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#### Faculty / Organisational entity

The detection and characterisation of undesired lead structures on shaft surfaces is a concern in production and quality control of rotary shaft lip-type sealing systems. The potential lead structures are generally divided into macro and micro lead based on their characteristics and formation. Macro lead measurement methods exist and are widely applied. This work describes a method to characterise micro lead on ground shaft surfaces. Micro lead is known as the deviation of main orientation of the ground micro texture from circumferential direction. Assessing the orientation of microscopic structures with arc minute accuracy with regard to circumferential direction requires exact knowledge of both the shaft’s orientation and the direction of surface texture. The shaft’s circumferential direction is found by calibration. Measuring systems and calibration procedures capable of calibrating shaft axis orientation with high accuracy and low uncertainty are described. The measuring systems employ areal-topographic measuring instruments suited for evaluating texture orientation. A dedicated evaluation scheme for texture orientation is based on the Radon transform of these topographies and parametrised for the application. Combining the calibration of circumferential direction with the evaluation of texture orientation the method enables the measurement of micro lead on ground shaft surfaces.

Divide-and-Conquer is a common strategy to manage the complexity of system design and verification. In the context of System-on-Chip (SoC) design verification, an SoC system is decomposed into several modules and every module is separately verified. Usually an SoC module is reactive: it interacts with its environmental modules. This interaction is normally modeled by environment constraints, which are applied to verify the SoC module. Environment constraints are assumed to be always true when verifying the individual modules of a system. Therefore the correctness of environment constraints is very important for module verification.
Environment constraints are also very important for coverage analysis. Coverage analysis in formal verification measures whether or not the property set fully describes the functional behavior of the design under verification (DuV). if a set of properties describes every functional behavior of a DuV, the set of properties is called complete. To verify the correctness of environment constraints, Assume-Guarantee Reasoning rules can be employed.
However, the state of the art assume-guarantee reasoning rules cannot be applied to the environment constraints specified by using an industrial standard property language such as SystemVerilog Assertions (SVA).
This thesis proposes a new assume-guarantee reasoning rule that can be applied to environment constraints specified by using a property language such as SVA. In addition, this thesis proposes two efficient plausibility checks for constraints that can be conducted without a concrete implementation of the considered environment.
Furthermore, this thesis provides a compositional reasoning framework determining that a system is completely verified if all modules are verified with Complete Interval Property Checking (C-IPC) under environment constraints.
At present, there is a trend that more of the functionality in SoCs is shifted from the hardware to the hardware-dependent software (HWDS), which is a crucial component in an SoC, since other software layers, such as the operating systems are built on it. Therefore there is an increasing need to apply formal verification to HWDS, especially for safety-critical systems.
The interactions between HW and HWDS are often reactive, and happen in a temporal order. This requires new property languages to specify the reactive behavior at the HW and SW interfaces.
This thesis introduces a new property language, called Reactive Software Property Language (RSPL), to specify the reactive interactions between the HW and the HWDS.
Furthermore, a method for checking the completeness of software properties, which are specified by using RSPL, is presented in this thesis. This method is motivated by the approach of checking the completeness of hardware properties.

In the present work the concept of decarboxylative couplings and the strategy to use carboxylates as directing groups for C-H functionalizations have been decisively improved in three ways. These concepts emphasize the multifaceted nature of aromatic carboxylic acids as expedient starting materials in homogeneous catalysis to construct highly desirable molecular scaffolds in a straightforward fashion.
In the first project, the restriction of decarboxylative biaryl synthesis to exclusively couple aryl halides with ortho-substituted benzoic acids has been overcome by a holistic optimization of a Cu/Pd bimetallic catalyst system. Long ago postulated, this is now the proof that decarboxylative cross-couplings are not intrinsically limited to different decarboxylation propensities of benzoic acids or hampered by excess halides, accessing for the first time the entire spectrum of aromatic carboxylic acids as starting materials for the decarboxylative biaryl synthesis. The second project uses the carboxyl moiety as directing group for the ortho-arylation with aryl bromides and -chlorides catalyzed by comparatively inexpensive ruthenium. The carboxylic acid group remains untouched after the ortho-functionalization giving the possibility to a wealth of further diversifications via decarboxylative ipso-substitutions. Within the same project, a Cu/Ru bimetallic catalyst system was found to be able to switch the decarboxylative biaryl coupling from the ipso- to the ortho-position, complementing the Cu/Pd system developed in the first project. In a third project, a redox neutral C-C bond formation revealed the full synthetic potential of the carboxyl group. The COOH moiety acts as a classical directing group for the C-H hydroarylation of internal alkynes to form highly desirable 2-vinyl benzoic acids. With propargylic alcohols the hydroarylation is followed by an in situ esterification, showing that after easing the C-H cleavage, the directing group can be transformed into another functional group, thus, acting as a transformable directing group. Most importantly, a new fascinating reaction mode is activated by embedding the decarboxylation within the C-H functionalization event. This mode of action is capable to solve regioselectivity issues that inherently occur when dealing with carboxylates as directing groups. A so-called deciduous directing group is cast off simultaneously within the C-H functionalization event, resulting in an inherently monoselective pathway.
These methods were developed with the permanent goal of ensuring high sustainability. They do require neither pre-functionalized starting materials nor additional oxidants and provide access to a number of chemically relevant molecules from abundant, inexpensive and toxicologically innocuous educts.

