum Exchange algorithm (MEA). Precise accuracy estimates are derived, and the analysis leads to the construction of an improved method to evaluate the interface stresses. In conclusion, we test the defined code and validate the results of the analysis on several simple benchmarks. From the theoretical point of view, in the thesis we have developed a general formulation of the asymptotic expansion, which is expected to offer a more flexible tool in the investigation of numerical methods. The main practical contribution offered by this work is the detailed analysis of the numerical method. It allows to understand and improve the algorithms, and construct new routines, which can be considered as starting points for future researches.

Analog sensor electronics requires special care during design in order to increase the quality and precision of the signal, and the life time of the product. Nevertheless, it can experience static deviations due to the manufacturing tolerances, and dynamic deviations due to operating in non-ideal environment. Therefore, the advanced applications such as MEMS technology employs calibration loop to deal with the deviations, but unfortunately, it is considered only in the digital domain, which cannot cope with all the analog deviations such as saturation of the analog signal, etc. On the other hand, rapid-prototyping is essential to decrease the development time, and the cost of the products for small quantities. Recently, evolvable hardware has been developed with the motivation to cope with the mentioned sensor electronic problems. However the industrial specifications and requirements are not considered in the hardware learning loop. Indeed, it minimizes the error between the required output and the real output generated due to given test signal. The aim of this thesis is to synthesize the generic organic-computing sensor electronics and return hardware with predictable behavior for embedded system applications that gains the industrial acceptance; therefore, the hardware topology is constrained to the standard hardware topologies, the hardware standard specifications are included in the optimization, and hierarchical optimization are abstracted from the synthesis tools to evolve first the building blocks, then evolve the abstract level that employs these optimized blocks. On the other hand, measuring some of the industrial specifications needs expensive equipments and some others are time consuming which is not fortunate for embedded system applications. Therefore, the novel approach "mixtrinsic multi-objective optimization" is proposed that simulates/estimates the set of the specifications that is hard to be measured due to the cost or time requirements, while it measures intrinsically the set of the specifications that has high sensitivity to deviations. These approaches succeed to optimize the hardware to meet the industrial specifications with low cost measurement setup which is essential for embedded system applications.

Esterases and lipases are widely used as industrial enzymes and for the synthesis of chiral drugs. Because of their rich secondary metabolism, Streptomyces species offer a relatively untapped source of interesting esterases and lipases. S. coelicolor and S. avermitilis contain 51 genes annotated as esterases and/or lipases. In this study I have cloned 14 different genes encoding for lipolytic enzymes from S. coelicolor (11 genes) and S. avermitilis (four genes). Some of these genes were over-expressed in E. coli. Three of the produced enzymes, which were produced by the genes SCO 7131, SCO6966 and SCO3644, were characterized biochemically and one of them was subjected for directed evolution. The gene estA (locus SCO 7131) was annotated as a putative lipase/esterase in the genome sequence of S. coelicolor A3(2), but does not have a homologue in the genome sequence of S. avermitilis or in other known Streptomyces sequences. estA was cloned and expressed in E. coli as a His-tagged protein. The protein was purified and could be recovered in its non-tagged form after digestion with factor Xa. The relative molecular weight was estimated to be 35.5kDa. The enzyme was only active towards acetate esters and not on larger substrates. It had a stereospecificity towards α-naphathylacetate. It was thermostable, with a half-life at 50C of 4.5 hours. Est A showed stability over pH range 5.5-10, and had optimum pH of 7.5. Its activity was drastically decreased when it was pre-incubated in 10mM PMSF, Cu+2 and Hg+2. It was not very stable in most organic solvents and had only slight enantioselectivity. Est A belongs to the HSL family whose founder member is the human hormone-sensitive lipase. I have developed a protein profile for the HSL family modifying the conserved motifs found by Arpigny and Jaeger (1999). Due to the presence of