### Refine

#### Year of publication

- 2018 (89) (remove)

#### Document Type

- Doctoral Thesis (51)
- Article (27)
- Conference Proceeding (5)
- Master's Thesis (3)
- Preprint (3)

#### Language

- English (89) (remove)

#### Keywords

- Visualization (3)
- Evaluation (2)
- classification (2)
- iron (2)
- machine learning (2)
- 1D-CFD (1)
- 2D-CFD (1)
- ADAS (1)
- Addukt (1)
- Algorithmic Differentiation (1)
- Amination (1)
- Artificial Intelligence (1)
- Assessment (1)
- Association (1)
- Asymptotic Analysis (1)
- Atom-Photon-Wechselwirkung (1)
- Automatische Differentiation (1)
- Benzol (1)
- Biomarker (1)
- Bluetooth (1)
- Boolean networks, identification, prior knowledge, time series data, network inference (1)
- Bose-Einstein-Kondensation (1)
- Brandenburg-Lubuskie (1)
- Caching (1)
- Collaboration (1)
- Computational Fluid Dynamics (1)
- Computer Supported Cooperative Work (1)
- Concepts & Principles (1)
- Corridors (1)
- Cross-border regions (1)
- Cross-border transport (1)
- Cyanobacteria (1)
- Cyphochilus (1)
- DFT calculation (1)
- DRAM (1)
- Decision Support Systems (1)
- Diskrete Fourier-Transformation (1)
- Elastizität (1)
- Environmental inequality (1)
- European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) (1)
- European Territorial Cooperation (1)
- European Union (1)
- European Union policy-making (1)
- European integration (1)
- Europeanisation (1)
- Europäische Territoriale Zusammenarbeit (1)
- Evolutionary Algorithm (1)
- FFT (1)
- Flüssig-Flüssig-Extraktion (1)
- GAT-1 (1)
- GAT-3 (1)
- Geographic Information System (GIS) (1)
- Geoinformationssystem (1)
- German census (1)
- GlyT1 (1)
- Greater Region Saar-Lor-Lux+ (1)
- Großregion Saar-Lor-Lux+ (1)
- Harmonische Analyse (1)
- Hippocampus (1)
- Homogenisierung <Mathematik> (1)
- Hydrodynamics (1)
- Hydrodynamik (1)
- IRMPD (1)
- Industrial air pollution (1)
- Inferior colliculus (1)
- Interaction (1)
- Klassifikation (1)
- Kognitives Lernen (1)
- Lernen (1)
- Leukämie (1)
- Lineare partielle Differentialgleichung (1)
- Linked Data (1)
- Lippmann-Schwinger equation (1)
- Liquid-Liquid Extraction (1)
- Liquid-liquid extraction (1)
- Machine Learning (1)
- Manufacturing (1)
- Mass transfer (1)
- Measurement (1)
- Menschenmenge (1)
- Metabolismus (1)
- Metal-Free (1)
- Mikrostruktur (1)
- Multi-Variate Data (1)
- Netzwerk (1)
- Node-Link Diagram (1)
- Numerical Analysis (1)
- Numerische Strömungssimulation (1)
- Optimal Control (1)
- Oxidant Evolution (1)
- PSPICE (1)
- Partial Differential Equations (1)
- Performance (1)
- Photon-Photon-Wechselwirkung (1)
- Physics Education Research (1)
- Physikdidaktik (1)
- Planning Support Systems (1)
- Policy implementation (1)
- Population balances (1)
- Populationsbilanzen (1)
- Process Data (1)
- Proteine (1)
- Prozessvisualisierung (1)
- Reactive extraction (1)
- Reaktivextraktion (1)
- Research Methodology (1)
- Reverse Engineering (1)
- SM-SQMOM (1)
- SOEP (1)
- SPARQL (1)
- SPARQL query learning (1)
- SQMOM (1)
- Semantic Web (1)
- Serumalbumine (1)
- Simulation (1)
- Smartphone (1)
- Smartwatch (1)
- Soft Spaces (1)
- Spatial regression models (1)
- Steady state (1)
- Stoffaustausch (1)
- Systemdesign (1)
- Thermoset, nanocomposite (1)
- Toxizität (1)
- Trans-European Transport Networks (1)
- Transeuropäische Verkehrsnetze (1)
- Transient state (1)
- Umweltgerechtigkeit (1)
- Undergraduate Students (1)
- Visualisierung (1)
- WiFi (1)
- Wissensrepräsentation (1)
- ab initio (1)
- acetate (1)
- adolescents (1)
- algebroid curve (1)
- alpha shape method (1)
- anharmonic CH modes (1)
- anharmonic vibrations (1)
- artificial intelligence (1)
- associations (1)
- assymmetric carboxylate stretch vibrations (1)
- basic carboxylates (1)
- benzene (1)
- biomarker (1)
- biomimetics (1)
- biosensors (1)
- canonical ideal (1)
- carboxylate bridge (1)
- carboxylates (1)
- changepoint test (1)
- characterization of Structures (1)
- chromium (1)
- collaborative mobile sensing (1)
- collision induced dissociation (1)
- combination band (1)
- composites (1)
- coordinative flexibility (1)
- crash application (1)
- crowd condition estimation (1)
- crowd density estimation (1)
- crowd scanning (1)
- crowd sensing (1)
- cumulative IRMPD (1)
- curve singularity (1)
- cutting simulation (1)
- data sets (1)
- dataset (1)
- duality (1)
- dynamic fracture mechanics (1)
- embedding (1)
- end-to-end learning (1)
- endomorphism ring (1)
- environment perception (1)
- evolutionary algorithm (1)
- fermi resonance (1)
- finite element method (1)
- formate (1)
- fragmentation channel (1)
- functional data (1)
- functional time series (1)
- good semigroup (1)
- graph embedding (1)
- hexadiendiale (1)
- homogenization (1)
- hybrid structure (1)
- impedance spectroscopy (1)
- infrared spectroscopy (1)
- inhibitory synaptic transmission (1)
- inverse coordination (1)
- ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (1)
- leukemia (1)
- linked data (1)
- metabolism (1)
- metal organic frameworks (1)
- micromechanics (1)
- molecular dynamics simulation (1)
- muconaldehyde (1)
- multi-object tracking (1)
- normalization (1)
- open dissipative quantum systems (1)
- overtone (1)
- oxo centered transition metal complexes (1)
- partial hydrolysis (1)
- participatory sensing (1)
- particle finite element method (1)
- pattern (1)
- phase field model (1)
- photon Bose-Einstein condensate (1)
- photon-photon interaction (1)
- posture (1)
- protein adducts (1)
- protein analysis (1)
- protein conjugate (1)
- pulsed and stirred columns (1)
- pulsierte und gerührte Kolonen (1)
- quasihomogeneity (1)
- readout system (1)
- sampling (1)
- semantic web (1)
- semigroup of values (1)
- serum albumin (1)
- silicon nanowire (1)
- solid-solid phase transition (1)
- spatial planning (1)
- stationary sensing (1)
- stationär (1)
- stimulus response data (1)
- surface (1)
- symmetrc carboxylate stretch vibrations (1)
- tailored disorder (1)
- toxicity (1)
- training (1)
- transient (1)
- transition metal complexes (1)
- translation invariant spaces (1)
- transport (1)
- white beetles (1)
- wireless signal (1)

#### Faculty / Organisational entity

- Fachbereich Informatik (18)
- Fachbereich Mathematik (18)
- Fachbereich Maschinenbau und Verfahrenstechnik (12)
- Fachbereich Biologie (11)
- Fachbereich Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik (7)
- Fachbereich Physik (7)
- Fachbereich Sozialwissenschaften (6)
- Fachbereich Chemie (5)
- Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften (3)
- Fachbereich Raum- und Umweltplanung (2)

III/V semiconductor quantum dots (QD) are in the focus of optoelectronics research for about 25 years now. Most of the work
has been done on InAs QD on GaAs substrate. But, e.g., Ga(As)Sb (antimonide) QD on GaAs substrate/buffer have also gained
attention for the last 12 years.There is a scientific dispute on whether there is a wetting layer before antimonide QD formation, as
commonly expected for Stransky-Krastanov growth, or not. Usually ex situ photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscope
(AFM) measurements are performed to resolve similar issues. In this contribution, we show that reflectance anisotropy/difference
spectroscopy (RAS/RDS) can be used for the same purpose as an in situ, real-time monitoring technique. It can be employed not
only to identify QD growth via a distinct RAS spectrum, but also to get information on the existence of a wetting layer and its
thickness. The data suggest that for antimonide QD growth the wetting layer has a thickness of 1 ML (one monolayer) only.

The growing computational power enables the establishment of the Population Balance Equation (PBE)
to model the steady state and dynamic behavior of multiphase flow unit operations. Accordingly, the twophase
flow
behavior inside liquid-liquid extraction equipment is characterized by different factors. These
factors include: interactions among droplets (breakage and coalescence), different time scales due to the
size distribution of the dispersed phase, and micro time scales of the interphase diffusional mass transfer
process. As a result of this, the general PBE has no well known analytical solution and therefore robust
numerical solution methods with low computational cost are highly admired.
In this work, the Sectional Quadrature Method of Moments (SQMOM) (Attarakih, M. M., Drumm, C.,
Bart, H.-J. (2009). Solution of the population balance equation using the Sectional Quadrature Method of
Moments (SQMOM). Chem. Eng. Sci. 64, 742-752) is extended to take into account the continuous flow
systems in spatial domain. In this regard, the SQMOM is extended to solve the spatially distributed
nonhomogeneous bivariate PBE to model the hydrodynamics and physical/reactive mass transfer
behavior of liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Based on the extended SQMOM, two different steady
state and dynamic simulation algorithms for hydrodynamics and mass transfer behavior of liquid-liquid
extraction equipment are developed and efficiently implemented. At the steady state modeling level, a
Spatially-Mixed SQMOM (SM-SQMOM) algorithm is developed and successfully implemented in a onedimensional
physical spatial domain. The integral spatial numerical flux is closed using the mean mass
droplet diameter based on the One Primary and One Secondary Particle Method (OPOSPM which is the
simplest case of the SQMOM). On the other hand the hydrodynamics integral source terms are closed
using the analytical Two-Equal Weight Quadrature (TEqWQ). To avoid the numerical solution of the
droplet rise velocity, an analytical solution based on the algebraic velocity model is derived for the
particular case of unit velocity exponent appearing in the droplet swarm model. In addition to this, the
source term due to mass transport is closed using OPOSPM. The resulting system of ordinary differential
equations with respect to space is solved using the MATLAB adaptive Runge–Kutta method (ODE45). At
the dynamic modeling level, the SQMOM is extended to a one-dimensional physical spatial domain and
resolved using the finite volume method. To close the mathematical model, the required quadrature nodes
and weights are calculated using the analytical solution based on the Two Unequal Weights Quadrature
(TUEWQ) formula. By applying the finite volume method to the spatial domain, a semi-discreet ordinary
differential equation system is obtained and solved. Both steady state and dynamic algorithms are
extensively validated at analytical, numerical, and experimental levels. At the numerical level, the
predictions of both algorithms are validated using the extended fixed pivot technique as implemented in
PPBLab software (Attarakih, M., Alzyod, S., Abu-Khader, M., Bart, H.-J. (2012). PPBLAB: A new
multivariate population balance environment for particulate system modeling and simulation. Procedia
Eng. 42, pp. 144-562). At the experimental validation level, the extended SQMOM is successfully used
to model the steady state hydrodynamics and physical and reactive mass transfer behavior of agitated
liquid-liquid extraction columns under different operating conditions. In this regard, both models are
found efficient and able to follow liquid extraction column behavior during column scale-up, where three
column diameters were investigated (DN32, DN80, and DN150). To shed more light on the local
interactions among the contacted phases, a reduced coupled PBE and CFD framework is used to model
the hydrodynamic behavior of pulsed sieve plate columns. In this regard, OPOSPM is utilized and
implemented in FLUENT 18.2 commercial software as a special case of the SQMOM. The dropletdroplet
interactions
(breakage
and
coalescence)
are
taken
into
account
using
OPOSPM,
while
the
required
information
about
the
velocity
field
and
energy
dissipation
is
calculated
by
the
CFD
model.
In
addition
to
this,
the proposed coupled OPOSPM-CFD framework is extended to include the mass transfer. The
proposed framework is numerically tested and the results are compared with the published experimental
data. The required breakage and coalescence parameters to perform the 2D-CFD simulation are estimated
using PPBLab software, where a 1D-CFD simulation using a multi-sectional gird is performed. A very
good agreement is obtained at the experimental and the numerical validation levels.