We continue in this paper the study of k-adaptable robust solutions for combinatorial optimization problems with bounded uncertainty sets. In this concept not a single solution needs to be chosen to hedge against the uncertainty. Instead one is allowed to choose a set of k different solutions from which one can be chosen after the uncertain scenario has been revealed. We first show how the problem can be decomposed into polynomially many subproblems if k is fixed. In the remaining part of the paper we consider the special case where k=2, i.e., one is allowed to choose two different solutions to hedge against the uncertainty. We decompose this problem into so called coordination problems. The study of these coordination problems turns out to be interesting on its own. We prove positive results for the unconstrained combinatorial optimization problem, the matroid maximization problem, the selection problem, and the shortest path problem on series parallel graphs. The shortest path problem on general graphs turns out to be NP-complete. Further, we present for minimization problems how to transform approximation algorithms for the coordination problem to approximation algorithms for the original problem. We study the knapsack problem to show that this relation does not hold for maximization problems in general. We present a PTAS for the corresponding coordination problem and prove that the 2-adaptable knapsack problem is not at all approximable.

We extend the standard concept of robust optimization by the introduction of an alternative solution. In contrast to the classic concept, one is allowed to chose two solutions from which the best can be picked after the uncertain scenario has been revealed. We focus in this paper on the resulting robust problem for combinatorial problems with bounded uncertainty sets. We present a reformulation of the robust problem which decomposes it into polynomially many subproblems. In each subproblem one needs to find two solutions which are connected by a cost function which penalizes if the same element is part of both solutions. Using this reformulation, we show how the robust problem can be solved efficiently for the unconstrained combinatorial problem, the selection problem, and the minimum spanning tree problem. The robust problem corresponding to the shortest path problem turns out to be NP-complete on general graphs. However, for series-parallel graphs, the robust shortest path problem can be solved efficiently. Further, we show how approximation algorithms for the subproblem can be used to compute approximate solutions for the original problem.

In this thesis viscoelastic material models are established to investigate the nature of continuous calving processes at Antarctic ice shelves. Physics-based descriptions of calving require appropriate fracture criteria to separate icebergs from the remaining ice shelf. Hence, criteria of the stress, the strain, and the self-similarity criterion are considered within finite-element computations. Crucial parameters in the models to determine the position of calving are the accurate knowledge of the geometry, especially the freeboard height, while the material parameters mainly influence the time span between two successive calving events. The extension to nonlinear material models is necessary to properly analyze the internal forces also for large deformations that occur for longer times of the viscous ice flow.

This thesis presents research studies on the fundamental interplay of diatomic molecules with transition metal compounds under cryogenic conditions. The utilized setup offers a multitude of opportunities to study isolated ions: The ions can either be generated by an ElectroSpray Ionization (ESI) source or a Laser VAPorization (LVAP) cluster ion source. The setup facilitates kinetic investigations of the ions with different reaction gases under well-defined isothermal conditions. Moreover it enables cryo InfraRed (Multiple) Photon Dissociation (IR-(M)PD) spectroscopy in combination with tunable OPO/OPA laser systems. In conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) modelling, the IR(M)-PD spectra allow for an assignment of geometric minimum structures. Furthermore DFT modelling helps to identify possible reaction pathways. Altogether the presented methods allow to gain fundamental insights into molecular structures and reactivity of the investigated systems.
The first part of this thesis focuses on the interplay of N2 with different transition metal clusters (Con+, Nin+, and Fen+) by cryo IR spectroscopy and cryo kinetics. In conjunction with DFT modelling the N2 coordination was elucidated (Con+), structures were assigned (Nin+), the concept of structure related surface adsorption behavior was introduced (Nin+), and the a first explanation for the inertness if Fe17+ was given (Fen+). Furthermore this thesis provides for a case study on the coadsorption of H2 and N2 on Ru8+ that elucidates the H migration on the Ru cluster. The last part of the thesis addresses the IR spectra of in vacuo generated [Hemin]+ complexes with N2, O2, and CO. Structures and spin states were assigned with the help of DFT modelling.

