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- Fachbereich Mathematik (30) (remove)

The anchored hyperplane location problem is to locate a hyperplane passing through some given points P IR^n and minimizing either the sum of weighted distances (median problem), or the maximum weighted distance (center problem) to some other points Q IR^n . If the distances are measured by a norm, it will be shown that in the median case there exists an optimal hyperplane that passes through at least n - k affinely independent points of Q, if k is the maximum number of affinely independent points of P. In the center case, there exists an optimal hyperplane which isatmaximum distance to at least n - k + 1 affinely independent points of Q. Furthermore, if the norm is a smooth norm, all optimal hyperplanes satisfy these criteria. These new results generalize known results about unrestricted hyperplane location problems.

A natural extension of point facility location problems are those problems in which facilities are extensive, i.e. those that can not be represented by isolated points but as some dimensional structures such as straight lines, segments of lines, polygonal curves or circles. In this paper a review of the existing work on the location of extensive facilities in continuous spaces is given. Gaps in the knowledge are identified and suggestions for further research are made.

Abstract: Evacuation problems can be modeled as flow problems in dynamic networks. A dynamic network is defined by a directed graph G = (N,A) with sources, sinks and non-negative integral travel times and capacities for every arc (i,j) e A. The earliest arrival flow problem is to send a maximum amount of dynamic flow reaching the sink not only for the given time horizon T, but also for any time T' < T . This problem mimics the evacuation problem of public buildings where occupancies may not known. For the buildings where the number of occupancies is known and concentrated only in one source, the quickest flow model is used to find the minimum egress time. We propose in this paper a solution procedure for evacuation problems with a single source of the building where the occupancy number is either known or unknown. The possibility that the flow capacity may change due to the increasing of smoke density or fire obstructions can be mirrored in our model. The solution procedure looks iteratively for the shortest conditional augmenting path (SCAP) from source to sink and compute the time intervals in which flow reaches the sink via this path.

Endliche Gruppen
(2001)

Eine Einführung mit dem Ziel der Klassifikation von Gruppen kleiner Ordnung. Skript zum Proseminar im WS 2000/01. Inhalt: Satz von Lagrange, Normalteiler, Homomorphismen, symmetrische Gruppe, alternierende Gruppe, Operieren, Konjugieren, (semi-)direkte Produkte, Erzeuger und Relationen, zyklische Gruppen, abelsche Gruppen, Sylowsätze, Automorphismengruppen, Klassifikation, auflösbare Gruppen.

The study of families of curves with prescribed singularities has a long tradition. Its foundations were laid by Plücker, Severi, Segre, and Zariski at the beginning of the 20th century. Leading to interesting results with applications in singularity theory and in the topology of complex algebraic curves and surfaces it has attained the continuous attraction of algebraic geometers since then. Throughout this thesis we examine the varieties V(D,S1,...,Sr) of irreducible reduced curves in a fixed linear system |D| on a smooth projective surface S over the complex numbers having precisely r singular points of types S1,...,Sr. We are mainly interested in the following three questions: 1) Is V(D,S1,...,Sr) non-empty? 2) Is V(D,S1,...,Sr) T-smooth, that is smooth of the expected dimension? 3) Is V(D,S1,...Sr) irreducible? We would like to answer the questions in such a way that we present numerical conditions depending on invariants of the divisor D and of the singularity types S1,...,Sr, which ensure a positive answer. The main conditions which we derive will be of the type inv(S1)+...+inv(Sr) < aD^2+bD.K+c, where inv is some invariant of singularity types, a, b and c are some constants, and K is some fixed divisor. The case that S is the projective plane has been very well studied by many authors, and on other surfaces some results for curves with nodes and cusps have been derived in the past. We, however, consider arbitrary singularity types, and the results which we derive apply to large classes of surfaces, including surfaces in projective three-space, K3-surfaces, products of curves and geometrically ruled surfaces.