Numerical Godeaux surfaces are minimal surfaces of general type with the smallest possible numerical invariants. It is known that the torsion group of a numerical Godeaux surface is cyclic of order \(m\leq 5\). A full classification has been given for the cases \(m=3,4,5\) by the work of Reid and Miyaoka. In each case, the corresponding moduli space is 8-dimensional and irreducible.
There exist explicit examples of numerical Godeaux surfaces for the orders \(m=1,2\), but a complete classification for these surfaces is still missing.
In this thesis we present a construction method for numerical Godeaux surfaces which is based on homological algebra and computer algebra and which arises from an experimental approach by Schreyer. The main idea is to consider the canonical ring \(R(X)\) of a numerical Godeaux surface \(X\) as a module over some graded polynomial ring \(S\). The ring \(S\) is chosen so that \(R(X)\) is finitely generated as an \(S\)-module and a Gorenstein \(S\)-algebra of codimension 3. We prove that the canonical ring of any numerical Godeaux surface, considered as an \(S\)-module, admits a minimal free resolution whose middle map is alternating. Moreover, we show that a partial converse of this statement is true under some additional conditions.
Afterwards we use these results to construct (canonical rings of) numerical Godeaux surfaces. Hereby, we restrict our study to surfaces whose bicanonical system has no fixed component but 4 distinct base points, in the following referred to as marked numerical Godeaux surfaces.
The particular interest of this thesis lies on marked numerical Godeaux surfaces whose torsion group is trivial. For these surfaces we study the fibration of genus 4 over \(\mathbb{P}^1\) induced by the bicanonical system. Catanese and Pignatelli showed that the general fibre is non-hyperelliptic and that the number \(\tilde{h}\) of hyperelliptic fibres is bounded by 3. The two explicit constructions of numerical Godeaux surfaces with a trivial torsion group due to Barlow and Craighero-Gattazzo, respectively, satisfy \(\tilde{h} = 2\).
With the method from this thesis, we construct an 8-dimensional family of numerical Godeaux surfaces with a trivial torsion group and whose general element satisfy \(\tilde{h}=0\).
Furthermore, we establish a criterion for the existence of hyperelliptic fibres in terms of a minimal free resolution of \(R(X)\). Using this criterion, we verify experimentally the
existence of a numerical Godeaux surface with \(\tilde{h}=1\).

In this article a new numerical solver for simulations of district heating networks is presented. The numerical method applies the local time stepping introduced in [11] to networks of linear advection equations. In combination with the high order approach of [4] an accurate and very efficient scheme is developed. In several numerical test cases the advantages for simulations of district heating networks are shown.

1,3-Diynes are frequently found as an important structural motif in natural products, pharmaceuticals and bioactive compounds, electronic and optical materials and supramolecular molecules. Copper and palladium complexes are widely used to prepare 1,3-diynes by homocoupling of terminal alkynes; albeit the potential of nickel complexes towards the same is essentially unexplored. Although a detailed study on the reported nickel-acetylene chemistry has not been carried out, a generalized mechanism featuring a nickel(II)/nickel(0) catalytic cycle has been proposed. In the present work, a detailed mechanistic aspect of the nickel-mediated homocoupling reaction of terminal alkynes is investigated through the isolation and/or characterization of key intermediates from both the stoichiometric and the catalytic reactions. A nickel(II) complex [Ni(L-N4Me2)(MeCN)2](ClO4)2 (1) containing a tetradentate N,N′-dimethyl-2,11-diaza[3.3](2,6)pyridinophane (L-N4Me2) as ligand was used as catalyst for homocoupling of terminal alkynes by employing oxygen as oxidant at room temperature. A series of dinuclear nickel(I) complexes bridged by a 1,3-diyne ligand have been isolated from stoichiometric reaction between [Ni(L-N4Me2)(MeCN)2](ClO4)2 (1) and lithium acetylides. The dinuclear nickel(I)-diyne complexes [{Ni(L-N4Me2)}2(RC4R)](ClO4)2 (2) were well characterized by X-ray crystal structures, various spectroscopic methods, SQUID and DFT calculation. The complexes not only represent as a key intermediate in aforesaid catalytic reaction, but also describe the first structurally characterized dinuclear nickel(I)-diyne complexes. In addition, radical trapping and low temperature UV-Vis-NIR experiments in the formation of the dinuclear nickel(I)-diyne confirm that the reactions occurring during the reduction of nickel(II) to nickel(I) and C-C bond formation of 1,3-diyne follow non-radical concerted mechanism. Furthermore, spectroscopic investigation on the reactivity of the dinuclear nickel(I)-diyne complex towards molecular oxygen confirmed the formation of a mononuclear nickel(I)-diyne species [Ni(L-N4Me2)(RC4R)]+ (4) and a mononuclear nickel(III)-peroxo species [Ni(L-N4Me2)(O2)]+ (5) which were converted to free 1,3-diyne and an unstable dinuclear nickel(II) species [{Ni(L-N4Me2)}2(O2)]2+ (6). A mononuclear nickel(I)-alkyne complex [Ni(L-N4Me2)(PhC2Ph)](ClO4).MeOH (3) and the mononuclear nickel(III)-peroxo species [Ni(L-N4Me2)(O2)]+ (5) were isolated/generated and characterized to confirm the formulation of aforementioned mononuclear nickel(I)-diyne and mononuclear nickel(III)-peroxo species. Spectroscopic experiments on the catalytic reaction mixture also confirm the presence of aforesaid intermediates. Results of both stoichiometric and catalytic reactions suggested an intriguing mechanism involving nickel(II)/nickel(I)/nickel(III) oxidation states in contrast to the reported nickel(II)/nickel(0) catalytic cycle. These findings are expected to open a new paradigm towards nickel-catalyzed organic transformations.

The simulation of cutting process challenges established methods due to large deformations and topological changes. In this work a particle finite element method (PFEM) is presented, which combines the benefits of discrete modeling techniques and methods based on continuum mechanics. A crucial part of the PFEM is the detection of the boundary of a set of particles. The impact of this boundary detection method on the structural integrity is examined and a relation of the key parameter of the method to the eigenvalues of strain tensors is elaborated. The influence of important process parameters on the cutting force is studied and a comparison to an empirical relation is presented.

The authors explore the intrinsic trade-off in a DRAM between the power consumption (due to refresh) and the reliability. Their unique measurement platform allows tailoring to the design constraints depending on whether power consumption, performance or reliability has the highest design priority. Furthermore, the authors show how this measurement platform can be used for reverse engineering the internal structure of DRAMs and how this knowledge can be used to improve DRAM’s reliability.

For modeling approaches in systems biology, knowledge of the absolute abundances of cellular proteins is essential. One way to gain this knowledge is the use of quantification concatamers (QconCATs), which are synthetic proteins consisting of proteotypic peptides derived from the target proteins to be quantified. The QconCAT protein is labeled with a heavy isotope upon expression in E. coli and known amounts of the purified protein are spiked into a whole cell protein extract. Upon tryptic digestion, labeled and unlabeled peptides are released from the QconCAT and the native proteins, respectively, and both are quantified by LC-MS/MS. The labeled Q-peptides then serve as standards for determining the absolute quantity of the native peptides/proteins. Here we have applied the QconCAT approach to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for the absolute quantification of the major proteins and protein complexes driving photosynthetic light reactions in the thylakoid membranes and carbon fixation in the pyrenoid. We found that with 25.2 attomol/cell the Rubisco large subunit makes up 6.6% of all proteins in a Chlamydomonas cell and with this exceeds the amount of the small subunit by a factor of 1.56. EPYC1, which links Rubisco to form the pyrenoid, is eight times less abundant than RBCS, and Rubisco activase is 32-times less abundant than RBCS. With 5.2 attomol/cell, photosystem II is the most abundant complex involved in the photosynthetic light reactions, followed by plastocyanin, photosystem I and the cytochrome b6/f complex, which range between 2.9 and 3.5 attomol/cell. The least abundant complex is the ATP synthase with 2 attomol/cell. While applying the QconCAT approach, we have been able to identify many potential pitfalls associated with this technique. We analyze and discuss these pitfalls in detail and provide an optimized workflow for future applications of this technique.

If gradient based derivative algorithms are used to improve industrial products by reducing their target functions, the derivatives need to be exact.
The last percent of possible improvement, like the efficiency of a turbine, can only be gained if the derivatives are consistent with the solution process that is used in the simulation software.
It is problematic that the development of the simulation software is an ongoing process which leads to the use of approximated derivatives.
If a derivative computation is implemented manually, it will be inconsistent after some time if it is not updated.
This thesis presents a generalized approach which differentiates the whole simulation software with Algorithmic Differentiation (AD), and guarantees a correct and consistent derivative computation after each change to the software.
For this purpose, the variable tagging technique is developed.
The technique checks at run-time if all dependencies, which are used by the derivative algorithms, are correct.
Since it is also necessary to check the correctness of the implementation, a theorem is developed which describes how AD derivatives can be compared.
This theorem is used to develop further methods that can detect and correct errors.
All methods are designed such that they can be applied in real world applications and are used within industrial configurations.
The process described above yields consistent and correct derivatives but the efficiency can still be improved.
This is done by deriving new derivative algorithms.
A fixed-point iterator approach, with a consistent derivation, yields all state of the art algorithms and produces two new algorithms.
These two new algorithms include all implementation details and therefore they produce consistent derivative results.
For detecting hot spots in the application, the state of the art techniques are presented and extended.
The data management is changed such that the performance of the software is affected only marginally when quantities, like the number of input and output variables or the memory consumption, are computed for the detection.
The hot spots can be treated with techniques like checkpointing or preaccumulation.
How these techniques change the time and memory consumption is analyzed and it is shown how they need to be used in selected AD tools.
As a last step, the used AD tools are analyzed in more detail.
The major implementation strategies for operator overloading AD tools are presented and implementation improvements for existing AD tools are discussed.\
The discussion focuses on a minimal memory consumption and makes it possible to compare AD tools on a theoretical level.
The new AD tool CoDiPack is based on these findings and its design and concepts are presented.
The improvements and findings in this thesis make it possible, that an automatic, consistent and correct derivative is generated in an efficient way for industrial applications.