Nonwoven materials are used as filter media which are the key component of automotive filters such as air filters, oil filters, and fuel filters. Today, the advanced engine technologies require innovative filter media with higher performances. A virtual microstructure of the nonwoven filter medium, which has similar filter properties as the existing material, can be used to design new filter media from existing media. Nonwoven materials considered in this thesis prominently feature non-overlapping fibers, curved fibers, fibers with circular cross section, fibers of apparently infinite length, and fiber bundles. To this end, as part of this thesis, we extend the Altendorf-Jeulin individual fiber model to incorporate all the above mentioned features. The resulting novel stochastic 3D fiber model can generate geometries with good visual resemblance of real filter media. Furthermore, pressure drop, which is one of the important physical properties of the filter, simulated numerically on the computed tomography (CT) data of the real nonwoven material agrees well (with a relative error of 8%) with the pressure drop simulated in the generated microstructure realizations from our model.
Generally, filter properties for the CT data and generated microstructure realizations are computed using numerical simulations. Since numerical simulations require extensive system memory and computation time, it is important to find the representative domain size of the generated microstructure for a required filter property. As part of this thesis, simulation and a statistical approach are used to estimate the representative domain size of our microstructure model. Precisely, the representative domain size with respect to the packing density, the pore size distribution, and the pressure drop are considered. It turns out that the statistical approach can be used to estimate the representative domain size for the given property more precisely and using less generated microstructures than the purely simulation based approach.
Among the various properties of fibrous filter media, fiber thickness and orientation are important characteristics which should be considered in design and quality assurance of filter media. Automatic analysis of images from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a suitable tool in that context. Yet, the accuracy of such image analysis tools cannot be judged based on images of real filter media since their true fiber thickness and orientation can never be known accurately. A solution is to employ synthetically generated models for evaluation. By combining our 3D fiber system model with simulation of the SEM imaging process, quantitative evaluation of the fiber thickness and orientation measurements becomes feasible. We evaluate the state-of-the-art automatic thickness and orientation estimation method that way.

For many years, most distributed real-time systems employed data communication systems specially tailored to address the specific requirements of individual domains: for instance, Controlled Area Network (CAN) and Flexray in the automotive domain, ARINC 429 [FW10] and TTP [Kop95] in the aerospace domain. Some of these solutions were expensive, and eventually not well understood.
Mostly driven by the ever decreasing costs, the application of such distributed real-time system have drastically increased in the last years in different domains. Consequently, cross-domain communication systems are advantageous. Not only the number of distributed real-time systems have been increasing but also the number of nodes per system, have drastically increased, which in turn increases their network bandwidth requirements. Further, the system architectures have been changing, allowing for applications to spread computations among different computer nodes. For example, modern avionics systems moved from federated to integrated modular architecture, also increasing the network bandwidth requirements.
Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) [iee12] is a well established network standard. Further, it is fast, easy to install, and the interface ICs are cheap [Dec05]. However, Ethernet does not offer any temporal guarantee. Research groups from academia and industry have presented a number of protocols merging the benefits of Ethernet and the temporal guarantees required by distributed real-time systems. Two of these protocols are: Avionics Full-Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX) [AFD09] and Time-Triggered Ethernet (TTEthernet) [tim16]. In this dissertation, we propose solutions for two problems faced during the design of AFDX and TTEthernet networks: avoiding data loss due to buffer overflow in AFDX networks with multiple priority traffic, and scheduling of TTEthernet networks.
AFDX guarantees bandwidth separation and bounded transmission latency for each communication channel. Communication channels in AFDX networks are not synchronized, and therefore frames might compete for the same output port, requiring buffering to avoid data loss. To avoid buffer overflow and the resulting data loss, the network designer must reserve a safe, but not too pessimistic amount of memory of each buffer. The current AFDX standard allows for the classification of the network traffic with two priorities. Nevertheless, some commercial solutions provide multiple priorities, increasing the complexity of the buffer backlog analysis. The state-of-the-art AFDX buffer backlog analysis does not provide a method to compute deterministic upper bounds
iiifor buffer backlog of AFDX networks with multiple priority traffic. Therefore, in this dissertation we propose a method to address this open problem. Our method is based on the analysis of the largest busy period encountered by frames stored in a buffer. We identify the ingress (and respective egress) order of frames in the largest busy period that leads to the largest buffer backlog, and then compute the respective buffer backlog upper bound. We present experiments to measure the computational costs of our method.
In TTEthernet, nodes are synchronized, allowing for message transmission at well defined points in time, computed off-line and stored in a conflict-free scheduling table. The computation of such scheduling tables is a NP-complete problem [Kor92], which should be solved in reasonable time for industrial size networks. We propose an approach to efficiently compute a schedule for the TT communication channels in TTEthernet networks, in which we model the scheduling problem as a search tree. As the scheduler traverses the search tree, it schedules the communication channels on a physical link. We presented two approaches to traverse the search tree while progressively creating the vertices of the search tree. A valid schedule is found once the scheduler reaches a valid leaf. If on the contrary, it reaches an invalid leaf, the scheduler backtracks searching for a path to a valid leaf. We present a set of experiments to demonstrate the impact of the input parameters on the time taken to compute a feasible schedule or to deem the set of virtual links infeasible.

