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Given a railway network together with information on the population and their use of the railway infrastructure, we are considering the e ffects of introducing new train stops in the existing railway network. One e ffect concerns the accessibility of the railway infrastructure to the population, measured in how far people live from their nearest train stop. The second effect we study is the change in travel time for the railway customers that is induced by new train stops. Based on these two models, we introduce two combinatorial optimization problems and give NP-hardness results for them. We suggest an algorithmic approach for the model based on travel time and give first experimental results.

Point-to-Point Trajectory Planning of Flexible Redundant Robot Manipulators Using Genetic Algorithms
(2001)

The paper focuses on the problem of point-to-point trajectory planning for flexible redundant robot manipulators (FRM) in joint space. Compared with irredundant flexible manipulators, a FRM possesses additional possibilities during point-to-point trajectory planning due to its kinematics redundancy. A trajectory planning method to minimize vibration and/or executing time of a point-to-point motion is presented for FRM based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Kinematics redundancy is integrated into the presented method as planning variables. Quadrinomial and quintic polynomial are used to describe the segments that connect the initial, intermediate, and final points in joint space. The trajectory planning of FRM is formulated as a problem of optimization with constraints. A planar FRM with three flexible links is used in simulation. Case studies show that the method is applicable.

This article presents contributions in the field of path planning for industrial robots with 6 degrees of freedom. This work presents the results of our research in the last 4 years at the Institute for Process Control and Robotics at the University of Karlsruhe. The path planning approach we present works in an implicit and discretized C-space. Collisions are detected in the Cartesian workspace by a hierarchical distance computation. The method is based on the A* search algorithm and needs no essential off-line computation. A new optimal discretization method leads to smaller search spaces, thus speeding up the planning. For a further acceleration, the search was parallelized. With a static load distribution good speedups can be achieved. By extending the algorithm to a bidirectional search, the planner is able to automatically select the easier search direction. The new dynamic switching of start and goal leads finally to the multi-goal path planning, which is able to compute a collision-free path between a set of goal poses (e.g., spot welding points) while minimizing the total path length.

The vibration induced in a deformable object upon automatic handling by robot manipulators can often be bothersome. This paper presents a force/torque sensor-based method for handling deformable linear objects (DLOs) in a manner suitable to eliminate acute vibration. An adjustment-motion that can be attached to the end of an arbitrary end-effector's trajectory is employed to eliminate vibration of deformable objects. Differently from model-based methods, the presented sensor-based method does not employ any information from previous motions. The adjustment-motion is generated automatically by analyzing data from a force/torque sensor mounted on the robot wrist. Template matching technique is used to find out the matching point between the vibrational signal of the DLO and a template. Experiments are conducted to test the new method under various conditions. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the sensor-based adjustment-motion.

The task of handling non-rigid one-dimensional objects by a robot manipulation system is investigated. Especially, approaches to calculate motions with specific behavior in point contacts between the object and environment are regarded. For single point contacts, motions based on generalized rotations solving the direct and inverse manipulation problem are investigated. The latter problem is additionally tackled by simple rotation and translation motions. For double and multiple point contacts, motions based on Splines are suggested. In experimental results with steel springs, the predicted and measured effect for each approach are compared.

Manipulating Deformable Linear Objects: Attachable Adjustment-Motions for Vibration Reduction
(2001)

This paper addresses the problem of handling deformable linear objects (DLOs) in a suitable way to avoid acute vibration. Different types of adjustment-motions that eliminate vibration of deformable objects and can be attached to the end of an arbitrary end-effector trajectory are presented. For describing the dynamics of deformable linear objects, the finite element method is used to derive the dynamic differential equations. Genetic algorithm is used to find the optimal adjustment motion for each simulation example. Experiments are conducted to verify the presented manipulating method.

Manipulating Deformable Linear Objects: Model-Based Adjustment-Motion for Vibration Reduction
(2001)

This paper addresses the problem of handling deformable linear objects (DLOs) in a suitable way to avoid acute vibration. An adjustment-motion that eliminates vibration of DLOs and can be attached to the end of any arbitrary end-effector's trajectory is presented, based on the concept of open-loop control. The presented adjustment-motion is a kind of agile end-effector motion with limited scope. To describe the dynamics of deformable linear objects, the finite element method is used to derive the dynamic differential equations. Genetic algorithm is used to find the optimal adjustment-motion for each simulation example. In contrast to previous approaches, the presented method can be treated as one of the manipulation skills and can be applied to different cases without major changes to the method.

The paper focuses on the problem of trajectory planning of flexible redundant robot manipulators (FRM) in joint space. Compared to irredundant flexible manipulators, FRMs present additional possibilities in trajectory planning due to their kinematics redundancy. A trajectory planning method to minimize vibration of FRMs is presented based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Kinematics redundancy is integrated into the presented method as a planning variable. Quadrinomial and quintic polynomials are used to describe the segments which connect the initial, intermediate, and final points in joint space. The trajectory planning of FRMs is formulated as a problem of optimization with constraints. A planar FRM with three flexible links is used in simulation. A case study shows that the method is applicable.