In modern algebraic geometry solutions of polynomial equations are studied from a qualitative point of view using highly sophisticated tools such as cohomology, \(D\)-modules and Hodge structures. The latter have been unified in Saito’s far-reaching theory of mixed Hodge modules, that has shown striking applications including vanishing theorems for cohomology. A mixed Hodge module can be seen as a special type of filtered \(D\)-module, which is an algebraic counterpart of a system of linear differential equations. We present the first algorithmic approach to Saito’s theory. To this end, we develop a Gröbner basis theory for a new class of algebras generalizing PBW-algebras.
The category of mixed Hodge modules satisfies Grothendieck’s six-functor formalism. In part these functors rely on an additional natural filtration, the so-called \(V\)-filtration. A key result of this thesis is an algorithm to compute the \(V\)-filtration in the filtered setting. We derive from this algorithm methods for the computation of (extraordinary) direct image functors under open embeddings of complements of pure codimension one subvarieties. As side results we show
how to compute vanishing and nearby cycle functors and a quasi-inverse of Kashiwara’s equivalence for mixed Hodge modules.
Describing these functors in terms of local coordinates and taking local sections, we reduce the corresponding computations to algorithms over certain bifiltered algebras. It leads us to introduce the class of so-called PBW-reduction-algebras, a generalization of the class of PBW-algebras. We establish a comprehensive Gröbner basis framework for this generalization representing the involved filtrations by weight vectors.

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system plays an important role in digitization of data acquired as images from a variety of sources. Although the area is very well explored for Latin languages, some of the languages based on Arabic cursive script are not yet explored. It is due to many factors: Most importantly are the unavailability of proper data sets and complexities posed by cursive scripts. The Pashto language is one of such languages which needs considerable exploration towards OCR. In order to develop such an OCR system, this thesis provides a pioneering study that explores deep learning for the Pashto language in the field of OCR.
The Pashto language is spoken by more than $50$ million people across the world, and it is an active medium both for oral as well as written communication. It is associated with rich literary heritage and contains huge written collection. These written materials present contents of simple to complex nature, and layouts from hand-scribed to printed text. The Pashto language presents mainly two types of complexities (i) generic w.r.t. cursive script, (ii) specific w.r.t. Pashto language. Generic complexities are cursiveness, context dependency, and breaker character anomalies, as well as space anomalies. Pashto specific complexities are variations in shape for a single character and shape similarity for some of the additional Pashto characters. Existing research in the area of Arabic OCR did not lead to an end-to-end solution for the mentioned complexities and therefore could not be generalized to build a sophisticated OCR system for Pashto.
The contribution of this thesis spans in three levels, conceptual level, data level, and practical level. In the conceptual level, we have deeply explored the Pashto language and identified those characters, which are responsible for the challenges mentioned above. In the data level, a comprehensive dataset is introduced containing real images of hand-scribed contents. The dataset is manually transcribed and has the most frequent layout patterns associated with the Pashto language. The practical level contribution provides a bridge, in the form of a complete Pashto OCR system, and connects the outcomes of the conceptual and data levels contributions. The practical contribution comprises of skew detection, text-line segmentation, feature extraction, classification, and post-processing. The OCR module is more strengthened by using deep learning paradigm to recognize Pashto cursive script by the framework of Recursive Neural Networks (RNN). Proposed Pashto text recognition is based on Long Short-Term Memory Network (LSTM) and realizes a character recognition rate of $90.78\%$ on Pashto real hand-scribed images. All these contributions are integrated into an application to provide a flexible and generic End-to-End Pashto OCR system.
The impact of this thesis is not only specific to the Pashto language, but it is also beneficial to other cursive languages like Arabic, Urdu, and Persian e.t.c. The main reason is the Pashto character set, which is a superset of Arabic, Persian, and Urdu languages. Therefore, the conceptual contribution of this thesis provides insight and proposes solutions to almost all generic complexities associated with Arabic, Persian, and Urdu languages. For example, an anomaly caused by breaker characters is deeply analyzed, which is shared among 70 languages, mainly use Arabic script. This thesis presents a solution to this issue and is equally beneficial to almost all Arabic like languages.
The scope of this thesis has two important aspects. First, a social impact, i.e., how a society may benefit from it. The main advantages are to bring the historical and almost vanished document to life and to ensure the opportunities to explore, analyze, translate, share, and understand the contents of Pashto language globally. Second, the advancement and exploration of the technical aspects. Because, this thesis empirically explores the recognition and challenges which are solely related to the Pashto language, both regarding character-set and the materials which present such complexities. Furthermore, the conceptual and practical background of this thesis regarding complexities of Pashto language is very beneficial regarding OCR for other cursive languages.

A popular model for the locations of fibres or grains in composite materials
is the inhomogeneous Poisson process in dimension 3. Its local intensity function
may be estimated non-parametrically by local smoothing, e.g. by kernel
estimates. They crucially depend on the choice of bandwidths as tuning parameters
controlling the smoothness of the resulting function estimate. In this
thesis, we propose a fast algorithm for learning suitable global and local bandwidths
from the data. It is well-known, that intensity estimation is closely
related to probability density estimation. As a by-product of our study, we
show that the difference is asymptotically negligible regarding the choice of
good bandwidths, and, hence, we focus on density estimation.
There are quite a number of data-driven bandwidth selection methods for
kernel density estimates. cross-validation is a popular one and frequently proposed
to estimate the optimal bandwidth. However, if the sample size is very
large, it becomes computational expensive. In material science, in particular,
it is very common to have several thousand up to several million points.
Another type of bandwidth selection is a solve-the-equation plug-in approach
which involves replacing the unknown quantities in the asymptotically optimal
bandwidth formula by their estimates.
In this thesis, we develop such an iterative fast plug-in algorithm for estimating
the optimal global and local bandwidth for density and intensity estimation with a focus on 2- and 3-dimensional data. It is based on a detailed
asymptotics of the estimators of the intensity function and of its second
derivatives and integrals of second derivatives which appear in the formulae
for asymptotically optimal bandwidths. These asymptotics are utilised to determine
the exact number of iteration steps and some tuning parameters. For
both global and local case, fewer than 10 iterations suffice. Simulation studies
show that the estimated intensity by local bandwidth can better indicate
the variation of local intensity than that by global bandwidth. Finally, the
algorithm is applied to two real data sets from test bodies of fibre-reinforced
high-performance concrete, clearly showing some inhomogeneity of the fibre
intensity.

Analyzing Centrality Indices in Complex Networks: an Approach Using Fuzzy Aggregation Operators
(2018)

The identification of entities that play an important role in a system is one of the fundamental analyses being performed in network studies. This topic is mainly related to centrality indices, which quantify node centrality with respect to several properties in the represented network. The nodes identified in such an analysis are called central nodes. Although centrality indices are very useful for these analyses, there exist several challenges regarding which one fits best
for a network. In addition, if the usage of only one index for determining central
nodes leads to under- or overestimation of the importance of nodes and is
insufficient for finding important nodes, then the question is how multiple indices
can be used in conjunction in such an evaluation. Thus, in this thesis an approach is proposed that includes multiple indices of nodes, each indicating
an aspect of importance, in the respective evaluation and where all the aspects of a node’s centrality are analyzed in an explorative manner. To achieve this
aim, the proposed idea uses fuzzy operators, including a parameter for generating different types of aggregations over multiple indices. In addition, several preprocessing methods for normalization of those values are proposed and discussed. We investigate whether the choice of different decisions regarding the
aggregation of the values changes the ranking of the nodes or not. It is revealed that (1) there are nodes that remain stable among the top-ranking nodes, which
makes them the most central nodes, and there are nodes that remain stable
among the bottom-ranking nodes, which makes them the least central nodes; and (2) there are nodes that show high sensitivity to the choice of normalization
methods and/or aggregations. We explain both cases and the reasons why the nodes’ rankings are stable or sensitive to the corresponding choices in various networks, such as social networks, communication networks, and air transportation networks.

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are a common element of the Queensland (Australia) dry savannah ecosystem and are composed of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria. Here we report how the CO2 gas exchange of the cyanobacteria-dominated biocrust type from Boodjamulla National Park in the north Queensland Gulf Savannah responds to the pronounced climatic seasonality and on their quality as a carbon sink using a semi-automatic cuvette system. The dominant cyanobacteria are the filamentous species Symplocastrum purpurascens together with Scytonema sp. Metabolic activity was recorded between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011, during which CO2 exchange was only evident from November 2010 until mid-April 2011, representative of 23.6 % of the 1-year recording period. In November at the onset of the wet season, the first month (November) and the last month (April) of activity had pronounced respiratory loss of CO2. The metabolic active period accounted for 25 % of the wet season and of that period 48.6 % was net photosynthesis (NP) and 51.4 % dark respiration (DR). During the time of NP, net photosynthetic uptake of CO2 during daylight hours was reduced by 32.6 % due to water supersaturation. In total, the biocrust fixed 229.09 mmol CO2 m−2 yr−1, corresponding to an annual carbon gain of 2.75 g m−2 yr−1. Due to malfunction of the automatic cuvette system, data from September and October 2010 together with some days in November and December 2010 could not be analysed for NP and DR. Based on climatic and gas exchange data from November 2010, an estimated loss of 88 mmol CO2 m−2 was found for the 2 months, resulting in corrected annual rates of 143.1 mmol CO2 m−2 yr−1, equivalent to a carbon gain of 1.7 g m−2 yr−1. The bulk of the net photosynthetic activity occurred above a relative humidity of 42 %, indicating a suitable climatic combination of temperature, water availability and light intensity well above 200 µmol photons m−2 s−1 photosynthetic active radiation. The Boodjamulla biocrust exhibited high seasonal variability in CO2 gas exchange pattern, clearly divided into metabolically inactive winter months and active summer months. The metabolic active period commences with a period (of up to 3 months) of carbon loss, likely due to reestablishment of the crust structure and restoration of NP prior to about a 4-month period of net carbon gain. In the Gulf Savannah biocrust system, seasonality over the year investigated showed that only a minority of the year is actually suitable for biocrust growth and thus has a small window for potential contribution to soil organic matter.

