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Bestimmung der Ähnlichkeit in der fallbasierten Diagnose mit simulationsfähigen Maschinenmodellen
(1999)

Eine Fallbasis mit bereits gelösten Diagnoseproblemen Wissen über die Struktur der Maschine Wissen über die Funktion der einzelnen Bauteile (konkret und abstrakt) Die hier vorgestellte Komponente setzt dabei auf die im Rahmen des Moltke-Projektes entwickelten Systeme Patdex[Wes91] (fallbasierte Diagnose) und iMake [Sch92] bzw. Make [Reh91] (modellbasierte Generierung von Moltke- Wissensbasen) auf.

Integrated project management means that design and planning are interleaved with plan execution, allowing both the design and plan to be changed as necessary. This requires that the right effects of change are propagated through the plan and design. When this is distributed among designers and planners, no one may have all of the information to perform such propagation and it is important to identify what effects should be propagated to whom when. We describe a set of dependencies among plan and design elements that allow such notification by a set of message-passing software agents. The result is to provide a novel level of computer support for complex projects.

Cooperative decision making involves a continuous process, assessing the validity ofdata, information and knowledge acquired and inferred by the colleagues, that is, the shared knowledge space must be transparent. The ACCORD methodology provides aninterpretation framework for the mapping of domain facts - constituting the world model of the expert - onto conceptual models, which can be expressed in formalrepresentations. The ACCORD-BPM framework allows a stepwise and inarbitrary reconstruction of the problem solving competence of BPM experts as a prerequisite foran appropriate architecture of both BPM knowledge bases and the BPM-"reasoning device".

Die systematische Verbesserung von Techniken zur Entwicklung und Betreuung von Software setzt eine explizite Darstellung der in einem Projekt ablaufenden Vorgnge (Prozesse) voraus. Diese Darstellungen (Prozemodelle) werden durch Software- Prozemodellierung gewonnen. Eine Sprache zur Beschreibung solcher Modelle ist MVP-L. Verschiedene Standard-Prozemodelle existieren bereits. Bisher gibt es jedoch kaum dokumentierte Software-Entwicklungsprozesse, die speziell fr die Entwicklung reaktiver Systeme entworfen worden sind, d. h. auf die besonderen Anfordernisse bei der Entwicklung reaktiver Systeme zugeschnitten sind. Auch ist bisher nur wenig Erfahrung dokumentiert, fr welche Art von Projektkontexten diese Prozesse gltig sind. Eine Software- Entwicklungsmethode, die - mit Einschrnkungen - zur Entwicklung reaktiver Systeme geeignet ist, ist SOMT (SDL-oriented Object Modeling Technique). Dieser Bericht beschreibt die erfahrungsbasierte Modellierung der Software-Entwicklungsprozesse von SOMT mit MVP-L. Zunchst werden inhaltliche Grundlagen der Software-Entwicklungsmethode SOMT beschrieben. Insbesondere wird auf die eingesetzten Techniken und deren Kombination eingegangen. Anschlieend werden mgliche Projektkontexte charakterisiert, in denen das SOMT-Modell im Sinne eines Erfahrungselements Gltigkeit hat. Darauf werden der Modellierungsvorgang sowie hierbei gemachte Erfahrungen dokumentiert. Eine vollstndige Darstellung des Modells in grafischer MVP-L-Notation befindet sich im Anhang. Die Darstellung des Modells in textueller Notation kann der SFB-Erfahrungsdatenbank entnommen werden.

Tomorrow's ways of doing business are likely to be far more challenging and interesting than today's due to technological advances that allow people to operate or cooperate anytime, anywhere. Today's workers are becoming mobile without the need of a work home base. Organizations are evolving from the hierarchical lines of control and information flow into more dynamic and flexible structures, where "teams" and individuals are the building blocks for forming task forces and work groups to deal with short and long term project tasks, issues and opportunities. Those individuals and teams will collaborate from their mobile desktops, whether at their offices, home or on the road. A revised paradigm for conducting small and large-scale development and integration is emerging, sometimes called the "virtual enterprise", both in the military and industrial environments. This new paradigm supports communication, cooperation and collaboration of geographically dispersed teams. In this paper we discuss experiences with specific technologies that were investigated by TRW's Infrastructure for Collaboration among Distributed Teams (ICaDT) project; an Independent Research and Development (IR&D) effort.

