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Within this paper we review image distortion measures. A distortion measure is a criterion that assigns a "quality number" to an image. We distinguish between mathematical distortion measures and those distortion measures in-cooperating a priori knowledge about the imaging devices ( e.g. satellite images), image processing algorithms or the human physiology. We will consider representative examples of different kinds of distortion measures and are going to discuss them.

We examine the feasibility polyhedron of the uncapacitated hub location problem (UHL) with multiple allocation, which has applications in the fields of air passenger and cargo transportation, telecommunication and postal delivery services. In particular we determine the dimension and derive some classes of facets of this polyhedron. We develop some general rules about lifting facets from the uncapacitated facility location (UFL) for UHL and projecting facets from UHL to UFL. By applying these rules we get a new class of facets for UHL which dominates the inequalities in the original formulation. Thus we get a new formulation of UHL whose constraints are all facet–defining. We show its superior computational performance by benchmarking it on a well known data set.

Given a public transportation system represented by its stops and direct connections between stops, we consider two problems dealing with the prices for the customers: The fare problem in which subsets of stops are already aggregated to zones and "good" tariffs have to be found in the existing zone system. Closed form solutions for the fare problem are presented for three objective functions. In the zone problem the design of the zones is part of the problem. This problem is NP hard and we therefore propose three heuristics which prove to be very successful in the redesign of one of Germany's transportation systems

In the Finite-Volume-Particle Method (FVPM), the weak formulation of a hyperbolic conservation law is discretized by restricting it to a discrete set of test functions. In contrast to the usual Finite-Volume approach, the test functions are not taken as characteristic functions of the control volumes in a spatial grid, but are chosen from a partition of unity with smooth and overlapping partition functions (the particles), which can even move along prescribed velocity fields. The information exchange between particles is based on standard numerical flux functions. Geometrical information, similar to the surface area of the cell faces in the Finite-Volume Method and the corresponding normal directions are given as integral quantities of the partition functions. After a brief derivation of the Finite-Volume-Particle Method, this work focuses on the role of the geometric coefficients in the scheme.

The objective of this paper is to bridge the gap between location theory and practice. To meet this objective focus is given to the development of software capable of addressing the different needs of a wide group of users. There is a very active community on location theory encompassing many research fields such as operations research, computer science, mathematics, engineering, geography, economics and marketing. As a result, people working on facility location problems have a very diverse background and also different needs regarding the software to solve these problems. For those interested in non-commercial applications (e. g. students and researchers), the library of location algorithms (LoLA can be of considerable assistance. LoLA contains a collection of efficient algorithms for solving planar, network and discrete facility location problems. In this paper, a detailed description of the functionality of LoLA is presented. In the fields of geography and marketing, for instance, solving facility location problems requires using large amounts of demographic data. Hence, members of these groups (e. g. urban planners and sales managers) often work with geographical information too s. To address the specific needs of these users, LoLA was inked to a geographical information system (GIS) and the details of the combined functionality are described in the paper. Finally, there is a wide group of practitioners who need to solve large problems and require special purpose software with a good data interface. Many of such users can be found, for example, in the area of supply chain management (SCM). Logistics activities involved in strategic SCM include, among others, facility location planning. In this paper, the development of a commercial location software tool is also described. The too is embedded in the Advanced Planner and Optimizer SCM software developed by SAP AG, Walldorf, Germany. The paper ends with some conclusions and an outlook to future activities.

This paper details models and algorithms which can be applied to evacuation problems. While it concentrates on building evacuation many of the results are applicable also to regional evacuation. All models consider the time as main parameter, where the travel time between components of the building is part of the input and the overall evacuation time is the output. The paper distinguishes between macroscopic and microscopic evacuation models both of which are able to capture the evacuees' movement over time. Macroscopic models are mainly used to produce good lower bounds for the evacuation time and do not consider any individual behavior during the emergency situation. These bounds can be used to analyze existing buildings or help in the design phase of planning a building. Macroscopic approaches which are based on dynamic network flow models (minimum cost dynamic flow, maximum dynamic flow, universal maximum flow, quickest path and quickest flow) are described. A special feature of the presented approach is the fact, that travel times of evacuees are not restricted to be constant, but may be density dependent. Using multicriteria optimization priority regions and blockage due to fire or smoke may be considered. It is shown how the modelling can be done using time parameter either as discrete or continuous parameter. Microscopic models are able to model the individual evacuee's characteristics and the interaction among evacuees which influence their movement. Due to the corresponding huge amount of data one uses simulation approaches. Some probabilistic laws for individual evacuee's movement are presented. Moreover ideas to model the evacuee's movement using cellular automata (CA) and resulting software are presented. In this paper we will focus on macroscopic models and only summarize some of the results of the microscopic approach. While most of the results are applicable to general evacuation situations, we concentrate on building evacuation.