In this thesis, we focus on the application of the Heath-Platen (HP) estimator in option
pricing. In particular, we extend the approach of the HP estimator for pricing path dependent
options under the Heston model. The theoretical background of the estimator
was first introduced by Heath and Platen [32]. The HP estimator was originally interpreted
as a control variate technique and an application for European vanilla options was
presented in [32]. For European vanilla options, the HP estimator provided a considerable
amount of variance reduction. Thus, applying the technique for path dependent options
under the Heston model is the main contribution of this thesis.
The first part of the thesis deals with the implementation of the HP estimator for pricing
one-sided knockout barrier options. The main difficulty for the implementation of the HP
estimator is located in the determination of the first hitting time of the barrier. To test the
efficiency of the HP estimator we conduct numerical tests with regard to various aspects.
We provide a comparison among the crude Monte Carlo estimation, the crude control
variate technique and the HP estimator for all types of barrier options. Furthermore, we
present the numerical results for at the money, in the money and out of the money barrier
options. As numerical results imply, the HP estimator performs superior among others
for pricing one-sided knockout barrier options under the Heston model.
Another contribution of this thesis is the application of the HP estimator in pricing bond
options under the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross (CIR) model and the Fong-Vasicek (FV) model. As
suggested in the original paper of Heath and Platen [32], the HP estimator has a wide
range of applicability for derivative pricing. Therefore, transferring the structure of the
HP estimator for pricing bond options is a promising contribution. As the approximating
Vasicek process does not seem to be as good as the deterministic volatility process in the
Heston setting, the performance of the HP estimator in the CIR model is only relatively
good. However, for the FV model the variance reduction provided by the HP estimator is
again considerable.
Finally, the numerical result concerning the weak convergence rate of the HP estimator
for pricing European vanilla options in the Heston model is presented. As supported by
numerical analysis, the HP estimator has weak convergence of order almost 1.

The design of the fifth generation (5G) cellular network should take account of the emerging services with divergent quality of service requirements. For instance, a vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication is required to facilitate the local data exchange and therefore improve the automation level in automated driving applications. In this work, we inspect the performance of two different air interfaces (i.e., LTE-Uu and PC5) which are proposed by the third generation partnership project (3GPP) to enable the V2X communication. With these two air interfaces, the V2X communication can be realized by transmitting data packets either over the network infrastructure or directly among traffic participants. In addition, the ultra-high reliability requirement in some V2X communication scenarios can not be fulfilled with any single transmission technology (i.e., either LTE-Uu or PC5). Therefore, we discuss how to efficiently apply multi-radio access technologies (multi-RAT) to improve the communication reliability. In order to exploit the multi-RAT in an efficient manner, both the independent and the coordinated transmission schemes are designed and inspected. Subsequently, the conventional uplink is also extended to the case where a base station can receive data packets through both the LTE-Uu and PC5 interfaces. Moreover, different multicast-broadcast single-frequency network (MBSFN) area mapping approaches are also proposed to improve the communication reliability in the LTE downlink. Last but not least, a system level simulator is implemented in this work. The simulation results do not only provide us insights on the performances of different technologies but also validate the effectiveness of the proposed multi-RAT scheme.

The Symbol Grounding Problem (SGP) is one of the first attempts to proposed a hypothesis about mapping abstract concepts and the real world. For example, the concept "ball" can be represented by an object with a round shape (visual modality) and phonemes /b/ /a/ /l/ (audio modality).
This thesis is inspired by the association learning presented in infant development.
Newborns can associate visual and audio modalities of the same concept that are presented at the same time for vocabulary acquisition task.
The goal of this thesis is to develop a novel framework that combines the constraints of the Symbol Grounding Problem and Neural Networks in a simplified scenario of association learning in infants. The first motivation is that the network output can be considered as numerical symbolic features because the attributes of input samples are already embedded. The second motivation is the association between two samples is predefined before training via the same vectorial representation. This thesis proposes to associate two samples and the vectorial representation during training. Two scenarios are considered: sample pair association and sequence pair association.
Three main contributions are presented in this work.
The first contribution is a novel Symbolic Association Model based on two parallel MLPs.
The association task is defined by learning that two instances that represent one concept.
Moreover, a novel training algorithm is defined by matching the output vectors of the MLPs with a statistical distribution for obtaining the relationship between concepts and vectorial representations.
The second contribution is a novel Symbolic Association Model based on two parallel LSTM networks that are trained on weakly labeled sequences.
The definition of association task is extended to learn that two sequences represent the same series of concepts.
This model uses a training algorithm that is similar to MLP-based approach.
The last contribution is a Classless Association.
The association task is defined by learning based on the relationship of two samples that represents the same unknown concept.
In summary, the contributions of this thesis are to extend Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Computation research with a new constraint that is cognitive motivated. Moreover, two training algorithms with a new constraint are proposed for two cases: single and sequence associations. Besides, a new training rule with no-labels with promising results is proposed.

To investigate whether participants can activate only one spatially oriented number line at a time or
multiple number lines simultaneously, they were asked to solve a unit magnitude comparison task
(unit smaller/larger than 5) and a parity judgment task (even/odd) on two-digit numbers. In both these
primary tasks, decades were irrelevant. After some of the primary task trials (randomly), participants
were asked to additionally solve a secondary task based on the previously presented number. In
Experiment 1, they had to decide whether the two-digit number presented for the primary task was
larger or smaller than 50. Thus, for the secondary task decades were relevant. In contrast, in Experiment
2, the secondary task was a color judgment task, which means decades were irrelevant. In Experiment
1, decades’ and units’ magnitudes influenced the spatial association of numbers separately. In contrast,
in Experiment 2, only the units were spatially associated with magnitude. It was concluded that
multiple number lines (one for units and one for decades) can be activated if attention is focused on
multiple, separate magnitude attributes.

Fucoidan is a class of biopolymers mainly found in brown seaweeds. Due to its diverse medical importance, homogenous supply as well as a GMP-compliant product is of a special interest. Therefore, in addition to optimization of its extraction and purification from classical resources, other techniques were tried (e.g., marine tissue culture and heterologous expression of enzymes involved in its biosynthesis). Results showed that 17.5% (w/w) crude fucoidan after pre-treatment and extraction was obtained from the brown macroalgae F. vesiculosus. Purification by affinity chromatography improved purity relative to the commercial purified product. Furthermore, biological investigations revealed improved anti-coagulant and anti-viral activities compared with crude fucoidan. Furthermore, callus-like and protoplast cultures as well as bioreactor cultivation were developed from F. vesiculosus representing a new horizon to produce fucoidan biotechnologically. Moreover, heterologous expression of several enzymes involved in its biosynthesis by E. coli (e.g., FucTs and STs) demonstrated the possibility to obtain active enzymes that could be utilized in enzymatic in vitro synthesis of fucoidan. All these competitive techniques could provide the global demands from fucoidan.

Areal optical surface topography measurement is an emerging technology for industrial quality control. However, neither calibration procedures nor the utilization of material measures are standardized. State of the art is the calibration of a set of metrological characteristics with multiple calibration samples (material measures). Here, we propose a new calibration sample (artefact) capable of providing the entire set of relevant metrological characteristics within only one single sample. Our calibration artefact features multiple material measures and is manufactured with two-photon laser lithography (direct laser writing, DLW). This enables a holistic calibration of areal topography measuring instruments with only one series of measurements and without changing the sample.

Grape powdery mildew, Erysiphe necator, is one of the most significant plant pathogens, which affects grape growing regions world-wide. Because of its short generation time and the production of large amounts of conidia throughout the season, E. necator is classified as a moderate to high risk pathogen with respect to the development of fungicide resistance. The number of fungicidal mode of actions available to control powdery mildew is limited and for some of them resistances are already known. Aryl-phenyl-ketones (APKs), represented by metrafenone and pyriofenone, and succinate-dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs), composed of numerous active ingredients, are two important fungicide classes used for the control of E. necator. Over the period 2014 to 2016, the emergence and development of metrafenone and SDHI resistant E. necator isolates in Europe was followed and evaluated. The distribution of resistant isolates was thereby strongly dependent on the European region. Whereas the north-western part is still predominantly sensitive, samples from east European countries showed higher resistance frequencies.
Classical sensitivity tests with obligate biotrophs can be challenging regarding sampling, transport and especially the maintenance of the living strains. Whenever possible, molecular genetic methods are preferred for a more efficient monitoring. Such methods require the knowledge of the resistance mechanisms. The exact molecular target and the resistance mechanism of metrafenone is still unknown. Whole genome sequencing of metrafenone sensitive and resistant wheat powdery mildew isolates, as well as adapted laboratory mutants of Aspergillus nidulans, where performed with the aim to identify proteins potentially linked to the mode of action or which contribute to metrafenone resistance. Based on comparative SNP analysis, four proteins potentially associated with metrafenone resistance were identified, but validation studies could not confirm their role in metrafenone resistance. In contrast to APKs, the mode of action of SDHIs is well understood. Sequencing of the sdh-genes of less sensitive E. necator isolates identified four different target-site mutations, the B-H242R, B-I244V, C-G169D and C-G169S, in sdhB and sdhC, respectively. Based on this information it was possible to develop molecular genetic monitoring methods for the mutations B-H242R and C-G169D. In 2016, the B-H242R was thereby identified as by far the most frequent mutation. Depending on the analysed SDH compound and the sdh-genotype, different sensitivities were observed and revealed a complex cross-resistance pattern.
Growth competition assays without selection pressure, with mixtures of sensitive and resistant E. necator isolates, were performed to determine potential fitness costs associated with fungicide resistance. With the experimental setups used, a clear fitness disadvantage associated with metrafenone resistance was not identified, although a strong variability of fitness was observed among the tested resistant E. necator isolates. For isolates with a reduced sensitivity towards SDHIs, associated fitness costs were dependent on the sdh-genotype analysed. Competition tests with the B-H242R genotypes gave evidence that there are no fitness costs associated with this mutation. In contrast, the C-G169D genotypes were less competitive, indicating a restricted fitness compared to the tested sensitive partners. Competition assays of field isolates, which exhibited several resistances towards different fungicide classes, indicated that there are no fitness costs associated with a multiple resistant phenotype in E. necator. Overall, these results clearly indicate the importance to analyse a representative number of isolates with sensitive and resistant phenotypes.

Using valuation theory we associate to a one-dimensional equidimensional semilocal Cohen-Macaulay ring \(R\) its semigroup of values, and to a fractional ideal of \(R\) we associate its value semigroup ideal. For a class of curve singularities (here called admissible rings) including algebroid curves the semigroups of values, respectively the value semigroup ideals, satisfy combinatorial properties defining good semigroups, respectively good semigroup ideals. Notably, the class of good semigroups strictly contains the class of value semigroups of admissible rings. On good semigroups we establish combinatorial versions of algebraic concepts on admissible rings which are compatible with their prototypes under taking values. Primarily we examine duality and quasihomogeneity.
We give a definition for canonical semigroup ideals of good semigroups which characterizes canonical fractional ideals of an admissible ring in terms of their value semigroup ideals. Moreover, a canonical semigroup ideal induces a duality on the set of good semigroup ideals of a good semigroup. This duality is compatible with the Cohen-Macaulay duality on fractional ideals under taking values.
The properties of the semigroup of values of a quasihomogeneous curve singularity lead to a notion of quasihomogeneity on good semigroups which is compatible with its algebraic prototype. We give a combinatorial criterion which allows to construct from a quasihomogeneous semigroup \(S\) a quasihomogeneous curve singularity having \(S\) as semigroup of values.
As an application we use the semigroup of values to compute endomorphism rings of maximal ideals of algebroid curves. This yields an explicit description of the intermediate rings in an algorithmic normalization of plane central arrangements of smooth curves based on a criterion by Grauert and Remmert. Applying this result to hyperplane arrangements we determine the number of steps needed to compute the normalization of a the arrangement in terms of its Möbius function.

