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Wall energy and wall thickness of exchange-coupled rare-earth transition-metal triple layer stacks
(1999)

The room-temperature wall energy sw 54.0310 23 J/m 2 of an exchange-coupled Tb 19.6 Fe 74.7 Co 5.7 /Dy 28.5 Fe 43.2 Co 28.3 double layer stack can be reduced by introducing a soft magnetic intermediate layer in between both layers exhibiting a significantly smaller anisotropy compared to Tb+- FeCo and Dy+- FeCo. sw will decrease linearly with increasing intermediate layer thickness, d IL , until the wall is completely located within the intermediate layer for d IL d w , where d w denotes the wall thickness. Thus, d w can be obtained from the plot sw versus d IL .We determined sw and d w on Gd+- FeCo intermediate layers with different anisotropy behavior ~perpendicular and in-plane easy axis! and compared the results with data obtained from Brillouin light-scattering measurements, where exchange stiffness, A, and uniaxial anisotropy, K u , could be determined. With the knowledge of A and K u , wall energy and thickness were calculated and showed an excellent agreement with the magnetic measurements. A ten times smaller perpendicular anisotropy of Gd 28.1 Fe 71.9 in comparison to Tb+- FeCo and Dy+- FeCo resulted in a much smaller sw 51.1310 23 J/m 2 and d w 524 nm at 300 K. A Gd 34.1 Fe 61.4 Co 4.5 with in-plane anisotropy at room temperature showed a further reduced sw 50.3310 23 J/m 2 and d w 517 nm. The smaller wall energy was a result of a different wall structure compared to perpendicular layers.

A new method for calculating Stark resonances is presented and applied for illustration to the simple case of a one-particle, one-dimensional model Hamiltonian. The method is applicable for weak and strong dc fields. The only need, also for the case of many particles in multi-dimensional space, are either the short time evolution matrix elements or the eigenvalues and Fourier components of the eigenfunctions of the field-free Hamiltonian.

The Filter-Diagonalization Method is applied to time periodic Hamiltonians and used to find selectively the regular and chaotic quasienergies of a driven 2D rotor. The use of N cross-correlation probability amplitudes enables a selective calculation of the quasienergies from short time propagation to the time T (N). Compared to the propagation time T (1) which is required for resolving the quasienergy spectrum with the same accuracy from auto-correlation calculations, the cross-correlation time T (N) is shorter by the factor N , that is T (1) = N T (N).

Quantum Chaos
(1999)

The study of dynamical quantum systems, which are classically chaotic, and the search for quantum manifestations of classical chaos, require large scale numerical computations. Special numerical techniques developed and applied in such studies are discussed: The numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr-odinger equation, the construction of quantum phase space densities, quantum dynamics in phase space, the use of phase space entropies for characterizing localization phenomena, etc. As an illustration, the dynamics of a driven one-dimensional anharmonic oscillator is studied, both classically and quantum mechanically. In addition, spectral properties and chaotic tunneling are addressed.

A computer control for a Sandercock-type multipath tandem Fabry-Perot interferometer is described, which offers many advantages over conventionally used analog control: The range of stability is increased due to active control of the laser light intensity and the mirror dither amplitude. The alignment is fully automated enabling start of a measurement within a minute after start of align, including optionally finding the optimum focus on the sample. The software control enables a programmable series of measurements with control of, e.g., the position and rotation of the sample, the angle of light incidence, the sample temperature, or the strength and direction of an applied magnetic field. Built-in fitting routines allow for a precise determination of frequency positions of excitation peaks combined with increased frequency accuracy due to a correction of a residual nonlinearity of the mirror stage drive.

The global dynamical properties of a quantum system can be conveniently visualized in phase space by means of a quantum phase space entropy in analogy to a Poincare section in classical dynamics for two-dimensional time independent systems. Numerical results for the Pullen Edmonds systems demonstrate the properties of the method for systems with mixed chaotic and regular dynamics.

We investigate the temperature dependence of the magnetization reversal process and of spinwaves in epi-taxially grown (001)-oriented [Fem/Aun]30 multilayers (m = 1, 2; n = 1- 6). Both polar magneto-optic Kerrr effect and Brillouin light scattering measurements reveal that all investigated multilayers, apart from the [Fe2/Au1]30-sample, are magnetized perpendicular to the film plane. The out-of-plane anisotropy constants are obtained. At high temperature, the magnetization curves are well described by an alternating stripe domain structure with free mobile domain walls, and at low temperature by a thermal activation model for the domain wall motion.