Integral equations on the half of line are commonly approximated by the finite-section approximation, in which the infinite upper limit is replaced by apositie number called finite-section parameter. In this paper we consider the finite-section approximation for first kind intgral equations which are typically ill-posed and call for regularization. For some classes of such equations corresponding to inverse problems from optics and astronomy we indicate the finite-section parameters that allows to apply standard regularization techniques. Two discretization schemes for the finite-section equations ar also proposed and their efficiency is studied.

By means of the limit and jump relations of classical potential theory the framework of a wavelet approach on a regular surface is established. The properties of a multiresolution analysis are verified, and a tree algorithm for fast computation is developed based on numerical integration. As applications of the wavelet approach some numerical examples are presented, including the zoom-in property as well as the detection of high frequency perturbations. At the end we discuss a fast multiscale representation of the solution of (exterior) Dirichlet's or Neumann's boundary-value problem corresponding to regular surfaces.

Abstract: The behavior of the divergent part of the bulk AdS/CFT effective action is considered with respect to the special finite diffeomorphism transformations acting on the boundary as a Weyl transformation of the boundary metric. The resulting 1-cocycle of the Weyl group is in full agreement with the 1-cocycle of the Weyl group obtained from the cohomological consideration of the effective action of the corresponding CFT.

Abstract: Operator product expansions are applied to dilaton-axion four-point functions. In the expansions of the bilocal fields "doubble Phi", CC and "Phi"C, the conformal fields which are symmetric traceless tensors of rank l and have dimensions "delta" = 2+l or 8+l+ "eta"(l) and "eta"(l) = O(N ^ -2) are identified. The unidentified field have dimension "delta" = "lambda"+l+eta(l) with "lambda" >= 10. The anomalous dimensions eta(l) are calculated at order O(N ^ -2) for both 2 ^ -1/2(-"doubble Phi" + CC) and 2 ^ -1/2(-"Phi"C + C"Phi") and are found to be the same, proving U(1)_Y symmetry. The relevant coupling constants are given at order O(1).

Abstract: In the context of AdS/CFT correspondence the two Wilson loop correlator is examined at both zero and finite temperatures. On the basis of an entirely analytical approach we have found for Nambu-Goto strings the functional relation dSc(Reg) /dL = 2*pi*k between Euclidean action Sc and loop separation L with integration constant k, which corresponds to the analogous formula for point-particles. The physical implications of this relation are explored in particular for the Gross-Ooguri phase transition at finite temperature.

Abstract: The basic concepts of selective multiscale reconstruction of functions on the sphere from error-affected data is outlined for scalar functions. The selective reconstruction mechanism is based on the premise that multiscale approximation can be well-represented in terms of only a relatively small number of expansion coefficients at various resolution levels. A new pyramid scheme is presented to efficiently remove the noise at different scales using a priori statistical information.

Abstract: Evacuation problems can be modeled as flow problems in dynamic networks. A dynamic network is defined by a directed graph G = (N,A) with sources, sinks and non-negative integral travel times and capacities for every arc (i,j) e A. The earliest arrival flow problem is to send a maximum amount of dynamic flow reaching the sink not only for the given time horizon T, but also for any time T' < T . This problem mimics the evacuation problem of public buildings where occupancies may not known. For the buildings where the number of occupancies is known and concentrated only in one source, the quickest flow model is used to find the minimum egress time. We propose in this paper a solution procedure for evacuation problems with a single source of the building where the occupancy number is either known or unknown. The possibility that the flow capacity may change due to the increasing of smoke density or fire obstructions can be mirrored in our model. The solution procedure looks iteratively for the shortest conditional augmenting path (SCAP) from source to sink and compute the time intervals in which flow reaches the sink via this path.

Wannier-Stark states for semiconductor superlattices in strong static fields, where the interband Landau-Zener tunneling cannot be neglected, are rigorously calculated. The lifetime of these metastable states was found to show multiscale oscillations as a function of the static field, which is explained by an interaction with above-barrier resonances. An equation, expressing the absorption spectrum of semiconductor superlattices in terms of the resonance Wannier-Stark states is obtained and used to calculate the absorption spectrum in the region of high static fields.

The anchored hyperplane location problem is to locate a hyperplane passing through some given points P IR^n and minimizing either the sum of weighted distances (median problem), or the maximum weighted distance (center problem) to some other points Q IR^n . If the distances are measured by a norm, it will be shown that in the median case there exists an optimal hyperplane that passes through at least n - k affinely independent points of Q, if k is the maximum number of affinely independent points of P. In the center case, there exists an optimal hyperplane which isatmaximum distance to at least n - k + 1 affinely independent points of Q. Furthermore, if the norm is a smooth norm, all optimal hyperplanes satisfy these criteria. These new results generalize known results about unrestricted hyperplane location problems.

The purpose of satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) and/or satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG) is to determine the gravitational field on and outside the Earth's surface from given gradients of the gravitational potential and/or the gravitational field at satellite altitude. In this paper both satellite techniques are analysed and characterized from mathematical point of view. Uniqueness results are formulated. The justification is given for approximating the external gravitational field by finite linear combination of certain gradient fields (for example, gradient fields of single-poles or multi-poles) consistent to a given set of SGG and/or SST data. A strategy of modelling the gravitational field from satellite data within a multiscale concept is described; illustrations based on the EGM96 model are given.