This thesis consists of five chapters. Chapter one elaborates on the principle of cognitive consistency and provides an overview of what extant research refers to as cognitive consistency theories (e.g., Abelson et al., 1968; Harmon-Jones & Harmon-Jones, 2007; Simon, Stenstrom, & Read, 2015). Moreover, it describes the most prominent theoretical representatives in this context, namely balance theory (Heider, 1946, 1958), congruity theory (Osgood & Tannenbaum, 1955), and cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957). Chapter one further outlines the role of individuals’ preference for cognitive consistency in the context of financial resource acquisition, the recruitment of employees and the acquisition of customers in the entrepreneurial context.
Chapter two is co-authored by Prof. Dr. Matthias Baum and presents two separate studies in which we empirically investigate the hypothesis that social entrepreneurs face a systematic disadvantage, compared to for-profit entrepreneurs, when seeking to acquire financial resources. Further, our work goes beyond existing research by introducing biased perceptions as a factor that may constrain social enterprise resource acquisition and therefore possibly stall the process of social value creation. On the foundation of role congruity theory (Eagly & Karau, 2002), we emphasize on the question whether social entrepreneurs provide signals which are less congruent with the stereotype of successful entrepreneurs and, in such, are perceived as less competent. We further test whether such biased competency perceptions feed forward into a lower probability to receive funding.
Chapter three is also co-authored by Prof. Dr. Matthias Baum as well as by Eva Henrich. The aim of this chapter is to further our understanding of the early recruitment phase and to contribute to the current debate about how firms should orchestrate their recruitment channels in order to enhance the creation of employer knowledge. We introduce the concept of integrated marketing communication into the recruitment field and examine how the level of consistency regarding job or organization information affects the recall and the recognition of that information. We additionally test whether information consistency among multiple recruitment channels influences information recognition failure quota. Answering this question is important as by failing to remember the source of recruitment information, job seekers may attribute job information to the wrong firm and thus create an incorrect employer knowledge.
Chapter four, which is co-authored by Prof. Dr. Matthias Baum, introduces customer congruity perceptions between a brand and a reward in the context of customer referral programs as an essential driver of the effectiveness of such programs. More precisely, we posit and empirically test a model according to which the decision-making process of the customer recommending a firm involves multiple mental steps and assumes reward perceptions to be an immediate antecedent of brand evaluation, which then, ultimately shapes the likelihood of recommendation. The level of congruity/incongruity is set up as an antecedent state and affects the perceived attractiveness of the reward. Our work contributes to the discussion on the optimal level of congruity between a prevailing schema in the mind of the customer and a stimulus presented. In addition, chapter four introduces customer referral programs as a strategic tool for brand managers. Chapter four is further published in Psychology & Marketing.
Chapter five first proposes that marketing strategies specifically designed to induce word-of-mouth (WOM) behavior are particular relevant for new ventures. Against the background that previous research suggests that customer perceptions of young firm age may influence customer behavior and the degree to which customers support new ventures (e.g., Choi & Shepherd, 2005; Stinchcombe, 1965), we secondly conduct an experiment to examine the causal mechanisms linking firm age and customer WOM. Chapter five, too, is co-authored by Prof. Dr. Matthias Baum.

Education is the Achilles heel of successful resuscitation in cardiac arrest. Therefore, we aim to contribute to the educational efficiency by providing a novel augmented-reality (AR) guided interactive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) "trainer". For this trainer, a mixed reality smart glass, Microsoft HoloLens, and a CPR manikin covered with pressure sensors were used. To introduce the CPR procedure to a learner, an application with an intractable virtual teacher model was designed. The teaching scenario consists of the two main parts, theory and practice. In the theoretical part, the virtual teacher provides all information about the CPR procedure. Afterward, the user will be asked to perform the CPR cycles in three different stages. In the first two stages, it is aimed to gain the muscle memory with audio and optical feedback system. In the end, the performance of the participant is evaluated by the virtual teacher.

Fast Internet content delivery relies on two layers of caches on the request path. Firstly, content delivery networks (CDNs) seek to answer user requests before they traverse slow Internet paths. Secondly, aggregation caches in data centers seek to answer user requests before they traverse slow backend systems. The key challenge in managing these caches is the high variability of object sizes, request patterns, and retrieval latencies. Unfortunately, most existing literature focuses on caching with low (or no) variability in object sizes and ignores the intricacies of data center subsystems.
This thesis seeks to fill this gap with three contributions. First, we design a new caching system, called AdaptSize, that is robust under high object size variability. Second, we derive a method (called Flow-Offline Optimum or FOO) to predict the optimal cache hit ratio under variable object sizes. Third, we design a new caching system, called RobinHood, that exploits variances in retrieval latencies to deliver faster responses to user requests in data centers.
The techniques proposed in this thesis significantly improve the performance of CDN and data center caches. On two production traces from one of the world's largest CDN AdaptSize achieves 30-91% higher hit ratios than widely-used production systems, and 33-46% higher hit ratios than state-of-the-art research systems. Further, AdaptSize reduces the latency by more than 30% at the median, 90-percentile and 99-percentile.
We evaluate the accuracy of our FOO analysis technique on eight different production traces spanning four major Internet companies.
We find that FOO's error is at most 0.3%. Further, FOO reveals that the gap between online policies and OPT is much larger than previously thought: 27% on average, and up to 43% on web application traces.
We evaluate RobinHood with production traces from a major Internet company on a 50-server cluster. We find that RobinHood improves the 99-percentile latency by more than 50% over existing caching systems.
As load imbalances grow, RobinHood's latency improvement can be more than 2x. Further, we show that RobinHood is robust against server failures and adapts to automatic scaling of backend systems.
The results of this thesis demonstrate the power of guiding the design of practical caching policies using mathematical performance models and analysis. These models are general enough to find application in other areas of caching design and future challenges in Internet content delivery.

Der Fokus der vorliegenden Arbeit liegt auf endlosfaser- und langfaserverstärkten
thermoplastischen Materialien. Hierfür wurde das „multilayered hybrid
(MLH)“ Konzept entwickelt und auf zwei Halbzeuge, den MLH-Roving und die MLHMat
angewendet. Der MLH-Roving ist ein Roving (bestehend aus Endlosfasern), der
durch thermoplastische Folien in mehrere Schichten geteilt wird. Der MLH-Roving
wird durch eine neuartige Spreizmethode mit anschließender thermischen Fixierung
und abschließender mehrfacher Faltung hergestellt. Dadurch können verschiedene
Faser-Matrix-Konfigurationen realisiert werden. Die MLH-Mat ist ein
glasmattenverstärktes thermoplastisches Material, das für hohe Fasergehalte bis 45
vol. % und verschiedene Matrixpolymere, z.B. Polypropylen (PP) und Polyamide 6
(PA6) geeignet ist. Sie zeichnet sich durch eine hohe Homogenität in der
Flächendichte und in der Faserrichtung aus. Durch dynamische Crashversuche mit
auf MLH-Roving und MLH-Mat basierenden Probekörpern wurden das
Crashverhalten und die Performance untersucht. Die Ergebnisse der Crashkörper
basierend auf langfaserverstärktem Material (MLH-Mat) und endlosfaserverstärktem
Material (MLH-Roving) waren vergleichbar. Die PA6-Typen zeigten eine bessere
Crashperformance als PP-Typen.
The present work deals with continuous fiber- and long fiber reinforced thermoplastic
materials. The concept of multilayered hybrid (MLH) structure was developed and
applied to the so-called MLH-roving and MLH-mat. The MLH-roving is a continuous
fiber roving separated evenly into several sublayers by thermoplastic films, through
the sequential processes of spreading with a newly derived equation, thermal fixing,
and folding. It was aimed to satisfy the variety of material configuration as well as the
variety in intermediate product. The MLH-mat is a glass mat reinforced thermoplastic
(GMT)-like material that is suitable for high fiber contents up to 45 vol. % and various
matrix polymers, e.g. polypropylene (PP), polyamide 6 (PA6). It showed homogeneity
in areal density, random directional fiber distribution, and reheating stability required
for molding process. On the MLH-roving and MLH-mat materials, the crash behavior
and performance were investigated by dynamic crash test. Long fiber reinforced
materials (MLH-mat) were equivalent to continuous fiber reinforced materials (MLHroving),
and PA6 grades showed higher crash performance than PP grades.

In this thesis we integrate discrete dividends into the stock model, estimate
future outstanding dividend payments and solve different portfolio optimization
problems. Therefore, we discuss three well-known stock models, including
discrete dividend payments and evolve a model, which also takes early
announcement into account.
In order to estimate the future outstanding dividend payments, we develop a
general estimation framework. First, we investigate a model-free, no-arbitrage
methodology, which is based on the put-call parity for European options. Our
approach integrates all available option market data and simultaneously calculates
the market-implied discount curve. We illustrate our method using stocks
of European blue-chip companies and show within a statistical assessment that
the estimate performs well in practice.
As American options are more common, we additionally develop a methodology,
which is based on market prices of American at-the-money options.
This method relies on a linear combination of no-arbitrage bounds of the dividends,
where the corresponding optimal weight is determined via a historical
least squares estimation using realized dividends. We demonstrate our method
using all Dow Jones Industrial Average constituents and provide a robustness
check with respect to the used discount factor. Furthermore, we backtest our
results against the method using European options and against a so called
simple estimate.
In the last part of the thesis we solve the terminal wealth portfolio optimization
problem for a dividend paying stock. In the case of the logarithmic utility
function, we show that the optimal strategy is not a constant anymore but
connected to the Merton strategy. Additionally, we solve a special optimal
consumption problem, where the investor is only allowed to consume dividends.
We show that this problem can be reduced to the before solved terminal wealth
problem.

Autonomous driving is disrupting the conventional automotive development. In fact, autonomous driving kicks off the consolidation of control units, i.e. the transition from distributed Electronic Control Units (ECUs) to centralized domain controllers. Platforms like Audi’s zFAS demonstrate this very clearly, where GPUs, Custom SoCs, Microcontrollers, and FPGAs are integrated on a single domain controller in order to perform sensor fusion, processing and decision making on a single Printed Circuit Board (PCB). The communication between these heterogeneous components and the algorithms for Advanced Driving Assistant Systems (ADAS) itself requires a huge amount of memory bandwidth, which will bring the Memory Wall from High Performance Computing (HPC) and data-centers directly in our cars. In this paper we highlight the roles and issues of Dynamic Random Access Memories (DRAMs) for future autonomous driving architectures.

Certain brain tumours are very hard to treat with radiotherapy due to their irregular shape caused by the infiltrative nature of the tumour cells. To enhance the estimation of the tumour extent one may use a mathematical model. As the brain structure plays an important role for the cell migration, it has to be included in such a model. This is done via diffusion-MRI data. We set up a multiscale model class accounting among others for integrin-mediated movement of cancer cells in the brain tissue, and the integrin-mediated proliferation. Moreover, we model a novel chemotherapy in combination with standard radiotherapy.
Thereby, we start on the cellular scale in order to describe migration. Then we deduce mean-field equations on the mesoscopic (cell density) scale on which we also incorporate cell proliferation. To reduce the phase space of the mesoscopic equation, we use parabolic scaling and deduce an effective description in the form of a reaction-convection-diffusion equation on the macroscopic spatio-temporal scale. On this scale we perform three dimensional numerical simulations for the tumour cell density, thereby incorporating real diffusion tensor imaging data. To this aim, we present programmes for the data processing taking the raw medical data and processing it to the form to be included in the numerical simulation. Thanks to the reduction of the phase space, the numerical simulations are fast enough to enable application in clinical practice.