The proliferation of sensors in everyday devices – especially in smartphones – has led to crowd sensing becoming an important technique in many urban applications ranging from noise pollution mapping or road condition monitoring to tracking the spreading of diseases. However, in order to establish integrated crowd sensing environments on a large scale, some open issues need to be tackled first. On a high level, this thesis concentrates on dealing with two of those key issues: (1) efficiently collecting and processing large amounts of sensor data from smartphones in a scalable manner and (2) extracting abstract data models from those collected data sets thereby enabling the development of complex smart city services based on the extracted knowledge.
Going more into detail, the first main contribution of this thesis is the development of methods and architectures to facilitate simple and efficient deployments, scalability and adaptability of crowd sensing applications in a broad range of scenarios while at the same time enabling the integration of incentivation mechanisms for the participating general public. During an evaluation within a complex, large-scale environment it is shown that real-world deployments of the proposed data recording architecture are in fact feasible. The second major contribution of this thesis is the development of a novel methodology for using the recorded data to extract abstract data models which are representing the inherent core characteristics of the source data correctly. Finally – and in order to bring together the results of the thesis – it is demonstrated how the proposed architecture and the modeling method can be used to implement a complex smart city service by employing a data driven development approach.

In this paper a modified version of dynamic network
ows is discussed. Whereas dynamic network flows are widely analyzed already, we consider a dynamic flow problem with aggregate arc capacities called Bridge
Problem which was introduced by Melkonian [Mel07]. We extend his research to integer flows and show that this problem is strongly NP-hard. For practical relevance we also introduce and analyze the hybrid bridge problem, i.e. with underlying networks whose arc capacity can limit aggregate flow (bridge problem) or the flow entering an arc at each time (general dynamic flow). For this kind of problem we present efficient procedures for
special cases that run in polynomial time. Moreover, we present a heuristic for general hybrid graphs with restriction on the number of bridge arcs.
Computational experiments show that the heuristic works well, both on random graphs and on graphs modeling also on realistic scenarios.

