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Partitioned chain grammars
(1979)

This paper introduces a new class of grammars, the partitioned chain grammars, for which efficient parsers can be automatically generated. Besides being efficiently parsable these grammars possess a number of other properties, which make them very attractive for the use in parser-generators. They for instance form a large grammarclass and describe all deterministic context-free languages. Main advantage of the partitioned chain grammars however is, that given a language it is usually easier to describe it by a partitioned chain grammar than to construct a grammar of some other type commonly used in parser-generators for it.

Fast reconstruction formulae in x-ray computerized tomography demand the directions, in which the measurements are taken, to be equally distributed over the whole circle. In many applications data can only be provided in a restricted range. Here the intrinsic difficulties are studied by giving a singular value decomposition of the Radon transform in a restricted range. Practical limitations are deduced.

The Trippstadt Problem
(1984)

Close to Kaiserslautern is the town of Trippstadt, which, together with five other small towns forms a local administration unit (Verbandsgemeinde) called Kaiserslautern-Süd. Trippstadt has its own beautiful public swimming pool, which causes problems though; the cost for the upkeep of the pool is higher than the income and thus has to be divided among the towns belonging to the Verbandsgemeinde. Because of this problem the administration wanted to find out which fraction of the total number of pool visitors came from the different towns. They planned to ask each pool guest where he came from. They did this for only three days though because the waiting lines at the cashiers became unbearably long and they could see that because of this the total number of guests would decrease. Then they wondered how to find a better method to get the same data and that was when I was asked to help with the solution of the problem.

In these notes we will discuss some aspects of a problem arising in carindustry. For the sake of clarity we will set the problem into an extremely simplified scheme. Suppose that we have a body which is emitting sound, and that the sound is measured at a finite number of points around the body. We wish to determine the intensity of the sound at an observation point which is moving.

We report on the exchange bias effect as a function of the in-plane direction of the applied field in two-fold symmetric, epitaxial Ni80Fe20/Fe50Mn50 bilayers grown on Cu(110) single crystal substrates. An enhancement of the exchange bias field, Heb, up to a factor of two is observed if the external field is nearly, but not fully aligned perpendicular to the symmetry direction of the exchange bias field. From the measurement of the ex-change bias field as a function of the in-plane angle of the applied field, the unidirectional, uniaxial and four-fold anisotropy contributions are determined with high precision. The symmetry direction of the unidirec-tional anisotropy switches with increasing NiFe thickness from [110] to [001].

We want to study solid objects in real three dimensional space aiming at two issues:; (i1) modelling solids subject to boolean set algebra, including wire models,; (i2) determining the behaviour of moving solids, e.g. when they collide and the resulting points of contact.; ; This research has been initiated by the FORD Motor Company, Cologne. It is motivated by the intention to provide for a model of an automatical car gear, which gives a high precision basis to the optimization of moving tolerances.

Estimation of P(R kl/gleich S) is considered for the simple stress-strength model of failure. Using the Pareto and Power distributions together with their combined form a useful parametric solution is obtained and is illustrated numerically. It is shown that these models are also applicable when only the tails of distributions for R and S are considered. An application to the failure study concerning the fractures is also included.

Stability and Robustness Properties of Universal Adaptive Controllers for First Order Linear Systems
(1987)

The question: What is an adaptive controller? is as old as the word adaptive control itself. In this paper we will adopt a pragmatic viewpoint which identifies adaptive controllers with nonlinear feedback controllers, designed for classes (families) of linear systems. In contrast to classical linear feedback controllers which are designed for individual systems, these non-linear controllers are required to achieve a specific design objective (such as e.g. stability, tracking or decoupling) for a whole prescribed family of linear systems.

Patterns are considered as normalized measures and distances between them are defined as distances of the corresponding measures using metrics in measure spaces. This idea can be applied for pattern recognition if smeared patterns have to be compared with given ideal patterns. Different metrics are sensitive to different characteristics of the patterns - this is demonstrated in discussing examples. Particular attention is paid to a problem of Quality Control for an artificial fabric, where the distance to uniformity is defined and evaluated; the results are now used in industry.