To simulate the influence of process parameters to the melt spinning process a fiber model is used and coupled with CFD calculations of the quench air flow. In the fiber model energy, momentum and mass balance are solved for the polymer mass flow. To calculate the quench air the Lattice Boltzmann method is used. Simulations and experiments for different process parameters and hole configurations are compared and show a good agreement.

In this paper mathematical models for liquid films generated by impinging jets are discussed. Attention is stressed to the interaction of the liquid film with some obstacle. S. G. Taylor [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 253, 313 (1959)] found that the liquid film generated by impinging jets is very sensitive to properties of the wire which was used as an obstacle. The aim of this presentation is to propose a modification of the Taylor's model, which allows to simulate the film shape in cases, when the angle between jets is different from 180°. Numerical results obtained by discussed models give two different shapes of the liquid film similar as in Taylors experiments. These two shapes depend on the regime: either droplets are produced close to the obstacle or not. The difference between two regimes becomes larger if the angle between jets decreases. Existence of such two regimes can be very essential for some applications of impinging jets, if the generated liquid film can have a contact with obstacles.

Free Surface Lattice-Boltzmann Method To Model The Filling Of Expanding Cavities By Bingham Fluids
(2001)

The filling process of viscoplastic metal alloys and plastics in expanding cavities is modelled using the lattice Boltzmann method in two and three dimensions. These models combine the regularized Bingham model for viscoplastic with a free-interface algorithm. The latter is based on a modified immiscible lattice Boltzmann model in which one species is the fluid and the other one is considered as vacuum. The boundary conditions at the curved liquid-vacuum interface are met without any geometrical front reconstruction from a first-order Chapman-Enskog expansion. The numerical results obtained with these models are found in good agreement with available theoretical and numerical analysis.

A Lagrangian particle scheme is applied to the projection method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The approximation of spatial derivatives is obtained by the weighted least squares method. The pressure Poisson equation is solved by a local iterative procedure with the help of the least squares method. Numerical tests are performed for two dimensional cases. The Couette flow, Poiseuelle flow, decaying shear flow and the driven cavity flow are presented. The numerical solutions are obtained for stationary as well as instationary cases and are compared with the analytical solutions for channel flows. Finally, the driven cavity in a unit square is considered and the stationary solution obtained from this scheme is compared with that from the finite element method.

In this paper we consider short term storage systems. We analyze presorting strategies to improve the effiency of these storage systems. The presorting task is called Batch PreSorting Problem (BPSP). The BPSP is a variation of an assigment problem, i.e., it has an assigment problem kernel and some additional constraints. We present different types of these presorting problems, introduce mathematical programming formulations and prove the NP-completeness for one type of the BPSP. Experiments are carried out in order to compare the different model formulations and to investigate the behavior of these models.

We consider some portfolio optimisation problems where either the investor has a desire for an a priori specified consumption stream or/and follows a deterministic pay in scheme while also trying to maximize expected utility from final wealth. We derive explicit closed form solutions for continuous and discrete monetary streams. The mathematical method used is classical stochastic control theory.

If an investor borrows money he generally has to pay higher interest rates than he would have received, if he had put his funds on a savings account. The classical model of continuous time portfolio optimisation ignores this effect. Since there is obviously a connection between the default probability and the total percentage of wealth, which the investor is in debt, we study portfolio optimisation with a control dependent interest rate. Assuming a logarithmic and a power utility function, respectively, we prove explicit formulae of the optimal control.