Due to their superior weight-specific mechanical properties, carbon fibre epoxy composites (CFRP) are commonly used in aviation industry. However, their brittle failure behaviour limits the structural integrity and damage tolerance in case of impact (e.g. tool drop, bird strike, hail strike, ramp collision) or crash events. To ensure sufficient robustness, a minimum skin thickness is therefore prescribed for the fuselage, partially exceeding typical service load requirements from ground or flight manoeuvre load cases. A minimum skin thickness is also required for lightning strike protection purposes and to enable state-of-the-art bolted repair technology. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity of CFRP aircraft structures is insufficient for certain applications; additional metal components are necessary to provide electrical functionality (e.g. metal meshes on the outer skin for lightning strike protection, wires for electrical bonding and grounding, overbraiding of cables to provide electromagnetic shielding). The corresponding penalty weights compromise the lightweight potential that is actually given by the structural performance of CFRP over aluminium alloys.
Former research attempts tried to overcome these deficits by modifying the resin system (e.g. by addition of conductive particles or toughening agents) but could not prove sufficient enhancements. A novel holistic approach is the incorporation of highly conductive and ductile continuous metal fibres into CFRP. The basic idea of this hybrid material concept is to take advantage of both the electrical and mechanical capabilities of the integrated metal fibres in order to simultaneously improve the electrical conductivity and the damage tolerance of the composite. The increased density of the hybrid material is over-compensated by omitting the need for additional electrical system installation items and by the enhanced structural performance, enabling a reduction of the prescribed minimum skin thickness. Advantages over state-of-the-art fibre metal laminates mainly arise from design and processing technology aspects.
In this context, the present work focuses on analysing and optimising the structural and electrical performance of such hybrid composites with shares of metal fibres up to 20 vol.%. Bundles of soft-annealed austenitic steel or copper cladded low carbon steel fibres with filament diameters of 60 or 63 µm are considered. The fibre bundles are distinguished by high elongation at break (32 %) and ultimate tensile strength (900 MPa) or high electrical conductivity (2.4 × 10^7 S/m). Comprehensive researches are carried out on the fibre bundles as well as on unidirectional and multiaxial laminates. Both hybrid composites with homogeneous and accumulated steel fibre arrangement are taken into account. Electrical in-plane conductivity, plain tensile behaviour, suitability for bolted joints as well as impact and perforation performance of the composite are analysed. Additionally, a novel non-destructive testing method based on measurement of deformation-induced phase transformation of the metastable austenitic steel fibres is discussed.
The outcome of the conductivity measurements verifies a correlation of the volume conductivity of the composite with the volume share and the specific electrical resistance of the incorporated metal fibres. Compared to conventional CFRP, the electrical conductivity in parallel to the fibre orientation can be increased by one to two orders of magnitude even for minor percentages of steel fibres. The analysis, however, also discloses the challenge of establishing a sufficient connection to the hybrid composite in order to entirely exploit its electrical conductivity.
In case of plain tensile load, the performance of the hybrid composite is essentially affected by the steel fibre-resin-adhesion as well as the laminate structure. Uniaxial hybrid laminates show brittle, singular failure behaviour. Exhaustive yielding of the embedded steel fibres is confined to the arising fracture gap. The high transverse stiffness of the isotropic metal fibres additionally intensifies strain magnification within the resin under transverse tensile load. This promotes (intralaminar) inter-fibre-failure at minor composite deformation. By contrast, multiaxial hybrid laminates exhibit distinctive damage evolution. After failure initiation, the steel fibres extensively yield and sustain the load-carrying capacity of angularly (e.g. ±45°) aligned CFRP plies. The overall material response is thus not only a simple superimposition but a complex interaction of the mechanical behaviour of the composite’s constituents. As a result of this post-damage performance, an ultimate elongation of over 11 % can be proven for the hybrid laminates analysed in this work. In this context, the influence of the steel fibre-resin adhesion on the failure behaviour of the hybrid composite is explicated by means of an analytical model. Long term exposure to corrosive media has no detrimental effect on the mechanical performance of stainless steel fibre reinforced composites. By trend, water uptake increases the maximum elongation at break of the hybrid laminate.
Moreover, the suitability of CFRP for bolted joints can partially be improved by the integration of steel fibres. While the bearing strength basically remains nearly unaffected, the bypass failure behaviour (ε_{max}: +363 %) as well as the head pull-through resistance (E_{a,BPT}: +81 %) can be enhanced. The improvements primarily concern the load-carrying capacity after failure initiation. Additionally, the integrated ductile steel fibres significantly increase the energy absorption capacity of the laminate in case of progressive bearing failure by up to 63 %.
However, the hybrid composite exhibits a sensitive low velocity/low mass impact behaviour. Compared to conventional CFRP, the damage threshold load of very thin hybrid laminates is lower, making them prone for delamination at minor, non-critical impact energies. At higher energy levels, however, the impact-induced delamination spreads less since most of the impact energy is absorbed by yielding of the ductile metal fibres instead of crack propagation. This structural advantage compared to CFRP gains in importance with increasing impact energy. The plastic deformation of the metastable austenitic steel fibres is accompanied by a phase transformation from paramagnetic γ-austenite to ferromagnetic α’-martensite. This change of the magnetic behaviour can be used to detect and evaluate impacts on the surface of the hybrid composite, which provides a simple non-destructive testing method. In case of low velocity/high mass impact, integration of ductile metal fibres into CFRP enables to address spacious areas of the laminate for energy absorption purposes. As a consequence, the perforation resistance of the hybrid composite is significantly enhanced; by addition of approximately 20 vol.% of stainless steel fibres, the perforation strength can be increased by 61 %, while the maximum energy absorption capacity rises by 194 %.