several HSL members with known 3D structure and good homology to Est A, I was able to make a homology model of Est A. Five different mutants of Est A were produced through site directed mutagenesis: W87F, V158A, W87F/V158A, M162L and S163A. The mutants M162L and S163A did not produce a significant change either in substrate specificity or enzyme kinetics. The mutants V158A and W87F/V158A could act on the larger substrates p-nitrophenylbutyrate and caproate and tributyrin. The mutant V158A had improved thermostability and its t1/2 at 50ºC increased to 24h. The affinity of V158A towards p-nitrophenyacetate increased 6-fold when compared with the wild type, whereas the affinity of W87F decreased 4-fold. Directed evolution of Est A was done through random mutagenesis and ER-PCR. A library of 6336 mutants was constructed and screened for mutants with a broader spectrum of substrate specificity. The mutant XXVF7 did show alteration in the substrate specificity of Est A. The mutant XXVF7 had 5 amino acids changes L76R, L146P, S196G, W213R and L267R. The gene locus SCO 6966 (estB gene) was cloned and expressed in E. coli as a His-tagged protein. It was not possible to remove the His-tag using factor Xa. The tagged protein had a molecular weight 31.9kDa. Est B was active against short chain fatty acid esters (C2-C6). Its optimum temperature was 30ºC and was stable for 1h at temperatures up to 37ºC. The enzyme had maximum activity at pH 8-8.5 and was stable over pH range 7.5-11 for 24h. It was highly sensitive for PMSF, Cu+2 and Hg+2. The enzymatic activity deceased in presence of organic solvents, however it was fairly stable for 1h in 20% organic solvents solutions. A third esterase was produced from the gene locus SCO 3644. This esterase was a thermosensitive one with optimum temperature of 35ºC. The three characterized enzymes included a thermophilic, mesophilic and psychrophilic ones. This indicates the high variation in the characters of Streptomyces lipolytic enzymes and highlighting Streptomyces as a source for esterases and lipases of interesting catalytic activity. This study was an initial trial to provide a strategy for a comprehensive use of genome data.

The broad engineering applications of polymers and composites have become the
state of the art due to their numerous advantages over metals and alloys, such as
lightweight, easy processing and manufacturing, as well as acceptable mechanical
properties. However, a general deficiency of thermoplastics is their relatively poor
creep resistance, impairing service durability and safety, which is a significant barrier
to further their potential applications. In recent years, polymer nanocomposites have
been increasingly focused as a novel field in materials science. There are still many
scientific questions concerning these materials leading to the optimal property
combinations. The major task of the current work is to study the improved creep
resistance of thermoplastics filled with various nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon
nanotubes.
A systematic study of three different nanocomposite systems by means of
experimental observation and modeling and prediction was carried out. In the first
part, a nanoparticle/PA system was prepared to undergo creep tests under different
stress levels (20, 30, 40 MPa) at various temperatures (23, 50, 80 °C). The aim was
to understand the effect of different nanoparticles on creep performance. 1 vol. % of
300 nm and 21 nm TiO2 nanoparticles and nanoclay was considered. Surface
modified 21 nm TiO2 particles were also investigated. Static tensile tests were
conducted at those temperatures accordingly. It was found that creep resistance was
significantly enhanced to different degrees by the nanoparticles, without sacrificing
static tensile properties. Creep was characterized by isochronous stress-strain curves,
creep rate, and creep compliance under different temperatures and stress levels.
Orientational hardening, as well as thermally and stress activated processes were
briefly introduced to further understanding of the creep mechanisms of these
nanocomposites. The second material system was PP filled with 1 vol. % 300 nm and 21 nm TiO2
nanoparticles, which was used to obtain more information about the effect of particle
size on creep behavior based on another matrix material with much lower Tg. It was
found especially that small nanoparticles could significantly improve creep resistance.
Additionally, creep lifetime under high stress levels was noticeably extended by
smaller nanoparticles. The improvement in creep resistance was attributed to a very
dense network formed by the small particles that effectively restricted the mobility of
polymer chains. Changes in the spherulite morphology and crystallinity in specimens
before and after creep tests confirmed this explanation.