Two approaches for determining the Euler-Poincaré characteristic of a set observed on lattice points are considered in the context of image analysis { the integral geometric and the polyhedral approach. Information about the set is assumed to be available on lattice points only. In order to retain properties of the Euler number and to provide a good approximation of the true Euler number of the original set in the Euclidean space, the appropriate choice of adjacency in the lattice for the set and its background is crucial. Adjacencies are defined using tessellations of the whole space into polyhedrons. In R 3 , two new 14 adjacencies are introduced additionally to the well known 6 and 26 adjacencies. For the Euler number of a set and its complement, a consistency relation holds. Each of the pairs of adjacencies (14:1; 14:1), (14:2; 14:2), (6; 26), and (26; 6) is shown to be a pair of complementary adjacencies with respect to this relation. That is, the approximations of the Euler numbers are consistent if the set and its background (complement) are equipped with this pair of adjacencies. Furthermore, sufficient conditions for the correctness of the approximations of the Euler number are given. The analysis of selected microstructures and a simulation study illustrate how the estimated Euler number depends on the chosen adjacency. It also shows that there is not a uniquely best pair of adjacencies with respect to the estimation of the Euler number of a set in Euclidean space.

Lattice Boltzmann Model for Free-Surface flow and Its Application to Filling Process in Casting
(2002)

A generalized lattice Boltzmann model to simulate free-surface is constructed in both two and three dimensions. The proposed model satisfies the interfacial boundary conditions accurately. A distinctive feature of the model is that the collision processes is carried out only on the points occupied partially or fully by the fluid. To maintain a sharp interfacial front, the method includes an anti-diffusion algorithm. The unknown distribution functions at the interfacial region are constructed according to the first order Chapman-Enskog analysis. The interfacial boundary conditions are satisfied exactly by the coefficients in the Chapman-Enskog expansion. The distribution functions are naturally expressed in the local interfacial coordinates. The macroscopic quantities at the interface are extracted from the least-square solutions of a locally linearized system obtained from the known distribution functions. The proposed method does not require any geometric front construction and is robust for any interfacial topology. Simulation results of realistic filling process are presented: rectangular cavity in two dimensions and Hammer box, Campbell box, Sheffield box, and Motorblock in three dimensions. To enhance the stability at high Reynolds numbers, various upwind-type schemes are developed. Free-slip and no-slip boundary conditions are also discussed.

In the present paper a kinetic model for vehicular traffic leading to multivalued fundamental diagrams is developed and investigated in detail. For this model phase transitions can appear depending on the local density and velocity of the flow. A derivation of associated macroscopic traffic equations from the kinetic equation is given. Moreover, numerical experiments show the appearance of stop and go waves for highway traffic with a bottleneck.

To a network N(q) with determinant D(s;q) depending on a parameter vector q Î Rr via identification of some of its vertices, a network N^ (q) is assigned. The paper deals with procedures to find N^ (q), such that its determinant D^ (s;q) admits a factorization in the determinants of appropriate subnetworks, and with the estimation of the deviation of the zeros of D^ from the zeros of D. To solve the estimation problem state space methods are applied.

A spectral theory for stationary random closed sets is developed and provided with a sound mathematical basis. Definition and proof of existence of the Bartlett spectrum of a stationary random closed set as well as the proof of a Wiener-Khintchine theorem for the power spectrum are used to two ends: First, well known second order characteristics like the covariance can be estimated faster than usual via frequency space. Second, the Bartlett spectrum and the power spectrum can be used as second order characteristics in frequency space. Examples show, that in some cases information about the random closed set is easier to obtain from these characteristics in frequency space than from their real world counterparts.

We present a unified approach of several boundary conditions for lattice Boltzmann models. Its general framework is a generalization of previously introduced schemes such as the bounce-back rule, linear or quadratic interpolations, etc. The objectives are two fold: first to give theoretical tools to study the existing boundary conditions and their corresponding accuracy; secondly to design formally third- order accurate boundary conditions for general flows. Using these boundary conditions, Couette and Poiseuille flows are exact solution of the lattice Boltzmann models for a Reynolds number Re = 0 (Stokes limit). Numerical comparisons are given for Stokes flows in periodic arrays of spheres and cylinders, linear periodic array of cylinders between moving plates and for Navier-Stokes flows in periodic arrays of cylinders for Re < 200. These results show a significant improvement of the overall accuracy when using the linear interpolations instead of the bounce-back reflection (up to an order of magnitude on the hydrodynamics fields). Further improvement is achieved with the new multi-reflection boundary conditions, reaching a level of accuracy close to the quasi-analytical reference solutions, even for rather modest grid resolutions and few points in the narrowest channels. More important, the pressure and velocity fields in the vicinity of the obstacles are much smoother with multi-reflection than with the other boundary conditions. Finally the good stability of these schemes is highlighted by some simulations of moving obstacles: a cylinder between flat walls and a sphere in a cylinder.