Magnetic and Structural Characterization of Isolated Gaseous Ions by XMCD and IRMPD Spectroscopy
(2017)

This thesis comprises four independent research studies on the magnetic and structural characterization of isolated ions in the gas phase. The electrospray ionization (ESI) technique is used for the transfer of (multi-)metallic complexes and organic molecules from solution into the gas phase. The subsequent storage of molecular ions in ion traps allows for a variety of spectroscopic methods in order to investigate the intrinsic properties of the isolated species void of solvent, crystal lattice, bulk or supporting surface effects. The magnetic properties of metal complexes are elucidated by gas phase X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy. The element selective technique in combination with sum rule analysis allows for a separate determination of spin and orbital magnetic moments at different metal centers. Structural investigations on isolated molecular ions in terms of coordination sphere, binding motifs and hydrogen bonds are conducted using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. A resonant two color IRMPD technique serves to increase fragmentation yields, overcome dissociation bottlenecks and reveal otherwise dark bands. Comparison of experimental IRMPD spectra with calculated harmonic absorption spectra by density functional theory (DFT) provides structural assignments for a profound understanding of intra- and intermolecular interactions.

Annual Report 2017
(2017)

Annual Report 2016
(2017)

Temporal Data Management and Incremental Data Recomputation with Wide-column Stores and MapReduce
(2017)

In recent years, ”Big Data” has become an important topic in academia
and industry. To handle the challenges and problems caused by Big Data,
new types of data storage systems called ”NoSQL stores” (means ”Not-only-
SQL”) have emerged.
”Wide-column stores” are one kind of NoSQL stores. Compared to relational database systems, wide-column stores introduce a new data model,
new IRUD (Insert, Retrieve, Update and Delete) semantics with support for
schema-flexibility, single-row transactions and data expiration constraints.
Moreover, each column stores multiple data versions with associated time-
stamps. Well-known examples are Google’s ”Big-table” and its open sourced
counterpart ”HBase”. Recently, such systems are increasingly used in business intelligence and data warehouse environments to provide decision support, controlling and revision capabilities.
Besides managing the current values, data warehouses also require management and processing of historical, time-related data. Data warehouses
frequently employ techniques for processing changes in various data sources
and incrementally applying such changes to the warehouse to keep it up-to-
date. Although both incremental data warehousing maintenance and temporal data management have been the subject of intensive research in the
relational database and finally commercial database products have picked up
the ability for temporal data processing and management, such capabilities
have not been explored systematically for today’s wide-column stores.
This thesis helps to address the shortcomings mentioned above. It care-
fully analyzes the properties of wide-column stores and the applicability
of mechanisms for temporal data management and incremental data ware-
house maintenance known from relational databases, extends well-known approaches and develops new capabilities for providing equivalent support in
wide-column stores.

Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Untersuchung von Absorptionseigenschaften und elektronischer Kurzzeit-Dynamik von organischen Farbstoffmolekülen und supramolekularen Photokatalysatoren in der Gasphase. Dabei wurde erstmals sehr intensiv ein eine relativ unbekannte experimentelle Methode eingesetzt, nämlich die zeitaufgelöste, pump-probe (Anregung-Abfrage) Photofragmentations-Spektroskopie. Die Kombination eines kommerziellen Quadrupol Ionenfallen Massenspektrometers mit einem Femtosekunden Lasersystem erlaubt es die intrinsischen, elektronischen Eigenschaften molekularer, ionischer Systeme abzubilden. Neben Populationsdynamik angeregter Zustände wurden erstmals Schwingungs- und Rotationswellenpaket-Dynamik mit dieser Methode beobachtet und dokumentiert.
Im ersten Teil der Arbeit werden die Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen an einigen ausgewählten Fluoresecein-Derivaten und eines Carbocyanin-Farbstoffes präsentiert. Obwohl diese Modellsysteme zunächst nur dem Zweck dienen sollten die Möglichkeiten des experimentellen Aufbaus zu evaluieren, ergaben die Untersuchungen weiterhin tiefgreifende Einblicke in die elektronische Struktur isolierter organischer Farbstoffe, die bis heute in Literatur nicht dokumentiert worden sind.
Der zweite Teil befasst sich mit der Untersuchung an drei supramolekularen, ionischen Systemen zur photokatalytischen Wasserstofferzeugung. Dabei dienten wieder zwei der Systeme dem Zweck den experimentellen Aufbau zu evaluieren. Neben der elektronischen Populationsdynamik wurde mittels polarisationsabhängiger Messungen weitere Einblicke in den Elektronentransferprozess erhalten – ein Kernpunkt in der Wirkweise supramolekularer Katalysatoren. Die neugewonnen Erkenntnisse wurden schließlich verwendet um einen neuartigen Katalysator zu untersuchen. Dabei stellte sich heraus, dass die Labilität der Ligandensphäre am katalytischen Metallzentrum Untersuchungen am intakten System in Lösung stark beeinträchtigt und somit nur aussagekräftige Ergebnisse mittels einer Gasphasen Methode, einer wie der hier verwendeten, erhalten werden können.
Die experimentellen Ergebnisse werden unterstützt durch quantenchemische Berechnungen von energetischen Minimum-Strukturen, den Strukturen von Übergangszuständen, sowie der Berechnung von Schwingungs- und UV/Vis-Absorptionsspektren mittels (zeitabhängiger) Dichtefunktionaltheorie (DFT & TD-DFT).