Abstract: We describe quantum-field-theoretical (QFT) techniques for mapping quantum problems onto c-number stochastic problems. This approach yields results which are identical to phase-space techniques [C.W. Gardiner, Quantum Noise (1991)] when the latter result in a Fokker-Planck equation for a corresponding pseudo-probability distribution. If phase-space techniques do not result in a Fokker-Planck equation and hence fail to produce a stochastic representation, the QFT techniques nevertheless yield stochastic di erence equations in discretised time.

In this work, we discuss the resonance states of a quantum particle in a periodic potential plus static force. Originally this problem was formulated for a crystalline electron subject to the static electric field and is known nowadays as the Wannier-Stark problem. We describe a novel approach to the Wannier-Stark problem developed in recent years. This approach allows to compute the complex energy spectrum of a Wannier-Stark system as the poles of a rigorously constructed scattering matrix and, in this sense, solves the Wannier-Stark problem without any approximation. The suggested method is very efficient from the numerical point of view and has proven to be a powerful analytic tool for Wannier-Stark resonances appearing in different physical systems like optical or semiconductor superlattices.

Industrial Ecology's Hidden Philosophy of Nature. Fundamental Underpinning to Use Nature as Model
(2001)

In its scientific sense, industrial ecology represents an emerging transdisciplinary field of studying industrial systems and their fundamental linkage with natural ecosystems. As a short form, industrial ecology is called the "science of sustainability". At the bottom of industrial ecology there is a refreshingly different perspective of understanding nature as model in comparison with other scientific disciplines and concepts of understanding nature e.g. in terms of "sack of resources", "biophysical limit", "something outside", "surrounding", or just "environment" as opposed to industrial systems. The keynote of industrial ecology's specific perspective of understanding nature is to balance the development of industrial systems with the constraints of natural eco-systems, analogous to an "industrial symbiosis". The goal is to contribute for laying a fundamental underpinning for industrial ecology in its scientific sense, in this case especially for its use of nature as model. Therefore an impressive battery of philosophical arguments is provided bringing to bear against the sort of probably raised fallacies and facile or hasty proclaimed critics by sceptics, hard-liners, and mainstream-scientists who often overlook industrial ecology's stimulating role towards sustainability.

Fragestellungen der Standortplanung sollen den Mathematikunterricht der Schule bereichern, dort behandelt und gelöst werden. In dieser Arbeit werden planare Standortprobleme vorgestellt, die im Mathematikunterricht behandelt werden können. Die Probleme Produktion von Halbleiterplatinen, Planung eines Feuerwehrhauses und das Zentrallagerproblem, die ausnahmlos real und nicht konstruiert sind, werden ausführlich durchgearbeitet, so dass es schnell möglich ist, daraus Unterrichtseinheiten zu entwickeln.

Mit der vorliegenden Veröffentlichung soll der Versuch unternommen werden, mathematischen Schulstoff aus konkreten Problemen herzuentwickeln. Im Mittelpunkt der vorliegenden Arbeit stehen betriebswirtschaftliche Planungs- und Entscheidungsprobleme, wie sie von fast allen Wirtschaftsunternehmen zu lösen sind. Dabei wird im besonderen auf folgende Optimierungsprobleme eingegangen: Berechnung des Rohstoffbedarfs bei gegebenen Bestellungen, Aufarbeitung von vorhandenen Lagerbeständen und das Stücklistenproblem.

In this article, we investigate the maximum entropy moment closure in gas dynamics. We show that the usual choice of polynomial weight functions may lead to hyperbolic systems with an unpleasant state space: equilibrium states are boundary points with possibly singular fluxes. In order to avoid singularities, the necessary arises to find weight functions which growing sub-quadratically at infinity. Unfortunately, this requirement leads to a conflict with Galilean invariance of the moment systems because we can show that rotational and translational invariant, finite dimensional function spaces necessarily consist of polynomials.

A natural extension of point facility location problems are those problems in which facilities are extensive, i.e. those that can not be represented by isolated points but as some dimensional structures such as straight lines, segments of lines, polygonal curves or circles. In this paper a review of the existing work on the location of extensive facilities in continuous spaces is given. Gaps in the knowledge are identified and suggestions for further research are made.

We present a complete derivation of the semiclassical limit of the coherent state propagator in one dimension, starting from path integrals in phase space. We show that the arbitrariness in the path integral representation, which follows from the overcompleteness of the coherent states, results in many different semiclassical limits. We explicitly derive two possible semiclassical formulae for the propagator, we suggest a third one, and we discuss their relationships. We also derive an initial value representation for the semiclassical propagator, based on an initial gaussian wavepacket. It turns out to be related to, but different from, Heller's thawed gaussian approximation. It is very different from the Herman - Kluk formula, which is not a correct semiclassical limit. We point out errors in two derivations of the latter. Finally we show how the semiclassical coherent state propagators lead to WKB-type quantization rules and to approximations for the Husimi distributions of stationary states.