Ecophysiological characterizations of photoautotrophic communities are not only necessary to identify the response of carbon fixation related to different climatic factors, but also to evaluate risks connected to changing environments. In biological soil crusts (BSCs), the description of ecophysiological features is difficult, due to the high variability in taxonomic composition and variable methodologies applied. Especially for BSCs in early successional stages, the available datasets are rare or focused on individual constituents, although these crusts may represent the only photoautotrophic component in many heavily disturbed ruderal areas, such as parking lots or building areas with increasing surface area worldwide. We analyzed the response of photosynthesis and respiration to changing BSC water contents (WCs), temperature and light in two early successional BSCs. We investigated whether the response of these parameters was different between intact BSC and the isolated dominating components. BSCs dominated by the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and dominated by the green alga Zygogonium ericetorum were examined. A major divergence between the two BSCs was their absolute carbon fixation rate on a chlorophyll basis, which was significantly higher for the cyanobacterial crust. Nevertheless, independent of species composition, both crust types and their isolated organisms had convergent features such as high light acclimatization and a minor and very late-occurring depression in carbon uptake at water suprasaturation. This particular setup of ecophysiological features may enable these communities to cope with a high variety of climatic stresses and may therefore be a reason for their success in heavily disturbed areas with ongoing human impact. However, the shape of the response was different for intact BSC compared to separated organisms, especially in absolute net photosynthesis (NP) rates. This emphasizes the importance of measuring intact BSCs under natural conditions for collecting reliable data for meaningful analysis of BSC ecosystem services.

Though environmental inequality research has gained extensive interest in the United States, it has received far less attention in Europe and Germany. The main objective of this book is to extend the research on environmental inequality in Germany. This book aims to shed more light on the question of whether minorities in Germany are affected by a disproportionately high burden of environmental pollution, and to increase the general knowledge about the causal mechanisms, which contribute to the unequal distribution of environmental hazards across the population.
To improve our knowledge about environmental inequality in Germany, this book extends previous research in several ways. First, to evaluate the extent of environmental inequality, this book relies on two different data sources. On the on hand, it uses household-level survey data and self-reports about the impairment through air pollution. On the other hand, it combines aggregated census data and objective register-based measures of industrial air pollution by using geographic information systems (GIS). Consequently, this book offers the first analysis of environmental inequality on the national level that uses objective measures of air pollution in Germany. Second, to evaluate the causes of environmental inequality, this book applies a panel data analysis on the household level, thereby offering the first longitudinal analysis of selective migration processes outside the United States. Third, it compares the level of environmental inequality between German metropolitan areas and evaluates to which extent the theoretical arguments of environmental inequality can explain differing levels of environmental inequality across the country. By doing so, this book not only investigates the impact of indicators derived by the standard strand of theoretical reasoning but also includes structural characteristics of the urban space.
All studies presented in this book confirm the disproportionate exposure of minorities to environmental pollution. Minorities live in more polluted areas in Germany but also in more polluted parts of the communities, and this disadvantage is most severe in metropolitan regions. Though this book finds evidence for selective migration processes contributing to the disproportionate exposure of minorities to environmental pollution, it also stresses the importance of urban conditions. Especially cities with centrally located industrial facilities yield a high level of environmental inequality. This poses the question of whether environmental inequality might be the result of two independent processes: 1) urban infrastructure confines residential choices of minorities to the urban core, and 2) urban infrastructure facilitates centrally located industries. In combination, both processes lead to a disproportionate burden of minority households.

Neuronal inhibition is mediated by glycine and/or GABA. Inferior colliculus (IC) neurons receive glycinergic and GABAergic
inputs, whereas inhibition in hippocampus (HC) predominantly relies on GABA. Astrocytes heterogeneously
express neurotransmitter transporters and are expected to adapt to the local requirements regarding neurotransmitter
homeostasis. Here we analyzed the expression of inhibitory neurotransmitter transporters in IC and HC astrocytes using
whole-cell patch-clamp and single-cell reverse transcription-PCR. We show that most astrocytes in both regions expressed
functional glycine transporters (GlyTs). Activation of these transporters resulted in an inward current (IGly) that
was sensitive to the competitive GlyT1 agonist sarcosine. Astrocytes exhibited transcripts for GlyT1 but not for
GlyT2. Glycine did not alter the membrane resistance (RM) arguing for the absence of functional glycine receptors (GlyRs).
Thus, IGly was mainly mediated by GlyT1. Similarly, we found expression of functional GABA transporters (GATs) in all IC
astrocytes and about half of the HC astrocytes. These transporters mediated an inward current (IGABA) that was sensitive to
the competitive GAT-1 and GAT-3 antagonists NO711 and SNAP5114, respectively. Accordingly, transcripts for GAT-1 and
GAT-3 were found but not for GAT-2 and BGT-1. Only in hippocampal astrocytes, GABA transiently reduced
RM demonstrating the presence of GABAA receptors (GABAARs). However, IGABA was mainly not contaminated
by GABAAR-mediated currents as RM changes vanished shortly after GABA application. In both regions, IGABA
was stronger than IGly. Furthermore, in HC the IGABA/IGly ratio was larger compared to IC. Taken together, our
results demonstrate that astrocytes are heterogeneous across and within distinct brain areas. Furthermore, we
could show that the capacity for glycine and GABA uptake varies between both brain regions.

Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and a product of incomplete combustion of petrol
and has been classified as “carcinogenic to humans” by IARC in 1982 (IARC 1982). (E,E)-
Muconaldehyde has been postulated to be a microsomal metabolite of benzene in vitro
(Latriano et al. 1986). (E,E)-Muconaldehyde is hematotoxic in vivo and its role in the
hematotoxicity of benzene is unclear (Witz et al. 1985).
We intended to ascertain the presence of (E,E)-muconaldehyde in vivo by detection of a
protein conjugate deriving from (E,E)-muconaldehyde.
Therefore we improved the current synthetic access to (E,E)-muconaldehyde. (E,E)-
muconaldehyde was synthesized in three steps starting from with (E,E)-muconic acid in an
overall yield of 60 %.
Reaction of (E,E)-muconaldehyde with bovine serum albumin resulted in formation of a
conjugate which was converted upon addition of NaBH4 to a new species whose HPLC-
retention time, UV spectra, Q1 mass and MS2 spectra matched those of the crude reaction
product from one pot conversion of Ac-Lys-OMe with (E,E)-muconaldehyde in the presence
of NaBH4 and subsequent cleavage of protection groups.
Synthetic access to the presumed structure (S)-2-ammonio-6-(((E,E)-6-oxohexa-2,4-dien-1-
yl)amino)hexanoate (Lys(MUC-CHO)) was provided in eleven steps starting from (E,E)-
muconic acid and Lys(Z)-OtBu*HCl in 2 % overall yield. Additionally synthetic access to
(S)-2-ammonio-6-(((E,E)-6-hydroxyhexa-2,4-dien-1-yl)amino)hexanoate (Lys(MUC-OH))
and (S)-2-ammonio-6-((6-hydroxyhexyl)amino)hexanoate (IS) was provided.
With synthetic reference material at hand, the presumed structure Lys(MUC-OH) could be
identified from incubations of (E,E)-muconaldehyde with bovine serum albumin via HPLC-ESI+-
MS/MS.
Cytotoxicity analysis of (E,E)-muconaldehyde and Lys(MUC-CHO) in human promyelocytic
NB4 cells resulted in EC50 ≈ 1 μM for (E,E)-muconaldehyde. Lys(MUC-CHO) did not show
any additional cytotoxicity up to 10 μM.
B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 400 and 800 mg/kg b.w. benzene to examine the formation
of Lys(MUC-OH) in vivo. After 24 h mice were sacrificed and serum albumin was isolated.
Analysis for Lys(MUC-OH) has not been performed in this work.

The gas phase infrared and fragmentation spectra of a systematic group of trimetallic oxo-centered
transition metal complexes are shown and discussed, with formate and acetate bridging ligands and
pyridine and water as axial ligands.
The stability of the complexes, as predicted by appropriate ab initio simulations, is demonstrated to
agree with collision induced dissociation (CID) measurements.
A broad range of DFT calculations are shown. They are used to simulate the geometry, the bonding
situation, relative stability and flexibility of the discussed complexes, and to specify the observed
trends. These simulations correctly predict the trends in the band splitting of the symmetric and
asymmetric carboxylate stretch modes, but fail to account for anharmonic effects observed specifically
in the mid IR range.
The infrared spectra of the different ligands are introduced in a brief literature review. Their changes
in different environments or different bonding situations are discussed and visualized, especially the
interplay between fundamental-, overtone-, and combination bands, as well as Fermi resonances
between them.
A new variation on the infrared multi photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy method is proposed
and evaluated. In addition to the commonly considered total fragment yield, the cumulative fragment
yield can be used to plot the wavelength dependent relative abundance of different fragmentation
products. This is shown to include valuable additional information on the excited chromophors, and
their coupling to specific fragmentation channels.
High quality homo- and heterometallic IRMPD spectra of oxo centered carboxylate complexes of
chromium and iron show the impacts of the influencing factors: the metal centers, the bridging ligands,
their carboxylate stretch modes and CH bend modes, and the terminal ligands.
In all four formate spectra, anharmonic effects are necessary to explain the observed spectra:
combination bands of both carboxylate stretch modes and a Fermi resonance of the fundamental of
the CH stretch mode, and a combination band of the asymmetric carboxylate stretch mode with the
CH bend mode of the formate bridging ligand.
For the water adduct species, partial hydrolysis is proposed to account for the changes in the observed
carboxylic stretch modes.
Appropriate experiments are suggested to verify the mode assignments that are not directly explained
by the ab initio calculations, the available experimental results or other means like deuteration
experiments.

The screening of metagenomic datasets led to the identification of new phage-derived members of the heme oxygenase and the ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductase enzyme families.
The novel bilin biosynthesis genes were shown to form mini-cassettes on metagenomic scaffolds and further form distinct clusters in phylogenetic analyses (Ledermann et al., 2016). In this project, it was demonstrated that the discovered sequences actually encode for active enzymes. The biochemical characterization of a member of the heme oxygenases (ΦHemO) revealed that it possesses a regiospecificity for the α-methine bridge in the cleavage of the heme macrocycle. The reaction product biliverdin IXα was shown to function as the substrate for the novel ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases (PcyX reductases), which catalyze its reduction to PEB via the intermediate 15,16-DHBV. While it was demonstrated that ΦPcyX, a phage-derived member of the PcyX reductases, is an active enzyme, it also became clear that the rate of the reaction is highly dependent on the employed redox partner. It turned out that the ferredoxin from the cyanophage P-SSM2 is to date the most suitable redox partner for the reductases of the PcyX group. Furthermore, the solution of the ΦPcyX crystal structure revealed that it adopts an α/β/α-sandwich fold, typical for the FDBR-family. Activity assays and subsequent HPLC analyses with different variants of the ΦPcyX protein demonstrated that, despite their similarity, PcyX and PcyA reductases must act via different reaction mechanisms.
Another part of this project focused on the biochemical characterization of the FDBR KflaHY2 from the streptophyte alga Klebsormidium flaccidum. Experiments with recombinant KflaHY2 showed that it is an active FDBR which produces 3(Z)-PCB as the main reaction product, like it can be found in reductases of the PcyA group. Moreover, it was shown that under the employed assay conditions the reaction of BV to PCB proceeds in two different ways: Both 3(Z)-PΦB and 18¹,18²-DHBV occur as intermediates. Activity assays with the purified intermediates yielded PCB. Hence, both compounds are suitable substrates for KflaHY2.
The results of this work highlight the importance of the biochemical experiments, as catalytic activity cannot solely be predicted by sequence analysis.