The paper explores the role of artificial intelligence techniques in the development of an enhanced software project management tool, which takes account of the emerging requirement for support systems to address the increasing trend towards distributed multi-platform software development projects. In addressing these aims this research devised a novel architecture and framework for use as the basis of an intelligent assistance system for use by software project managers, in the planning and managing of a software project. This paper also describes the construction of a prototype system to implement this architecture and the results of a series of user trials on this prototype system.

An agent-based approach to managing distributed, multi-platform software development projects
(1999)

This paper describes work undertaken within the context of the P3 (Project and Process Prompter) Project which aims to develop the Prompter tool, a 'decision-support tool to assist in the planning and managing of a software development project'. Prompter will have the ability to help software project managers to assimilate best practice and 'know how' in the field of software project management and incorporate expert critiquing to assist with solving the complex problems associated with software project management. This paper focuses on Prompters agent- based approach to tackling the problems of distributed, platform independent support.

In 1978, Klop demonstrated that a rewrite system constructed by adding the untyped lambda calculus, which has the Church-Rosser property, to a Church-Rosser first-order algebraic rewrite system may not be Church-Rosser. In contrast, Breazu-Tannen recently showed that argumenting any Church-Rosser first-order algebraic rewrite system with the simply-typed lambda calculus results in a Church-Rosser rewrite system. In addition, Breazu-Tannen and Gallier have shown that the second-order polymorphic lambda calculus can be added to such rewrite systems without compromising the Church-Rosser property (for terms which can be provably typed). There are other systems for which a Church-Rosser result would be desirable, among them being X^t+SP+FIX, the simply-typed lambda calculus extended with surjective pairing and fixed points. This paper will show that Klop's untyped counterexample can be lifted to a typed system to demonstrate that X^t+SP+FIX is not Church-Rosser.

Verfahren des Maschinellen Lernens haben heute eine Reife erreicht, die zu ersten erfolgreichen industriellen Anwendungen geführt hat. In der Prozessdiagnose und -steuerung ermöglichen Lernverfahren die Klassifikation und Bewertung von Betriebszuständen, d.h. eine Grobmodellierung eines Prozesses, wenn dieser nicht oder nur teilweise mathematisch beschreibbar ist. Ausserdem gestatten Lernverfahren die automatische Generierung von Klassifizierungsprozeduren, die deterministisch abgearbeitet werden und daher für die Belange der Echtzeitdiagnose und -steuerung u.U. zeiteffektiver als Inferenzmechanismen auf logischer bzw. Produktionsregelbasis sind, da letztere immer mit zeitaufwendigen Suchprozessen verbunden sind.

This report presents the properties of a specification of the domain of process planning for rotary symmetrical workpieces. The specification results from a model for problem solving in this domain that involves different reasoners, one of which is an AI planner that achieves goals corresponding to machining workpieces by considering certain operational restrictions of the domain. When planning with SNLP (McAllester and Rosenblitt, 1991), we will show that the resulting plans have the property of minimizing the use of certain key operations. Further, we will show that, for elastic protected plans (Kambhampati et al., 1996) such as the ones produced by SNLP, the goals corresponding to machining parts of a workpiece are OE-constrained trivial serializable, a special form of trivial serializability (Barrett and Weld, 1994). However, we will show that planning with SNLP in this domain can be very difficult: elastic protected plans for machining parts of a workpiece are nonmergeable. Finally, we will show that, for sufix, prefix or sufix and prefix plans such as the ones produced by state-space planners, it is not possible to have both properties, being OEconstrained trivial serializable and minimizing the use of the key operations, at the same time.

Emerging technologies such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, JavaTM technology, and software components, are changing the software business. Activities that have in the past been constrained by the need for intense information management increasingly involve cooperating organizations. Information management tools and techniques do not scale well in the face of this organizational complexity. An informal approach to information sharing, based largely on manual copying of information, cannot meet the demands of the task as size and complexity increase. Formal approaches to sharing information are based on groupware tools, but cooperating organizations do not always enjoy the trust or commonality of sophisticated infrastructure, methods, and skills that this approach requires. Bridging the gap requires a simple, loosely coupled, highly flexible strategy for information sharing. Extensive information relevant to different parts of the software life cycle should be interconnected in a simple, easily described way; such connections should permit selective information sharing by a variety of tools and in a variety of collaboration modes that vary in the amount of organizational coupling they require.

