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- Boltzmann Equation (2)
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In this article a diffusion equation is obtained as a limit of a reversible kinetic equation with an ad hoc scaling. The diffusion is produced by the collisions of the particles with the boundary. These particles are assumed to be reflected according to a reversible law having convenient mixing properties. Optimal convergence results are obtained in a very simple manner. This is made possible because the model, based on Arnold" s cat map can be handled with Fourier series instead of the symbolic dynamics associated to a Markow partition.

Lernen von Abstraktionshierarchien zur Optimierung der Auswahl von maschinell abstrahierten Plänen
(1994)

Mit Hilfe von "Multistrategy" Ansätzen, die erklärungsbasiertes und induktives Lernen integrieren, ist es möglich, die Performanz von Planungssystemen signifikant zu verbessern. Dabei können gelöste Planungsprobleme zunächst mit einem wissensintensiven Verfahren abstrahiert und generalisiert werden. Durch den in diesem Beitrag im Vordergrund stehenden induktiven inkrementellen Lernalgorithmus ist es dann weiterhin möglich, die Gesamtheit des deduktiv generierten Wissens in einer Abstraktionshierarchie anzuordnen. Dabei wird die, im allgemeinen unentscheidbare, "spezieller-als-Relation" zwischen generalisierten Plänen, induktiv aus den gegebenen Planungsfällen gelernt. Diese Abstraktionshierarchie dient dann zur Klassifikation neuer Problemstellungen und damit zur Bestimmung einer speziellsten anwendbaren abstrakten Problemlösung.

The Boltzmann equation solutions are considered for the small Knudsen number. The main attention is devoted to certain deviations from the classical Navier-Stokes description. The equations for the quasistationary slow flows are derived. These equations do not contain the Knudsen number and provide in this sense a limiting description of hydrodynamical variables. Two well-known special cases are also indicated. In the isothermal case the equations are equivalent to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, in stationary case they coincide with the equations of slow non-isothermal flows. It is shown that the derived equations possess all principal properties of the Boltzmann equation on contrast to the Burnett equations. In one dimension the equations reduce to the nonlinear diffusion equations, being exactly solvable for Maxwell molecules. Multidimensional stationary heat-transfer problems are also discussed. It is shown that one can expect an essential difference between the Boltzmann equaiton solution in the limit of the continuous media and the corresponding solution of the Navier-Stokes equations.

The paper presents some approximation methods for the Boltzmann equation. In the first part fully implicit discretization techniques for the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation are investigated. The implicit equation is solved using an iteration process. It is shown that the iteration converges to the correct solution for the moments of the distribution function as long as the mass conservation is strictly fulfilled. For a simple model Boltzmann equation some unexpected features of the implicit scheme and the corresponding iteration process are clarified. In the second part a new iteration algorithm is proposed which should be used for the stationary Boltzmann equation. The realization of the method is very similar to the standard splitting algorithms except some new stochastic elements.

A Case Study on Specifikation,Detection and Resolution of IN Feature Interactions with Estelle
(1994)

We present an approach for the treatment of Feature Interactions in Intelligent Networks. The approach is based on the formal description technique Estelle and consists of three steps. For the first step, a specification style supporting the integration of additional features into a basic service is introduced . As a result, feature integration is achieved by adding specification text, i.e . on a purely syntactical level. The second step is the detection of feature interactions resulting from the integration of additional features. A formal criterion is given that can be used for the automatic detection of a particular class of feature interactions. In the third step, previously detected feature interactions are resolved. An algorithm has been devised that allows the automatical incorporation of high-level design decisions into the formal specification. The presented approach is applied to the Basic Call Service and several supplementary interacting features.

Automatic proof systems are becoming more and more powerful.However, the proofs generated by these systems are not met withwide acceptance, because they are presented in a way inappropriatefor human understanding.In this paper we pursue two different, but related, aims. First wedescribe methods to structure and transform equational proofs in away that they conform to human reading conventions. We developalgorithms to impose a hierarchical structure on proof protocols fromcompletion based proof systems and to generate equational chainsfrom them.Our second aim is to demonstrate the difficulties of obtaining suchprotocols from distributed proof systems and to present our solutionto these problems for provers using the TEAMWORK method. Wealso show that proof systems using this method can give considerablehelp in structuring the proof listing in a way analogous to humanbehaviour.In addition to theoretical results we also include descriptions onalgorithms, implementation notes, examples and data on a variety ofexamples.