Asynchronous concurrency is a wide-spread way of writing programs that
deal with many short tasks. It is the programming model behind
event-driven concurrency, as exemplified by GUI applications, where the
tasks correspond to event handlers, web applications based around
JavaScript, the implementation of web browsers, but also of server-side
software or operating systems.
This model is widely used because it provides the performance benefits of
concurrency together with easier programming than multi-threading. While
there is ample work on how to implement asynchronous programs, and
significant work on testing and model checking, little research has been
done on handling asynchronous programs that involve heap manipulation, nor
on how to automatically optimize code for asynchronous concurrency.
This thesis addresses the question of how we can reason about asynchronous
programs while considering the heap, and how to use this this to optimize
programs. The work is organized along the main questions: (i) How can we
reason about asynchronous programs, without ignoring the heap? (ii) How
can we use such reasoning techniques to optimize programs involving
asynchronous behavior? (iii) How can we transfer these reasoning and
optimization techniques to other settings?
The unifying idea behind all the results in the thesis is the use of an
appropriate model encompassing global state and a promise-based model of
asynchronous concurrency. For the first question, We start from refinement
type systems for sequential programs and extend them to perform precise
resource-based reasoning in terms of heap contents, known outstanding
tasks and promises. This extended type system is known as Asynchronous
Liquid Separation Types, or ALST for short. We implement ALST in for OCaml
programs using the Lwt library.
For the second question, we consider a family of possible program
optimizations, described by a set of rewriting rules, the DWFM rules. The
rewriting rules are type-driven: We only guarantee soundness for programs
that are well-typed under ALST. We give a soundness proof based on a
semantic interpretation of ALST that allows us to show behavior inclusion
of pairs of programs.
For the third question, we address an optimization problem from industrial
practice: Normally, JavaScript files that are referenced in an HTML file
are be loaded synchronously, i.e., when a script tag is encountered, the
browser must suspend parsing, then load and execute the script, and only
after will it continue parsing HTML. But in practice, there are numerous
JavaScript files for which asynchronous loading would be perfectly sound.
First, we sketch a hypothetical optimization using the DWFM rules and a
static analysis.
To actually implement the analysis, we modify the approach to use a
dynamic analysis. This analysis, known as JSDefer, enables us to analyze
real-world web pages, and provide experimental evidence for the efficiency
of this transformation.

In the present master’s thesis we investigate the connection between derivations and
homogeneities of complete analytic algebras. We prove a theorem, which describes a specific set of generators
for the module of derivations of an analytic algebra, which map the maximal ideal of R into itself. It turns out, that this set has a structure similar to a Cartan subalgebra and contains
information regarding multi-homogeneity. In order to prove
this theorem, we extend the notion of grading by Scheja and Wiebe to projective systems and state the connection between multi-gradings and pairwise
commuting diagonalizable derivations. We prove a theorem similar to Cartan’s Conjugacy Theorem in the setup of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, which arise as projective limits of finite-dimensional Lie algebras. Using this result, we can show that the structure of the aforementioned set of generators is an intrinsic property of the analytic algebra. At the end we state an algorithm, which is theoretically able to compute the maximal multi-homogeneity of a complete analytic algebra.

Motivation: Mathematical models take an important place in science and engineering.
A model can help scientists to explain dynamic behavior of a system and to understand
the functionality of system components. Since length of a time series and number of
replicates is limited by the cost of experiments, Boolean networks as a structurally simple
and parameter-free logical model for gene regulatory networks have attracted interests
of many scientists. In order to fit into the biological contexts and to lower the data
requirements, biological prior knowledge is taken into consideration during the inference
procedure. In the literature, the existing identification approaches can only deal with a
subset of possible types of prior knowledge.
Results: We propose a new approach to identify Boolean networks fromtime series data
incorporating prior knowledge, such as partial network structure, canalizing property,
positive and negative unateness. Using vector form of Boolean variables and applying
a generalized matrix multiplication called the semi-tensor product (STP), each Boolean
function can be equivalently converted into a matrix expression. Based on this, the
identification problem is reformulated as an integer linear programming problem to
reveal the system matrix of Boolean model in a computationally efficient way, whose
dynamics are consistent with the important dynamics captured in the data. By using
prior knowledge the number of candidate functions can be reduced during the inference.
Hence, identification incorporating prior knowledge is especially suitable for the case of
small size time series data and data without sufficient stimuli. The proposed approach is
illustrated with the help of a biological model of the network of oxidative stress response.
Conclusions: The combination of efficient reformulation of the identification problem
with the possibility to incorporate various types of prior knowledge enables the
application of computational model inference to systems with limited amount of time
series data. The general applicability of thismethodological approachmakes it suitable for
a variety of biological systems and of general interest for biological and medical research.

Computational problems that involve dynamic data, such as physics simulations and program development environments, have been an important
subject of study in programming languages. Recent advances in self-adjusting
computation made progress towards achieving efficient incremental computation by providing algorithmic language abstractions to express computations that respond automatically to dynamic changes in their inputs. Selfadjusting programs have been shown to be efficient for a broad range of problems via an explicit programming style, where the programmer uses specific
primitives to identify, create and operate on data that can change over time.
This dissertation presents implicit self-adjusting computation, a type directed technique for translating purely functional programs into self-adjusting
programs. In this implicit approach, the programmer annotates the (toplevel) input types of the programs to be translated. Type inference finds
all other types, and a type-directed translation rewrites the source program
into an explicitly self-adjusting target program. The type system is related to
information-flow type systems and enjoys decidable type inference via constraint solving. We prove that the translation outputs well-typed self-adjusting
programs and preserves the source program’s input-output behavior, guaranteeing that translated programs respond correctly to all changes to their
data. Using a cost semantics, we also prove that the translation preserves the
asymptotic complexity of the source program.
As a second contribution, we present two techniques to facilitate the processing of large and dynamic data in self-adjusting computation. First, we
present a type system for precise dependency tracking that minimizes the
time and space for storing dependency metadata. The type system improves
the scalability of self-adjusting computation by eliminating an important assumption of prior work that can lead to recording spurious dependencies.
We present a type-directed translation algorithm that generates correct selfadjusting programs without relying on this assumption. Second, we show a
probabilistic-chunking technique to further decrease space usage by controlling the fundamental space-time tradeoff in self-adjusting computation.
We implement implicit self-adjusting computation as an extension to Standard ML with compiler and runtime support. Using the compiler, we are able
to incrementalize an interesting set of applications, including standard list
and matrix benchmarks, ray tracer, PageRank, sparse graph connectivity, and
social circle counts. Our experiments show that our compiler incrementalizes existing code with only trivial amounts of annotation, and the resulting
programs bring asymptotic improvements to large datasets from real-world
applications, leading to orders of magnitude speedups in practice.

Increasing costs due to the rising attrition of drug candidates in late developmental phases alongside post-marketing withdrawal of drugs challenge the pharmaceutical industry to further improve their current preclinical safety assessment strategies. One of the most common reasons for the termination of drug candidates is drug induced hepatotoxicity, which more often than not remains undetected in early developmental stages, thus emphasizing the necessity for improved and more predictive preclinical test systems. One reason for the very limited value of currently applied in vitro test systems for the detection of potential hepatotoxic liabilities is the lack of organotypic and tissue-specific physiology of hepatocytes cultured in ordinary monolayer culture formats.
The thesis at hand primarily deals with the evaluation of both two- and three-dimensional cell culture approaches with respect to their relative ability to predict the hepatotoxic potential of drug candidates in early developmental phases. First, different hepatic cell models, which are routinely used in pharmaceutical industry (primary human hepatocytes as well as the three cell lines HepG2, HepaRG and Upcyte hepatocytes), were investigated in conventional 2D monolayer culture with respect to their ability to detect hepatotoxic effects in simple cytotoxicity studies. Moreover, it could be shown that the global protein expression levels of all cell lines substantially differ from that of primary human hepatocytes, with the least pronounced difference in HepaRG cells.
The introduction of a third dimension through the cultivation of spheroids enables hepatocytes to recapitulate their typical native polarity and furthermore dramatically increases the contact surface of adjacent cells. These differences in cellular architecture have a positive influence on hepatocyte longevity and the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters, which could be proven via immunofluorescent (IF) staining for at least 14 days in PHH and at least 28 days in HepaRG spheroids, respectively. Additionally, the IF staining of three different phase III transporters (MDR1, MRP2 and BSEP) indicated a bile canalicular network in spheroids of both cell models. A dose-dependent inducibility of important cytochrome P450 isoenzymes in HepaRG spheroids could be shown on the protein level via IF for at least 14 days. CYP inducibility of HepaRG cells cultured in 2D and 3D was compared on the mRNA level for up to 14 days and inducibility was generally lower in 3D compared to 2D under the conditions of this study. In a comparative cytotoxicity study, both PHH and HepaRG spheroids as well as HepaRG monolayers have been treated with five hepatotoxic drugs for up to 14 days and viability was measured at three time points (days 3, 7 and 14). A clear time- and dose-dependent onset of the drug-induced hepatotoxic effects was observable in all conditions tested, indicated by a shift of the respective EC50 value towards lower doses by increasing exposure. The observed effects were most pronounced in PHH spheroids, thus indicating those as the most sensitive cell model in this study. Moreover, HepaRG cells were more sensitive in spheroid culture compared to monolayers, which suggests a potential application of spheroids as long-term test system for the detection of hepatotoxicities with slow onset. Finally, the basal protein expression levels of three antigens (CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and NAT 1/2) were analyzed via Western Blotting in HepaRG cells cultured in three different cell culture formats (2D, 3D and QV) in order to estimate the impact of the cell culture conditions on protein expression levels. In the QV system enables a pump-driven flow of cell culture media, which introduces both mechanical stimuli through shear and molecular stimuli through dynamic circulation to the monolayer. Those stimuli resulted in a clearly positive effect on the expression levels of the selected antigens by an increased expression level in comparison to both 2D and 3D. In contrast, HepaRG spheroids showed time-dependent differences with the overall highest levels at day 7.
The studies presented in this thesis delivered valuable information on the increased physiological relevance in dependence on the cell culture format: three-dimensionality as well as the circulation of media lead to a more differentiated phenotype in hepatic cell models. Those cell culture formats are applicable in preclinical drug development in order to obtain more relevant information at early developmental stages and thus help to create a more efficient drug development process. Nonetheless, further studies are necessary to thoroughly characterize, validate and standardize such novel cell culture approaches prior to their routine application in industry.