As shown by Krasnosel" skii, the classical Preisach model allows to construct a hysteresis operator Wbetween spaces of real functions of time. This construction, via the definition of a measure mü in the so-called Preisach plane, is recalled. Characterizations in terms of mü are given for several mapping and continuity properties of W in various function spaces, for the invertibility of W and for the corresponding mapping and continuity properties of the inverse.

The performance of a combustion engine is essentially determined by the charge cycle, i.e. by the inflow of fresh air through the inlet pipe into the cylinder after a combustion cycle. The amount of air, exchanged during this process, depends on many factors, e.g. the number of revolutions per minute, the temperature, the engine and valve geometry. In order to have a tool in designing the engine one is interested in calculating this amount. The proper calculation would involve the solution of three-dimensional hydrodynamical equations governing the gas flow including chemical reactions in a complicated geometry, consisting of the cylinder, valves, inlet and outlet pipe. Since this is clearly too ambitious, we consider a simplified model.

As an alternative to the commonly used Monte Carlo Simulation methods for solving the Boltzmann equation we have developed a new code with certain important improvements. We present results of calculations on the reentry phase of a space shuttle. One aim was to test physical models of internal energies and of gas-surface interactions.

We present the concept of a universal adaptive tracking controller for classes of linear systems. For the class of scalar minimum phase systems of relative degree one, adaptive tracking is shown for arbitrary finite dimensional reference signals. The controller requires no identificaiton of the system parameters. Robustness properties are explored.

Industrial mathematics has many faces; but its essential feature is the cooperation of partners - from industry and from universities - with quite different interest (business versus academic carreer), normally working on different time scales. They measure success in a different way (selling rate against citing index), they have different hierarchies of values and are very often distrusting each other. Industry doubts that mathematicians are willing and/or able to produce something real practical and useful (and the mathematicians should not be too much surprised about this attitude, they very often doubt themselves) - mathematicians are afraid to loose their competence (their ideal of scientific truth, to say it more idealistically), to sell their souls.

Special technological applications like the construction of a dental attachment require structural parts which have very small operall dimensions. Very often these parts are subjected to high loadings. The failure of a small spring was the starting point for an investigation with the aim to design a suitable new spring shape.

We consider universal adaptive stabilization and tracking controllers for classes of linear systems. Under the technical assumption of linear scaling invariance necessary and sufficient conditions for adaptive stabilization are derived. For scalar systems sufficient conditions for adaptive tracking of finite dimensional reference signals are explored.

This article describes the basic concepts of an extensible customizable knowledge-basedgraphical editor and its adoption to the DOCASE methodology and tool environment. Oneaspect in this field is the mapping of conceptual models (expressed in a specific language)to their graphical representations. This also has impacts to the semantic of the user actionsin a graphical editor tool. The ability to extend and customize the editor can be used tobuild specific graphical interfaces to various kinds of tools in the software developmentprocess. Major aspects of ODE are semantics-directed editing besides normal syntax-directed editing, support of abstraction mechanisms, multiple modeless views to attack com-plexity, semantic analization and animation. The result is an highly customizable graphicaleditor construction set that matches requirements of applications in many domains of systemdesign.

On the Moving Preisach Model
(1990)

Fleeces made from artificial fabric are the basic material for many products, ranging from carpets to napkins. Itturns out that their quality is determined by the distribution of the fibres, which can be measured eithter by the optical transmission properties or by the thickness of the material. In both cases one obtains a 2-dimensional signal and one would like to have an objective quality criterion, based on a suitable analysis of these data, which, moreover, can be automated.; In this paper we propose a solution to this problem, based on multiresolution techniques, which have been developed in image analysis through the last few years. Moreover, we use these techniques to investigate fractal properties of the textures.

We present a deterministic simulation scheme for the Boltzmann Semiconductor Equation. The convergence of the method is shown for a simplified space homogeneous case. Numerical experiments, which are very promising, are also given in this situation. The extension for the application to the space inhomogeneous equation with a self consistent electric field is quoted. Theoretical considerations in that case are in preparation.

This paper contains the basic ideas and practical aspects for numerical methods for solving the Boltzmann Equation. The main field of application considered is the reentry of a Space Shuttle in the transition from free molecular flow to continuum flow. The method used will be called Finite Pointset Method (FPM) approximating the solution by finite sets of particles in a rigorously defined way. Convergence results are cited while practical aspects of the algorithm are emphasized. Ideas for the transition to the Navier Stokes domain are shortly discussed.