This paper presents the systematic synthesis of a fairly complex digitalcircuit and its CPLD implementation as an assemblage of communicatingasynchronous sequential circuits. The example, a VMEbus controller, waschosen because it has to control concurrent processes and to arbitrateconflicting requests.

Based on normalized coprime factorizations with respect to indefinite metrics and the construction of suitable characteristic functions, the Ober balanced canonical forms for the classes of bounded real and positive real are derived. This uses a matrix representation of the shift realization with respect to a basis related to sets of orthogonal polynomials.

Within the present paper we investigate case-based representability as well as case-based learnability of indexed families of uniformly recursive languages. Since we are mainly interested in case-based learning with respect to an arbitrary fixed similarity measure, case-based learnability of an indexed family requires its representability, first. We show that every indexed family is case- based representable by positive and negative cases. If only positive cases are allowed the class of representable families is comparatively small. Furthermore, we present results that provide some bounds concerning the necessary size of case bases. We study, in detail, how the choice of a case selection strategy influences the learning capabilities of a case-based learner. We define different case selection strategies and compare their learning power to one another. Furthermore, we elaborate the relations to Gold-style language learning from positive and both positive and negative examples.

While symbolic learning approaches encode the knowledge provided by the presentation of the cases explicitly into a symbolic representation of the concept, e.g. formulas, rules, or decision trees, case-based approaches describe learned concepts implicitly by a pair (CB; d), i.e. by a set CB of cases and a distance measure d. Given the same information, symbolic as well as the case-based approach compute a classification when a new case is presented. This poses the question if there are any differences concerning the learning power of the two approaches. In this work we will study the relationship between the case base, the measure of distance, and the target concept of the learning process. To do so, we transform a simple symbolic learning algorithm (the version space algorithm) into an equivalent case-based variant. The achieved results strengthen the conjecture of the equivalence of the learning power of symbolic and casebased methods and show the interdependency between the measure used by a case-based algorithm and the target concept.

Linear half-space problems can be used to solve domain decomposition problems between Boltzmann and aerodynamic equations. A new fast numerical method computing the asymptotic states and outgoing distributions for a linearized BGK half-space problem is presented. Relations with the so-called variational methods are discussed. In particular, we stress the connection between these methods and Chapman-Enskog type expansions.

In this paper we deal with the problem of computing the stresses in stationary loaded bearings. A method to obtain the pressure in the lubrication fluid, which is given as a solution of Reynolds" differential equation, is presented. Furthermore, using the theory of plain stress, the stresses in the bearing shell are described by derivatives of biharmonic functions. A spline interpolation method for computing these functions is developed and an estimate for the error on the boundaries is presented. Finally the described methods are tested theoretically as well as with real examples.

Whenever new parts of a car have been developed, the manufacturer needs an estimation of the lifetime of this new part. On one hand the construction must not be too weak, so that the part holds long enough to satisfy the customer, but on the other hand, if the construction is too excessive, the part gets too heavy.; One is interested in methods that only need few measured data from the specimen itself, but use data about the material, because constructing and testing of specimen is expensive.

A nonequilibrium situation governed by kinetic equations with strongly contrasted Knudsen numbers in different subdomains is discussed. We consider a domain decomposition problem for Boltzmann- and Euler equations, establish the correct coupling conditions and prove the validity of the obtained coupled solution. Moreover numerical examples comparing different types of coupling conditions are presented.

We consider the numerical computation of nonlinear functionals of distribution functions approximated by point measures. Two methods are described and estimates for the speed of convergence as the number of points tends to infinity are given. Moreover numerical results for the entropy functional are presented.

The distribution of quasiprimary fields of fixed classes characterized by their O(N) representations Y and the number p of vector fields from which they are composed at N=infty in dependence on their normal dimension delta is shown to obey a Hardy-Ramanujan law at leading order in a 1/N-expansion. We develop a method of collective fusion of the fundamental fields which yields arbitrary qps and resolves any degeneracy.