In the third material system, the objective was to explore the creep behavior of PP
reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Short and long aspect ratio nanotubes
with 1 vol. % were used. It was found that nanotubes markedly improved the creep
resistance of the matrix, with reduced creep deformation and rate. In addition, the
creep lifetime of the composites was dramatically extended by 1,000 % at elevated
temperatures. This enhancement contributed to efficient load transfer between
carbon nanotubes and surrounding polymer chains.
Finally, a modeling analysis and prediction of long-term creep behaviors presented a
comprehensive understanding of creep in the materials studied here. Both the
Burgers model and Findley power law were applied to satisfactorily simulate the
experimental data. The parameter analysis based on Burgers model provided an
explanation of structure-to-property relationships. Due to their intrinsic difference, the
power law was more capable of predicting long-term behaviors than Burgers model.
The time-temperature-stress superposition principle was adopted to predict long-term
creep performance based on the short-term experimental data, to make it possible to
forecast the future performance of materials.

The main concern of this contribution is the computational modeling of biomechanically relevant phenomena. To minimize resource requirements, living biomaterials commonly adapt to changing demands. One way to do so is the optimization of mass. For the modeling of biomaterials with changing mass, we distinguish between two different approaches: the coupling of mass changes and deformations at the constitutive level and at the kinematic level. Mass change at the constitutive level is typically realized by weighting the free energy function with respect to the density field, as experimentally motivated by Carter and Hayes [1977] and computationally realized by Harrigan and Hamilton [1992]. Such an ansatz enables the simulation of changes in density while the overall volume remains unaffected. In this contribution we call this effect remodeling. Although in principle applicable for small and large strains, this approach is typically adopted for hard tissues, e.g. bone, which usually undergo small strain deformations. Remodeling in anisotropic materials is realized by choosing an appropriate anisotropic free energy function. <br> Within the kinematic coupling, a changing mass is characterized through a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a growth part and an elastic part, as first introduced in the context of plasticity by Lee [1969]. In this formulation, which we will refer to as growth in the following, mass changes are attributed to changes in volume while the material density remains constant. This approach has classically been applied to model soft tissues undergoing large strains, e.g. the arterial wall. The first contribution including this ansatz is the work by Rodriguez, Hoger and McCulloch [1994]. To model anisotropic growth, an appropriate anisotropic growth deformation tensor has to be formulated. In this contribution we restrict ourselves to transversely isotropic growth, i.e., growth characterized by one preferred direction. On that account, we define a transversely isotropic growth deformation tensor determined by two variables, namely the stretch ratios parallel and perpendicular to the characteristic direction. <br> Another method of material optimization is the adaption of the inner structure f a material to its loading conditions. In anisotropic materials this can be realized by a suitable orientation of the material directions. For example, the trabeculae in the human femur head are oriented such that they can carry the daily loads with an optimum mass. Such a behavior can also be observed in soft tissues. For instance, the fibers of muscles and the collagen fibers in the arterial wall are oriented along the loading directions to carry a maximum of mechanical load. If the overall loading conditions change, for instance during a balloon angioplasty or a stent implantation, the material orientation readapts, which we call reorientation. The anisotropy type in biomaterials is often characterized by fiber reinforcement. A particular subclass of tissues, which includes muscles, tendons and ligaments, is featured by one family of fibers. More complex microstructures, such as arterial walls, show two fiber families, which do not necessarily have to be perpendicular. Within this contribution we confine ourselves to the first case, i.e., transversely isotropic materials indicated by one characteristic direction. The reorientation of the fiber direction in biomaterials is commonly smooth and continuous. For transverse isotropy it can be described by a rotation of the characteristic direction. Analogous to the theory of shells, we additionally exclude drilling rotations, see also Menzel [2006]. However, the driving force for these reorientation processes is still under discussion. Mathematical considerations promote strain driven reorientations. As discussed, for instance, in Vianello [1996], the free energy reaches a critical state for coaxial stresses and strains. For