Abstract
The main theme of this thesis is about Graph Coloring Applications and Defining Sets in Graph Theory.
As in the case of block designs, finding defining sets seems to be difficult problem, and there is not a general conclusion. Hence we confine us here to some special types of graphs like bipartite graphs, complete graphs, etc.
In this work, four new concepts of defining sets are introduced:
• Defining sets for perfect (maximum) matchings
• Defining sets for independent sets
• Defining sets for edge colorings
• Defining set for maximal (maximum) clique
Furthermore, some algorithms to find and construct the defining sets are introduced. A review on some known kinds of defining sets in graph theory is also incorporated, in chapter 2 the basic definitions and some relevant notations used in this work are introduced.
chapter 3 discusses the maximum and perfect matchings and a new concept for a defining set for perfect matching.
Different kinds of graph colorings and their applications are the subject of chapter 4.
Chapter 5 deals with defining sets in graph coloring. New results are discussed along with already existing research results, an algorithm is introduced, which enables to determine a defining set of a graph coloring.
In chapter 6, cliques are discussed. An algorithm for the determination of cliques using their defining sets. Several examples are included.

Lineare Optimierung ist ein wichtiges Aufgabengebiet der angewandten Mathematik, da sich viele praktische Probleme mittels dieser Technik modellieren und lösen lassen. Diese Veröffentlichung soll helfen, Schüler an diese Thematik heranzuführen. Dabei soll der Vorgang des Modellierens, also die Reduktion des Problems auf die wesentlichen Merkmale, vermittelt werden. Anschließend an den Modellierungsprozeß können durch Einsatz der Simplex-Methode die linearen Optimierungsprobleme gelöst werden. Verschiedene praktische Beispiele dienen der Veranschaulichung des Vorgehens.

Given a railway network together with information on the population and their use of the railway infrastructure, we are considering the e ffects of introducing new train stops in the existing railway network. One e ffect concerns the accessibility of the railway infrastructure to the population, measured in how far people live from their nearest train stop. The second effect we study is the change in travel time for the railway customers that is induced by new train stops. Based on these two models, we introduce two combinatorial optimization problems and give NP-hardness results for them. We suggest an algorithmic approach for the model based on travel time and give first experimental results.

Logic
(2001)

Matrices with the consecutive ones property and interval graphs are important notations in the field of applied mathematics. We give a theoretical picture of them in first part. We present the earliest work in interval graphs and matrices with the consecutive ones property pointing out the close relation between them. We pay attention to Tucker's structure theorem on matrices with the consecutive ones property as an essential step that requires a deep considerations. Later on we concentrate on some recent work characterizing the matrices with the consecutive ones property and matrices related to them in the terms of interval digraphs as the latest and most interesting outlook on our topic. Within this framework we introduce a classiffcation of matrices with consecutive ones property and matrices related to them. We describe the applications of matrices with the consecutive ones property and interval graphs in different fields. We make sure to give a general view of application and their close relation to our studying phenomena. Sometimes we mention algorithms that work in certain fields. In the third part we give a polyhedral approach to matrices with the consecutive ones property. We present the weighted consecutive ones problem and its relation to Tucker's matrices. The constraints of the weighted consecutive ones problem are improved by introducing stronger inequalities, based on the latest theorems on polyhedral aspect of consecutive ones property. Finally we implement a separation algorithm of Oswald and Reinhelt on matrices with the consecutive ones property. We would like to mention that we give a complete proof to the theorems when we consider important within our framework. We prove theorems partially when it is worthwhile to have a closer look, and we omit the proof when there are is only an intersection with our studying phenomena.

In this article, we investigate the maximum entropy moment closure in gas dynamics. We show that the usual choice of polynomial weight functions may lead to hyperbolic systems with an unpleasant state space: equilibrium states are boundary points with possibly singular fluxes. In order to avoid singularities, the necessary arises to find weight functions which growing sub-quadratically at infinity. Unfortunately, this requirement leads to a conflict with Galilean invariance of the moment systems because we can show that rotational and translational invariant, finite dimensional function spaces necessarily consist of polynomials.