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Matrices with the consecutive ones property and interval graphs are important notations in the field of applied mathematics. We give a theoretical picture of them in first part. We present the earliest work in interval graphs and matrices with the consecutive ones property pointing out the close relation between them. We pay attention to Tucker's structure theorem on matrices with the consecutive ones property as an essential step that requires a deep considerations. Later on we concentrate on some recent work characterizing the matrices with the consecutive ones property and matrices related to them in the terms of interval digraphs as the latest and most interesting outlook on our topic. Within this framework we introduce a classiffcation of matrices with consecutive ones property and matrices related to them. We describe the applications of matrices with the consecutive ones property and interval graphs in different fields. We make sure to give a general view of application and their close relation to our studying phenomena. Sometimes we mention algorithms that work in certain fields. In the third part we give a polyhedral approach to matrices with the consecutive ones property. We present the weighted consecutive ones problem and its relation to Tucker's matrices. The constraints of the weighted consecutive ones problem are improved by introducing stronger inequalities, based on the latest theorems on polyhedral aspect of consecutive ones property. Finally we implement a separation algorithm of Oswald and Reinhelt on matrices with the consecutive ones property. We would like to mention that we give a complete proof to the theorems when we consider important within our framework. We prove theorems partially when it is worthwhile to have a closer look, and we omit the proof when there are is only an intersection with our studying phenomena.

Satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) and satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG), respectively, are two measurement principles in modern satellite geodesy which yield knowledge of the first and second order radial derivative of the earth's gravitational potential at satellite altitude, respectively. A numerical method to compute the gravitational potential on the earth's surface from those observations should be capable of processing huge amounts of observational data. Moreover, it should yield a reconstruction of the gravitational potential at different levels of detail, and it should be possible to reconstruct the gravitational potential from only locally given data. SST and SGG are modeled as ill-posed linear pseudodifferential operator equations with an injective but non-surjective compact operator, which operates between Sobolev spaces of harmonic functions and such ones consisting of their first and second order radial derivatives, respectively. An immediate discretization of the operator equation is obtained by replacing the signal on its right-hand-side either by an interpolating or a smoothing spline which approximates the observational data. Here the noise level and the spatial distribution of the data determine whether spline-interpolation or spline-smoothing is appropriate. The large full linear equation system with positive definite matrix which occurs in the spline-interplation and spline-smoothing problem, respectively, is efficiently solved with the help of the Schwarz alternating algorithm, a domain decomposition method which allows it to split the large linear equation system into several smaller ones which are then solved alernatingly in an iterative procedure. Strongly space-localizing regularization scaling functions and wavelets are used to obtain a multiscale reconstruction of the gravitational potential on the earth's surface. In a numerical experiment the advocated method is successfully applied to reconstruct the earth's gravitational potential from simulated 'exact' and 'error-affected' SGG data on a spherical orbit, using Tikhonov regularization. The applicability of the numerical method is, however, not restricted to data given on a closed orbit but it can also cope with realistic satellite data.