transverse isotropy, it can be shown that this can be achieved if the characteristic direction is aligned with a principal strain direction. From a biological point of view, depending on the kind of material (i.e. bone, muscle tissue, cartilage tissue, etc.), both strains and stresses can be suggested as stimuli for reorientation. Thus, whithin this contribution both approaches are investigated. <br> In contrast to previous works, in which remodeling, growth and reorientation are discussed separately, the present work provides a framework comprising all of the three mentioned effects at once. This admits a direct comparison how and on which level the individual phenomenon is introduced into the material model, and which influence it has on the material behavior. For a uniform description of the phenomenological quantities an internal variable approach is chosen. Moreover, we particularly focus on the algorithmic implementation of the three effects, each on its own, into a finite element framework. The nonlinear equations on the local and the global level are solved by means of the Newton-Raphson scheme. Accordingly, the local update of the internal variables and the global update of the deformation field are consistently linearized yielding the corresponding tangent moduli. For an efficient implementation into a finite element code, unitized update algorithms are given. The fundamental characteristics of the effects are illustrated by means of some representative numerical simulations. Due to the unified framework, combinations of the individual effects are straightforward.

In this thesis, the quasi-static Biot poroelasticity system in bounded multilayered domains in one and three dimensions is studied. In more detail, in the one-dimensional case, a finite volume discretization for the Biot system with discontinuous coefficients is derived. The discretization results in a difference scheme with harmonic averaging of the coefficients. Detailed theoretical analysis of the obtained discrete model is performed. Error estimates, which establish convergence rates for both primary as well as flux unknowns are derived. Besides, modified and more accurate discretizations, which can be applied when the interface position coincides with a grid node, are obtained. These discretizations yield second order convergence of the fluxes of the problem. Finally, the solver for the solution of the produced system of linear equations is developed and extensively tested. A number of numerical experiments, which confirm the theoretical considerations are performed. In the three-dimensional case, the finite volume discretization of the system involves construction of special interpolating polynomials in the dual volumes. These polynomials are derived so that they satisfy the same continuity conditions across the interface, as the original system of PDEs. This technique allows to obtain such a difference scheme, which provides accurate computation of the primary as well as of the flux unknowns, including the points adjacent to the interface. Numerical experiments, based on the obtained discretization, show second order convergence for auxiliary problems with known analytical solutions. A multigrid solver, which incorporates the features of the discrete model, is developed in order to solve efficiently the linear system, produced by the finite volume discretization of the three-dimensional problem. The crucial point is to derive problem-dependent restriction and prolongation operators. Such operators are a well-known remedy for the scalar PDEs with discontinuous coefficients. Here, these operators are derived for the system of PDEs, taking into account interdependence of different unknowns within the system. In the derivation, the interpolating polynomials from the finite volume discretization are employed again, linking thus the discretization and the solution processes. The developed multigrid solver is tested on several model problems. Numerical experiments show that, due to the proper problem-dependent intergrid transfer, the multigrid solver is robust with respect to the discontinuities of the coefficients of the system. In the end, the poroelasticity system with discontinuous coefficients is used to model a real problem. The Biot model, describing this problem, is treated numerically, i.e., discretized by the developed finite volume techniques and then solved by the constructed multigrid solver. Physical characteristics of the process, such as displacement of the skeleton, pressure of the fluid, components of the stress tensor, are calculated and then presented at certain cross-sections.

The thesis is concerned with multiscale approximation by means of radial basis functions on hierarchically structured spherical grids. A new approach is proposed to construct a biorthogonal system of locally supported zonal functions. By use of this biorthogonal system of locally supported zonal functions, a spherical fast wavelet transform (SFWT) is established. Finally, based on the wavelet analysis, geophysically and geodetically relevant problems involving rotation-invariant pseudodifferential operators are shown to be efficiently and economically solvable.