Many mathematical proofs are hard to generate forhumans and even harder for automated theoremprovers. Classical techniques of automated theoremproving involve the application of basic rules, of built-in special procedures, or of tactics. Melis (Melis 1993)introduced a new method for analogical reasoning inautomated theorem proving. In this paper we showhow the derivational analogy replay method is relatedand extended to encompass analogy-driven proof planconstruction. The method is evaluated by showing theproof plan generation of the Pumping Lemma for con-text free languages derived by analogy with the proofplan of the Pumping Lemma for regular languages.This is an impressive evaluation test for the analogicalreasoning method applied to automated theorem prov-ing, as the automated proof of this Pumping Lemmais beyond the capabilities of any of the current auto-mated theorem provers.

The amount of user interaction is the prime cause of costs in interactiveprogram verification. This paper describes an internal analogy techniquethat reuses subproofs in the verification of state-based specifications. Itidentifies common patterns of subproofs and their justifications in orderto reuse these subproofs; thus significant savings on the number of userinteractions in a verification proof are achievable.

This paper addresses the decomposition of proofs as a means of constructingmethods in plan-based automated theorem proving. It shows also, howdecomposition can beneficially be applied in theorem proving by analogy.Decomposition is also useful for human-style proof presentation. We proposeseveral decomposition techniques that were found to be useful in automatedtheorem proving and give examples of their application.

This paper analyzes how mathematicians prove the-orems. The analysis is based upon several empiricalsources such as reports of mathematicians and math-ematical proofs by analogy. In order to combine thestrength of traditional automated theorem provers withhuman-like capabilities, the questions arise: Whichproblem solving strategies are appropriate? Which rep-resentations have to be employed? As a result of ouranalysis, the following reasoning strategies are recog-nized: proof planning with partially instantiated meth-ods, structuring of proofs, the transfer of subproofs andof reformulated subproofs. We discuss the represent-ation of a component of these reasoning strategies, aswell as its properties. We find some mechanisms neededfor theorem proving by analogy, that are not providedby previous approaches to analogy. This leads us to acomputational representation of new components andprocedures for automated theorem proving systems.

This paper shows how a new approach to theorem provingby analogy is applicable to real maths problems. This approach worksat the level of proof-plans and employs reformulation that goes beyondsymbol mapping. The Heine-Borel theorem is a widely known result inmathematics. It is usually stated in R 1 and similar versions are also truein R 2 , in topology, and metric spaces. Its analogical transfer was proposedas a challenge example and could not be solved by previous approachesto theorem proving by analogy. We use a proof-plan of the Heine-Boreltheorem in R 1 as a guide in automatically producing a proof-plan of theHeine-Borel theorem in R 2 by analogy-driven proof-plan construction.

This paper addresses a model of analogy-driven theorem proving that is more general and cognitively more adequate than previous approaches. The model works at the level ofproof-plans. More precisely, we consider analogy as a control strategy in proof planning that employs a source proof-plan to guide the construction of a proof-plan for the target problem. Our approach includes a reformulation of the source proof-plan. This is in accordance with the well known fact that constructing ananalogy in maths often amounts to first finding the appropriate representation which brings out the similarity of two problems, i.e., finding the right concepts and the right level of abstraction. Several well known theorems were processed by our analogy-driven proof-plan construction that could not be proven analogically by previous approaches.

This paper addresses analogy-driven auto-mated theorem proving that employs a sourceproof-plan to guide the search for a proof-planof the target problem. The approach presen-ted uses reformulations that go beyond symbolmappings and that incorporate frequently usedre-representations and abstractions. Severalrealistic math examples were successfully pro-cessed by our analogy-driven proof-plan con-struction. One challenge example, a Heine-Borel theorem, is discussed here. For this ex-ample the reformulaitons are shown step bystep and the modifying actions are demon-strated.

Analogy in CLAM
(1999)

CL A M is a proof planner, developed by the Dream group in Edinburgh,that mainly operates for inductive proofs. This paper addresses the questionhow an analogy model that I developed independently of CL A M can beapplied to CL A M and it presents analogy-driven proof plan construction as acontrol strategy of CL A M . This strategy is realized as a derivational analogythat includes the reformulation of proof plans. The analogical replay checkswhether the reformulated justifications of the source plan methods hold inthe target as a permission to transfer the method to the target plan. SinceCL A M has very efficient heuristic search strategies, the main purpose ofthe analogy is to suggest lemmas, to replay not commonly loaded methods,to suggest induction variables and induction terms, and to override controlrather than to construct a target proof plan that can be built by CL A Mitself more efficiently.