Treating polyatomic gases in kinetic gas theory requires an appropriate molecule model taking into account the additional internal structure of the gas particles. In this paper we describe two such models, each arising from quite different approaches to this problem. A simulation scheme for solving the corresponding kinetic equations is presented and some numerical results to 1D shockwaves are compared.

This report contains the following three papers about computations of rarefied gas flows:; ; a) Rarefied gas flow around a disc with different angles of attack, published in the proceedings of the 17th RGD Symposium, Aachen, 1990.; ; b) Hypersonic flow calculations around a 3D-deltawing at low Knudsen numbers, published in the proceedings of the 17th RGD Symposium,; Aachen, 1990.; ; c) Rarefied gas flow around a 3D-deltawing, published in the proceedings of the Workshop on Hypersonic Flows for Reentry Problems,; Part 1, Antibes, France, January 22-25, 1990.; ; All computations are part of the HERMES Research and Development Program.

Based on the experiences from an autonomous mobile robot project called MOBOT-III, we found hard realtime-constraints for the operating- system-design. ALBATROSS is "A flexible multi-tasking and realtime network-operating-system-kernel". The focusin this article is on a communication-scheme fulfilling the previous demanded assurances. The centralchapters discuss the shared buffer management and the way to design the communication architecture.Some further aspects beside the strict realtime-requirements like the possibilities to control and watch a running system, are mentioned. ALBATROSS is actually implemented on a multi-processor VMEbus-system.

Retrieval of cases is one important step within the case-based reasoning paradigm. We propose an improvement of this stage in the process model for finding most similar cases with an average effort of O[log2n], n number of cases. The basic idea of the algorithm is to use the heterogeneity of the search space for a density-based structuring and to employ this precomputed structure, a k-d tree, for efficient case retrieval according to a given similarity measure sim. In addition to illustrating the basic idea, we present the expe- rimental results of a comparison of four different k-d tree generating strategies as well as introduce the notion of virtual bounds as a new one that significantly reduces the retrieval effort from a more pragmatic perspective. The presented approach is fully implemented within the (Patdex) system, a case-based reasoning system for diagnostic applications in engineering domains.

We have presented here a two-dimensional kinetical scheme for equations governing the motion of a compressible flow of an ideal gas (air) based on the Kaniel method. The basic flux functions are computed analytically and have been used in the organization of the flux computation. The algorithm is implemented and tested for the 1D shock and 2D shock-obstacle interaction problems.

The paper presents a parallelization technique for the finite pointset method, a numerical method for rarefied gas flows.; First we give a short introduction to the Boltzmann equation, which describes the behaviour of rarefied gas flows. The basic ideas of the finite pointset method are presented and a strategy to parallelize the algorithm will be explained. It is shown that a static processor partition leads to an insufficient load-balance of the processors. Therefore an optimized parallelization technique based on an adaptive processor partition will be introduced, which improves the efficiency of the simulation code over the whole region of interesting flow situation. Finally we present a comparison of the CPU-times between a parallel computer and a vector computer.

Using particle methods to solve the Boltzmann equation for rarefied gases numerically, in realistic streaming problems, huge differences in the total number of particles per cell arise. In order to overcome the resulting numerical difficulties the application of a weighted particle concept is well-suited. The underlying idea is to use different particle masses in different cells depending on the macroscopic density of the gas. Discrepance estimates and numerical results are given.

The wave equation with a Preisach hysteresis operator can be considered as a one-dimensional projection of Maxwell" s equations in a ferromagnetic medium. An initial-boundary value problem for this equation is solved here with emphasizing the fact that under a bounded forcing term the solutions remain bounded. This is due to the strong dissipation of hysteresis energies. New proofs of hysteresis energy inequalities are given without referring to the structure of hysteresis memory.

The efficient numerical treatment of the Boltzmann equation is a very important task in many fields of application. Most of the practically relevant numerical schemes are based on the simulation of large particle systems that approximate the evolution of the distribution function described by the Boltzmann equation. In particular, stochastic particle systems play an important role in the construction of various numerical algorithms.