Ohne auf wesentliche Aspekte der in [Bergstra&al.89] vorgestellten alge-braischen Spezifikationssprache ASF zu verzichten, haben wir ASF um die folgenden Konzepteerweitert: Während in ASF einmal exportierte Namen bis zur Spitze der Modulhierarchie sichtbarbleiben müssen, ermöglicht ASF + ein differenziertes Verdecken von Signaturnamen. Das fehlerhafteVermischen unterschiedlicher Strukturen, welches in ASF beim Import verschiedener Aktualisie-rungen desselben parametrisierten Moduls auftritt, wird in ASF + durch eine adäquatere Form derParameterbindung vermieden. Das neue Namensraum_Konzept von ASF + erlaubt es dem Spe-zifizierer, einerseits die Herkunft verdeckter Namen direkt zu identifizieren und anderseits beimImport eines Moduls auszudrücken, ob dieses Modul nur benutzt oder in seinen wesentlichen Ei-genschaften verändert werden soll. Im ersten Fall kann er auf eine einzige global zur Verfügungstehende Version zugreifen; im zweiten Fall muß er eine Kopie des Moduls importieren. Schließlicherlaubt ASF + semantische Bedingungen an Parameter und die Angabe von Beweiszielen.

Recently renewed interest in solitons has arisen in connection with exceptional statistics occuring in low-dimensional quantum field theory. The nonperturbative approach to quantum solitons [1, 2, 3, 4, 5], based on the notion of a disorder variable [6, 7], does not make use of the well-known semiclassical quantisation procedure around classical soliton solutions [8]. In a recent article [9] the author introduced multicomponent scalar field models, treated nonperturbatively on a Euclidean space-time lattice. The exponentially decaying disorder correlation functions are connected with soliton fields showing nonAbelian braid group statistics. It is the aim of this note to present the corresponding classical soliton solutions, which do not seem to have appeared in the literature.

Particle Methods
(1994)

Particle methods to simulate rarefied gas flows have found an increasing interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics during the last decade, see for example [1], [2], [3] and [4]. The general goal is to develop numerical schemes which are reliable enough to substitute real windtunnel experiments, needed for example in space research, by computer experiments. In order to achieve this goal one needs numerical methods solving the Boltzmann equation including all important physical effects. In general this means 3D computations for a chemically reacting rarefied gas. With codes of this kind at hand, Boltzmann simulation becomes a powerful tool in studying rarefied gas phenomena.

A Nonlinear Ray Theory
(1994)

A proof of the famous Huygens" method of wavefront construction is reviewed and it is shown that the method is embedded in the geometrical optics theory for the calculation of the intensity of the wave based on high frequency approximation. It is then shown that Huygens" method can be extended in a natural way to the construction of a weakly nonlinear wavefront. This is an elegant nonlinear ray theory based on an approximation published by the author in 1975 which was inspired by the work of Gubkin. In this theory, the wave amplitude correction is incorporated in the eikonal equation itself and this leads to a sytem of ray equations coupled to the transport equation. The theory shows that the nonlinear rays stretch due to the wave amplitude, as in the work of Choquet-Bruhat (1969), followed by Hunter, Majda, Keller and Rosales, but in addition the wavefront rotates due to a non-uniform distribution of the amplitude on the wavefront. Thus the amplitude of the wave modifies the rays and the wavefront geometry, which in turn affects the growth and decay of the amplitude. Our theory also shows that a compression nonlinear wavefront may develop a kink but an expansion one always remains smooth. In the end, an exact solution showing the resolution of a linear caustic due to nonlinearity has been presented. The theory incorporates all features of Whitham" s geometrical shock dynamics.

Monte-Carlo methods are widely used numerical tools in various fields of application, like rarefied gas dynamics, vacuum technology, stellar dynamics or nuclear physics. A central part in all applications is the generation of random variates according to a given probability law. Fundamental techniques to generate non-uniform random variates are the inversion principle or the acceptance-rejection method. Both procedures can be quite time-consuming if the given probability law has a complicated structure.; In this paper we consider probability laws depending on a small parameter and investigate the use of asmptotic expansions to generate random variates. The results given in the paper are restrictedto first order expansions. We show error estimates for the discrepancy as well as for the bounded Lipschitz distance of the asymptotic expansion. Furthermore the integration error for some special classes of functions is given. The efficiency of the method is proved by a numerical example from rarefied gas flows.

In spite of its lack of theoretical justification, nonlinear diffusion filtering has become a powerful image enhancement tool in the recent years. The goal of the present paper is to provide a mathematical foundation for nonlinear diffusion filtering as a scale-space transformation which is flexible enough to simplify images without loosing the capability of enhancing edges. By stuying the Lyapunow functional, it is shown that nonlinear diffusion reduces Lp norms and central moments and increases the entropy of images. The proposed anisotropic class utilizes a diffusion tensor which may be adapted to the image structure. It permits existence, uniqueness and regularity results, the solution depends continuously on the initial image, and it fulfills an extremum principle. All considerations include linear and certain nonlinear isotropic models and apply to m-dimensional vector-valued images. The results are juxtaposed to linear and morphological scale-spaces.