Mn-Si-C alloy films are prepared by e-beam coevaporation onto a Si substrate held at 600 °C. Ferromagnetism is observed below T = (360 +/- 5) K with SQUID magnetometry and magneto-optical Kerr effect. This is the highest Curie temperature T yet observed for a Mn-based alloy. Although the composition determined by Auger depth profiling varies appreciably for different films, their T is the same indicating that ferromagnetism is caused by an alloy of well-defined composition independent of precipitations.

Epitaxial growth of metastable Pd(001) at high deposition temperatures up to a critical thickness of 6 monolayers on bcc-Fe(001) is reported, the critical thickness being depending dramatically on the deposition temperature. For larger thicknesses the Pd film undergoes a roughening transition with strain relaxation by forming a top polycrystalline layer. These results allow to make a correlation between previ-ously reported unusual magnetic properties of Fe/Pd double layers and the crystallographic structure of the Pd overlayer.

The static and spin wave properties of regular square lattices of magnetic dots of 0.5-2 microm dot diameter and 1-4 microm periodicity patterned in permalloy films have been investigated by Brillouin light scattering. The samples have been structured using x-ray lithography and ion beam etching. The Brillouin light scattering spectra reveal both surface and bulk spin wave modes. The spin wave frequencies can be well described taking into account the demagnetization factor of each single dot. For the samples with smallest dot separation of 0.1 microm a fourfold in-plane magnetic anisotropy with the easy axis directed along the pattern diagonal is observed, indicating anisotropic coupling between the dots.

The paper studies quantum states of a Bloch particle in presence of external ac and dc fields. Provided the period of the ac field and the Bloch period are commensurate, an effective scattering matrix is introduced, the complex poles of which are the system quasienergy spectrum. The statistics of the resonance width and the Wigner delay time shows a close relation of the problem to random matrix theory of chaotic scattering.

The paper studies metastable states of a Bloch electron in the presence of external ac and dc fields. Provided resonance condition between period of the driving frequency and the Bloch period, the complex quasienergies are numerically calculated for two qualitatively different regimes (quasiregular and chaotic) of the system dynamics. For the chaotic regime an effect of quantum stabilization, which suppresses the classical decay mechanism, is found. This effect is demonstrated to be a kind of quantum interference phenomenon sensitive to the resonance condition.

An unusual interlayer coupling, recently discovered in layered magnetic systems, is analysed from the experimental and theoretical points of view. This coupling favours the 90° orientation of the magnetization of the adjacent magnetic films. It can be phenomenologically described by a term in the energy expression, which is biquadratic with respect to the magnetizations of the two films. The main experimental findings, as well as the theoretical models, explaining the phenomenon are discussed.

Static and dynamic properties of patterned magnetic permalloy films are investigated. In square lattices of circular shaped permalloy dots an anisotropic coupling mechanism has been found, which is identified as being due to intrinsically unsaturated parts of the dots caused by spatial variations of demagnetizing field. In arrays of magnetic wires a quantization of the surface spin wave mode in several dispersionless modes is observed and quantitatively described. For large wavevectors the frequency separation between the modes becomes smaller and the frequencies converge to the dispersion of the dipole-exchange surface mode of a continuous film.

A novel method is presented which allows a fast computation of complex energy resonance states in Stark systems, i.e. systems in a homogeneous field. The technique is based on the truncation of a shift-operator in momentum space. Numerical results for space periodic and non-periodic systems illustrate the extreme simplicity of the method.

We present an entropy concept measuring quantum localization in dynamical systems based on time averaged probability densities. The suggested entropy concept is a generalization of a recently introduced [PRL 75, 326 (1995)] phase-space entropy to any representation chosen according to the system and the physical question under consideration. In this paper we inspect the main characteristics of the entropy and the relation to other measures of localization. In particular the classical correspondence is discussed and the statistical properties are evaluated within the framework of random vector theory. In this way we show that the suggested entropy is a suitable method to detect quantum localization phenomena in dynamical systems.