Embedded reactive systems underpin various safety-critical applications wherein they interact with other systems and the environment with limited or even no human supervision. Therefore, design errors that violate essential system specifications can lead to severe unacceptable damages. For this reason, formal verification of such systems in their physical environment is of high interest. Synchronous programs are typically used to represent embedded reactive systems while hybrid systems serve to model discrete reactive system in a continuous environment. As such, both synchronous programs and hybrid systems play important roles in the model-based design of embedded reactive systems. This thesis develops induction-based techniques for safety property verification of synchronous and hybrid programs. The imperative synchronous language Quartz and its hybrid systems’ extensions are used to sustain the findings.
Deductive techniques for software verification typically use Hoare calculus. In this context, Verification Condition Generation (VCG) is used to apply Hoare calculus rules to a program whose statements are annotated with pre- and postconditions so that the validity of an obtained Verification Condition (VC) implies correctness of a given proof goal. Due to the abstraction of macro steps, Hoare calculus cannot directly generate VCs of synchronous programs unless it handles additional label variables or goto statements. As a first contribution, Floyd’s induction-based approach is employed to generate VCs for synchronous and hybrid programs. Five VCG methods are introduced that use inductive assertions to decompose the overall proof goal. Given the right assertions, the procedure can automatically generate a set of VCs that can then be checked by SMT solvers or automated theorem provers. The methods are proved sound and relatively complete, provided that the underlying assertion language is expressive enough. They can be applied to any program with a state-based semantics.
Property Directed Reachability (PDR) is an efficient method for synchronous hardware circuit verification based on induction rather than fixpoint computation. Crucial steps of the PDR method consist of deciding about the reachability of Counterexamples to Induction (CTIs) and generalizing them to clauses that cover as many unreachable states as possible. The thesis demonstrates that PDR becomes more efficient for imperative synchronous programs when using the distinction between the control- and dataflow. Before calling the PDR method, it is possible to derive additional program control-flow information that can be added to the transition relation such that less CTIs will be generated. Two methods to compute additional control-flow information are presented that differ in how precisely they approximate the reachable control-flow states and, consequently, in their required runtime. After calling the PDR method, the CTI identification work is reduced to its control-flow part and to checking whether the obtained control-flow states are unreachable in the corresponding extended finite state machine of the program. If so, all states of the transition system that refer to the same program locations can be excluded, which significantly increases the performance of PDR.

Influence of the Crystal Surface on the Austenitic and Martensitic Phase Transition in Pure Iron
(2018)

Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we studied the influence that free
surfaces exert on the austenitic and martensitic phase transition in iron. For several single-indexed
surfaces—such as (100)bcc and (110)bcc as well as (100)fcc and (110)fcc surfaces—appropriate
pathways exist that allow for the transformation of the surface structure. These are the Bain,
Mao, Pitsch, and Kurdjumov–Sachs pathways, respectively. Tilted surfaces follow the pathway
of the neighboring single-indexed plane. The austenitic transformation temperature follows the
dependence of the specific surface energy of the native bcc phase; here, the new phase nucleates at
the surface. In contrast, the martensitic transformation temperature steadily decreases when tilting
the surface from the (100)fcc to the (110)fcc orientation. This dependence is caused by the strong
out-of-plane deformation that (110)fcc facets experience under the transformation; here, the new
phase also nucleates in the bulk rather than at the surface.

Relating mathematical concepts to graphical representations is a challenging task for students. In this paper, we introduce two visual strategies to qualitatively interpret the divergence of graphical vector field representations. One strategy is based on the graphical interpretation of partial derivatives, while the other is based on the flux concept. We test the effectiveness of both strategies in an instruction-based eye-tracking study with N = 41 physics majors. We found that students’ performance improved when both strategies were introduced (74% correct) instead of only one strategy (64% correct), and students performed best when they were free to choose between the two strategies (88% correct). This finding supports the idea of introducing multiple representations of a physical concept to foster student understanding.Relevant eye-tracking measures demonstrate that both strategies imply different visual processing of the vector field plots, therefore reflecting conceptual differences between the strategies. Advanced analysis methods further reveal significant differences in eye movements between the best and worst performing students. For instance, the best students performed predominantly horizontal and vertical saccades, indicating correct interpretation of partial derivatives. They also focused on smaller regions when they balanced positive and negative flux. This mixed method research leads to new insights into student visual processing of vector field representations, highlights the advantages and limitations of eye-tracking methodologies in this context, and discusses implications for teaching and for future research. The introduction of saccadic direction analysis expands traditional methods, and shows the potential to discover new insights into student understanding and learning difficulties.

Road accidents remain as one of the major causes of death and injuries globally. Several million people die every year due to road accidents all over the world. Although the number of accidents in European region have reduced in the past years, road safety still remains a major challenge. Especially in case of commercial trucks, due to the size and load of the vehicle, even minor collisions with other road users would lead to serious injuries or death. In order to reduce number of accidents, automotive industry is rapidly developing advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and automated driving technologies. Efficient and reliable solutions are required for these systems to sense, perceive and react to different environmental conditions. For vehicle safety applications such as collision avoidance with vulnerable road users (VRUs), it is not only important for the system to efficiently detect and track the objects in the vicinity of the vehicle but should also function robustly.
An environment perception solution for application in commercial truck safety systems and for future automated driving is developed in this work. Thereby a method for integrated tracking and classification of road users in the near vicinity of the vehicle is formulated. The drawbacks in conventional multi-object tracking algorithms with respect to state, measurement and data association uncertainties have been addressed with the recent advancements in the field of unified multi-object tracking solutions based on random finite sets (RFS). Gaussian mixture implementation of the recently developed labeled multi-Bernoulli (LMB) filter [RSD15] is used as the basis for multi-object tracking in this work. Measurement from an high-resolution radar sensor is used as the main input for detecting and tracking objects.
On one side, the focus of this work is on tracking VRUs in the near vicinity of the truck. As it is beneficial for most of the vehicle safety systems to also know the category that the object belongs to, the focus on the other side is also to classify the road users. All the radar detections believed to originate from a single object are clustered together with help of density based spatial clustering for application with noise (DBSCAN) algorithm. Each cluster of detections would have different properties based on the respective object characteristics. Sixteen distinct features based on radar detections, that are suitable for separating pedestrians, bicyclists and passenger car categories are selected and extracted for each of the cluster. A machine learning based classifier is constructed, trained and parameterised for distinguishing the road users based on the extracted features.
The class information derived from the radar detections can further be used by the tracking algorithm, to adapt the model parameters used for precisely predicting the object motion according to the category of the object. Multiple model labeled multi-Bernoulli filter (MMLMB) is used for modelling different object motions. Apart from the detection level, the estimated state of an object on the tracking level also provides information about the object class. Both these informations are fused using Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) of evidence, based on respective class probabilities Thereby, the output of the integrated tracking and classification with MMLMB filter are classified tracks that can be used by truck safety applications with better reliability.
The developed environment perception method is further implemented as a real-time prototypical system on a commercial truck. The performance of the tracking and classification approaches are evaluated with the help of simulation and multiple test scenarios. A comparison of the developed approaches to a conventional converted measurements Kalman filter with global nearest neighbour association (CMKF-GNN) shows significant advantages in the overall accuracy and performance.

Based on the Lindblad master equation approach we obtain a detailed microscopic model of photons in a dye-filled cavity, which features condensation of light. To this end we generalise a recent non-equilibrium approach of Kirton and Keeling such that the dye-mediated contribution to the photon-photon interaction in the light condensate is accessible due to an interplay of coherent and dissipative dynamics. We describe the steady-state properties of the system by analysing the resulting equations of motion of both photonic and matter degrees of freedom. In particular, we discuss the existence of two limiting cases for steady states: photon Bose-Einstein condensate and laser-like. In the former case, we determine the corresponding dimensionless photon-photon interaction strength by relying on realistic experimental data and find a good agreement with previous theoretical estimates. Furthermore, we investigate how the dimensionless interaction strength depends on the respective system parameters.

The scales of white beetles strongly scatter light within a thin disordered network of
chitin filaments. There is no comparable artificial material achieving such a high scat-
tering strength within a thin layer of low refractive index material. Several analyses
investigated the scattering but could not explain the underlying concept. Here a model
system is described, which has the same optical properties as the white beetles’ scales
in the visible wavelength range. With some modification, it also explains the behavior
of the structures in the near infrared range. The comparison of the original structure and
the model system is done by finite-difference time-domain calculations. The calcula-
tions show excellent agreement with the beetles’ scales with respect to the reflectance,
the time-of-flight, and the intensity distribution in the far-field.

The transfer of substrates between to enzymes within a biosynthesis pathway is an effective way to synthesize the specific product and a good way to avoid metabolic interference. This process is called metabolic channeling and it describes the (in-)direct transfer of an intermediate molecule between the active sites of two enzymes. By forming multi-enzyme cascades the efficiency of product formation and the flux is elevated and intermediate products are transferred and converted in a correct manner by the enzymes.
During tetrapyrrole biosynthesis several substrate transfer events occur and are prerequisite for an optimal pigment synthesis. In this project the metabolic channeling process during the pink pigment phycoerythrobilin (PEB) was investigated. The responsible ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases (FDBR) for PEB formation are PebA and PebB. During the pigment synthesis the intermediate molecule 15,16-dihydrobiliverdin (DHBV) is formed and transferred from PebA to PebB. While in earlier studies a metabolic channeling of DHBV was postulated, this work revealed new insights into the requirements of this protein-protein interaction. It became clear, that the most important requirement for the PebA/PebB interaction is based on the affinity to their substrate/product DHBV. The already high affinity of both enzymes to each other is enhanced in the presence of DHBV in the binding pocket of PebA which leads to a rapid transfer to the subsequent enzyme PebB. DHBV is a labile molecule and needs to be rapidly channeled in order to get correctly further reduced to PEB. Fluorescence titration experiments and transfer assays confirmed the enhancement effect of DHBV for its own transfer.
More insights became clear by creating an active fusion protein of PebA and PebB and comparing its reaction mechanism with standard FDBRs. This fusion protein was able to convert biliverdin IXα (BV IXα) to PEB similar to the PebS activity, which also can convert BV IXα via DHBV to PEB as a single enzyme. The product and intermediate of the reaction were identified via HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy.
The results of this work revealed that PebA and PebB interact via a proximity channeling process where the intermediate DHBV plays an important role for the interaction. It also highlights the importance of substrate channeling in the synthesis of PEB to optimize the flux of intermediates through this metabolic pathway.

Initiated by a task in tunable microoptics, but not limited to this application, a microfluidic droplet array in an upright standing module with 3 × 3 subcells and droplet actuation via electrowetting is presented. Each subcell is filled with a single (of course transparent) water droplet, serving as a movable iris, surrounded by opaque blackened decane. Each subcell measures 1 × 1 mm ² and incorporates 2 × 2 quadratically arranged positions for the droplet. All 3 × 3 droplets are actuated synchronously by electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD). The droplet speed is up to 12 mm/s at 130 V (Vrms) with response times of about 40 ms. Minimum operating voltage is 30 V. Horizontal and vertical movement of the droplets is demonstrated. Furthermore, a minor modification of the subcells allows us to exploit the flattening of each droplet. Hence, the opaque decane fluid sample can cover each water droplet and render each subcell opaque, resulting in switchable irises of constant opening diameter. The concept does not require any mechanically moving parts or external pumps.