Bulk-boundary correspondence in non-equilibrium dynamics of one-dimensional topological insulators
(2017)

Dynamical phase transitions (DPT) are receiving a rising interest. They are known to behave analogously to
equilibrium phase transitions (EPT) to a large extend. However, it is easy to see that DPT can occur in finite
systems, while EPT are only possible in the thermodynamic limit. So far it is not clear how far the analogy of
DPT and EPT goes. It was suggested, that there is a relation between topological phase transitions (TPT)
and DPT, but many open questions remain.
Typically, to study DPT, the Loschmidt echo (LE) after a quench is investigated, where DPT are visible as
singularities. For one-dimensional systems, each singularity is connected to a certain critical time scale, which
is given by the dispersion in the chain.
In topological free-fermion models with winding numbers 0 or 1, only the LE in periodic boundary conditions
(PBC) has been investigated. In open boundary conditions (OBC), these models are characterized by symmetry
protected edge modes in the topologically non-trivial phase. It is completely unclear how these modes affect
DPT. We investigate systems with PBC governed by multiple time scales with a Z topological invariant. In
OBC, we provide numerical evidence for the presence of bulk-boundary correspondence in DPT in quenches
across a TPT.

”In contemporary electronics 80% of a chip may perform digital functions but the 20%
of analog functions may take 80% of the development time.” [1]. Aggravating this, the
demands on analog design is increasing with rapid technology scaling. Most designs
have moved away from analog to digital domains, where possible, however, interacting
with the environment will always require analog to digital data conversion. Adding to
this problem, the number of sensors used in consumer and industry related products are
rapidly increasing. Designers of ADCs are dealing with this problem in several ways, the
most important is the migration towards digital designs and time domain techniques.
Time to Digital Converters (TDC) are becoming increasingly popular for robust signal
processing. Biological neurons make use of spikes, which carry spike timing information
and will not be affected by the problems related to technology scaling. Neuromorphic
ADCs still remain exotic with few implementations in sub-micron technologies Table 2.7.
Even among these few designs, the strengths of biological neurons are rarely exploited.
From a previous work [2], LUCOS, a high dynamic range image sensor, the efficiency
of spike processing has been validated. The ideas from this work can be generalized to
make a highly effective sensor signal conditioning system, which carries the promise to
be robust to technology scaling.
The goal of this work is to create a novel spiking neural ADC as a novel form of a
Multi-Sensor Signal Conditioning and Conversion system, which
• Will be able to interface with or be a part of a System on Chip with traditional
analog or advanced digital components.
• Will have a graceful degradation.
• Will be robust to noise and jitter related problems.
• Will be able to learn and adapt to static errors and dynamic errors.
• Will be capable of self-repair, self-monitoring and self-calibration
Sensory systems in humans and other animals analyze the environment using several
techniques. These techniques have been evolved and perfected to help the animal sur-
vive. Different animals specialize in different sense organs, however, the peripheral
neural network architectures remain similar among various animal species with few ex-
ceptions. While there are many biological sensing techniques present, most popularly
used engineering techniques are based on intensity detection, frequency detection, and
edge detection. These techniques are used with traditional analog processing (e.g., colorvi
sensors using filters), and with biological techniques (e.g. LUCOS chip [2]). The local-
ization capability of animals has never been fully utilized.
One of the most important capabilities for animals, vertebrates or invertebrates, is the
capability for localization. The object of localization can be predator, prey, sources of
water, or food. Since these are basic necessities for survival, they evolve much faster
due to the survival of the fittest. In fact, localization capabilities, even if the sensors
are different, have convergently evolved to have same processing methods (coincidence
detection) in their peripheral neurons (for e.g., forked tongue of a snake, antennae of
a cockroach, acoustic localization in fishes and mammals). This convergent evolution
increases the validity of the technique. In this work, localization concepts based on
acoustic localization and tropotaxis are investigated and employed for creation of novel
ADCs.