The edge enhancement property of a nonlinear diffusion equation with a suitable expression for the diffusivity is an important feature for image processing. We present an algorithm to solve this equation in a wavelet basis and discuss its one dimensional version in some detail. Sample calculations demonstrate principle effects and treat in particular the case of highly noise perturbed signals. The results are discussed with respect to performance, efficiency, choice of parameters and are illustrated by a large number of figures. Finally, a comparison with a Fourier method and a finite volume method is performed.

Planabstraktion ist eine Möglichkeit, den Aufwand bei der Suche nach einem Plan zur Lösung eines konkreten Problems zu reduzieren. Hierbei wird eine konkrete Welt mit einer Problemstellung auf eine abstrakte Welt abgebildet. Die abstrakte Problemstellung wird nun in der abstrakten Welt gelöst. Durch die Rückabbildung der abstrakten Lösung auf eine konkrete Lösung erhält man eine Lösung für das konkrete Problem. Da die Anzahl der zur Lösung des abstrakten Problems benötigten Operationen geringer ist und die abstrakten Zustände und Operatoren einer weniger komplexen Beschreibung genügen, wird der Aufwand zur Suche einer konkreten Problemlösung reduziert.

We present a convenient notation for positive/negativeADconditional equations. Theidea is to merge rules specifying the same function by using caseAD, ifAD, matchAD, and letADexpressions.Based on the presented macroADruleADconstruct, positive/negativeADconditional equational specifiADcations can be written on a higher level. A rewrite system translates the macroADruleADconstructsinto positive/negativeADconditional equations.

Abstract: We calculate exact analytical expressions for O(alpha s) 3-jet and O (alpha^2 s ) 4-jet cross sections in polarized deep inelastic lepton nucleon scattering. Introducing an invariant jet definition scheme, we present differential distributions of 3- and 4-jet cross sections in the basic kinematical variables x and W^2 as well as total jet cross sections and show their dependence on the chosen spin-dependent (polarized) parton distributions. Noticebly differences in the predictions are found for the two extreme choices, i.e. a large negative sea-quark density or a large positive gluon density. Therefore, it may be possible to discriminate between different parametrizations of polarized parton densities, and hence between the different physical pictures of the proton spin underlying these parametrizations.

ALICE
(1994)

Visual Search has been investigated by many researchers inspired by the biological fact, that the sensory elements on the mammal retina are not equably distributed. Therefore the focus of attention (the area of the retina with the highest density of sensory elements) has to be directed in a way to efficiently gather data according to certain criteria. The work discussed in this article concentrates on applying a laser range finder instead of a silicon retina. The laser range finder is maximal focused at any time, but therefore a low resolution total-scene-image, available with camera-like devices from scratch on, cannot be used here. By adapting a couple of algorithms, the edge-scanning module steering the laser range finder is able to trace a detected edge. Based on the data scanned so far , two questions have to be answered. First: "Should the actual (edge-) scanning be interrupted in order to give another area of interest a chance of being investigated?" and second: "Where to start a new edge-scanning, after being interrupted?". These two decision-problems might be solved by a range of decision systems. The correctness of the decisions depends widely on the actual environment and the underlying rules may not be well initialized with a-priori knowledge. So we will present a version of a reinforcement decision system together with an overall scheme for efficiently controlling highly focused devices.

Based on the idea of using topologic feature-mapsinstead of geometric environment maps in practical mobile robot tasks, we show an applicable way tonavigate on such topologic maps. The main features regarding this kind of navigation are: handling of very inaccurate position (and orientation) information as well as implicit modelling of complex kinematics during an adaptation phase. Due to the lack of proper a-priori knowledge, a re-inforcement based model is used for the translation of navigator commands to motor actions. Instead of employing a backpropagation network for the cen-tral associative memory module (attaching actionprobabilities to sensor situations resp. navigatorcommands) a much faster dynamic cell structure system based on dynamic feature maps is shown. Standard graph-search heuristics like A* are applied in the planning phase.

The problem to be discussed here, is the usage of neural network clustering techniques on a mobile robot, in order to build qualitative topologic environment maps. This has to be done in realtime, i.e. the internal world model has to be adapted by the flow of sensor- samples without the possibility to stop this data-flow.Our experiments are done in a simulation environment as well as on a robot, called ALICE.