Unlike intensity and frequency detection, which are not linear (for e.g. eyes saturate in
bright light, loose color perception in low light), localization is inherently linear. This
is mainly because the accurate localization of predator or prey can be the difference
between life and death for an animal.
Figure 1 visually explains the ADC concept proposed in this work. This has two parts.
(1) Sensor to Spike(time) Conversion (SSC), (2) Spike(time) to Digital Conversion(SDC).
Both of the structures have been designed with models of biological neurons. The
combination of these two structures is called SSDC.
To efficiently implement the proposed concept, a comparison of several biological neural
models is made and two models are shortlisted. Various synapse structures are also
studied. From this study, Leaky Integrate and Fire neuron (LIF) is chosen since it
fulfills all the requirements of the proposed structure. The analog neuron and synapse
designs from Indiveri et. al. [3], [4] were taken, and simulations were conducted using
cadence and the behavioral equivalence with biological counterpart was checked. The
LIF neuron had features, that were not required for the proposed approach. A simple
LIF neuron stripped of these features and was designed to be as fast as allowed by the
technology.
The SDC was designed with the neural building blocks and the delays were designed
using buffer chains. This SDC converts incoming Time Interval Code (TIC) to sparse
place coding using coincidence detection. Coincidence detection is a property of spiking
neurons, which is a time domain equivalent of a Gaussian Kernel. The SDC is designed to
have an online reconfigurable Gaussian kernel width, weight, threshold, and refractory
period. The advantage of sparse place codes, which contain rank order coding wasvii
Figure 1: ADC as a localization problem (right), Jeffress model of sound localization
visualized (left). The values t 1 and t 2 indicate the time taken from the source to s1 and
s2 respectively.
described in our work [5]. A time based winner take all circuit with memory was created
based on a previous work [6] for reading out of sparse place codes asynchronously.
The SSC was also initially designed with the same building blocks. Additionally, a
differential synapse was designed for better SSC. The sensor element considered wasviii
a Wheatstone full bridge AMR sensor AFF755 from Sensitec GmbH. A reconfigurable
version of the synapse was also designed for a more generic sensor interface.
The first prototype chip SSDCα was designed with 257 modules of coincidence detectors
realizing the SDC and the SSC. Since the spike times are the most important information,
the spikes can be treated as digital pulses. This provides the capability for digital
communication between analog modules. This creates a lot of freedom for use of digital
processing between the discussed analog modules. This advantage is fully exploited
in the design of SSDCα. Three SSC modules are multiplexed to the SDC. These SSC
modules also provide outputs from the chip simultaneously. A rising edge detecting fixed
pulse width generation circuit is used to create pulses that are best suited for efficient
performance of the SDC. The delay lines are made reconfigurable to increase robustness
and modify the span of the SDC. The readout technique used in the first prototype is
a relatively slow but safe shift register. It is used to analyze the characteristics of the
core work. This will be replaced by faster alternatives discussed in the work. The area
of the chip is 8.5 mm 2 . It has a sampling rate from DC to 150 kHz. It has a resolution
from 8-bit to 13-bit. It has 28,200 transistors on the chip. It has been designed in 350
nm CMOS technology from ams. The chip has been manufactured and tested with a
sampling rate of 10 kHz and a theoretical resolution of 8 bits. However, due to the
limitations of our Time-Interval-Generator, we are able to confirm for only 4 bits of
resolution.
The key novel contributions of this work are
• Neuromorphic implementation of AD conversion as a localization problem based
on sound localization and tropotaxis concepts found in nature.
• Coincidence detection with sparse place coding to enhance resolution.
• Graceful degradation without redundant elements, inherent robustness to noise,
which helps in scaling of technologies
• Amenable to local adaptation and self-x features.
Conceptual goals have all been fulfilled, with the exception of adaptation. The feasibility
for local adaptation has been shown with promising results and further investigation is
required for future work. This thesis work acts as a baseline, paving the way for R&D
in a new direction. The chip design has used 350 nm ams hitkit as a vehicle to prove
the functionality of the core concept. The concept can be easily ported to present
aggressively-scaled-technologies and future technologies.