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We isolated an encysted ciliate from a geothermal field in Iceland. The morphological features of this isolate fit the descriptions of Dexiotricha colpidiopsis (Kahl, 1926) Jankowski, 1964 very well. These comprise body shape and size in vivo, the number of somatic kineties, and the positions of macronucleus and contractile vacuole. Using state-of-the-art taxonomic methods, the species is redescribed, including phylogenetic analyses of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene as molecular marker. In the phylogenetic analyses, D. colpidiopsis clusters with the three available SSU rRNA gene sequences of congeners, suggesting a monophyly of the genus Dexiotricha. Its closest relative in phylogenetic analyses is D. elliptica, which also shows a high morphological similarity. This is the first record of a Dexiotricha species from a hot spring, indicating a wide temperature tolerance of this species at least in the encysted state. The new findings on D. colpidiopsis are included in a briefly revision of the scuticociliate genus Dexiotricha and an identification key to the species.
Słowa kluczowe: Dexiotricha, hot spring, morphology, phylogeny, SSU rRNA gene

Initiated by a task in tunable microoptics, but not limited to this application, a microfluidic droplet array in an upright standing module with 3 × 3 subcells and droplet actuation via electrowetting is presented. Each subcell is filled with a single (of course transparent) water droplet, serving as a movable iris, surrounded by opaque blackened decane. Each subcell measures 1 × 1 mm ² and incorporates 2 × 2 quadratically arranged positions for the droplet. All 3 × 3 droplets are actuated synchronously by electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD). The droplet speed is up to 12 mm/s at 130 V (Vrms) with response times of about 40 ms. Minimum operating voltage is 30 V. Horizontal and vertical movement of the droplets is demonstrated. Furthermore, a minor modification of the subcells allows us to exploit the flattening of each droplet. Hence, the opaque decane fluid sample can cover each water droplet and render each subcell opaque, resulting in switchable irises of constant opening diameter. The concept does not require any mechanically moving parts or external pumps.

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are a common element of the Queensland (Australia) dry savannah ecosystem and are composed of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria. Here we report how the CO2 gas exchange of the cyanobacteria-dominated biocrust type from Boodjamulla National Park in the north Queensland Gulf Savannah responds to the pronounced climatic seasonality and on their quality as a carbon sink using a semi-automatic cuvette system. The dominant cyanobacteria are the filamentous species Symplocastrum purpurascens together with Scytonema sp. Metabolic activity was recorded between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011, during which CO2 exchange was only evident from November 2010 until mid-April 2011, representative of 23.6 % of the 1-year recording period. In November at the onset of the wet season, the first month (November) and the last month (April) of activity had pronounced respiratory loss of CO2. The metabolic active period accounted for 25 % of the wet season and of that period 48.6 % was net photosynthesis (NP) and 51.4 % dark respiration (DR). During the time of NP, net photosynthetic uptake of CO2 during daylight hours was reduced by 32.6 % due to water supersaturation. In total, the biocrust fixed 229.09 mmol CO2 m−2 yr−1, corresponding to an annual carbon gain of 2.75 g m−2 yr−1. Due to malfunction of the automatic cuvette system, data from September and October 2010 together with some days in November and December 2010 could not be analysed for NP and DR. Based on climatic and gas exchange data from November 2010, an estimated loss of 88 mmol CO2 m−2 was found for the 2 months, resulting in corrected annual rates of 143.1 mmol CO2 m−2 yr−1, equivalent to a carbon gain of 1.7 g m−2 yr−1. The bulk of the net photosynthetic activity occurred above a relative humidity of 42 %, indicating a suitable climatic combination of temperature, water availability and light intensity well above 200 µmol photons m−2 s−1 photosynthetic active radiation. The Boodjamulla biocrust exhibited high seasonal variability in CO2 gas exchange pattern, clearly divided into metabolically inactive winter months and active summer months. The metabolic active period commences with a period (of up to 3 months) of carbon loss, likely due to reestablishment of the crust structure and restoration of NP prior to about a 4-month period of net carbon gain. In the Gulf Savannah biocrust system, seasonality over the year investigated showed that only a minority of the year is actually suitable for biocrust growth and thus has a small window for potential contribution to soil organic matter.

The extraction kinetics of polyphenols, which are leached from red vine leaves, are studied and evaluated using a laboratory robot and nonconventional processing techniques such as ultrasonic (US)-, microwave (MW)-, and pulsed electric field (PEF)-assisted extraction processes. The robotic high-throughput screening reveals optimal extraction conditions at a pH value of 2.5, a temperature of 56 °C, and a solvent mixture of methanol:water:HCl of 50:49:1 v/v/v. Nonconventional processing techniques, such as MW- and US-assisted extraction, have the fastest kinetics and produce the highest polyphenol yield. The non-conventional techniques yield is 2.29 g/L (MW) resp. 2.47 g/L (US) for particles that range in size from 450 to 2000 µm and 2.20 g/L (MW) resp. 2.05 g/L (US) for particles that range from 2000 to 4000 µm. PEF has the lowest yield of polyphenols with 0.94 g/L (450–2000 µm), resp. 0.64 g/L (2000–4000 µm) in comparison to 1.82 g/L (2000 to 4000 µm) in a standard stirred vessel (50 °C). When undried red vine leaves (2000 to 4000 µm) are used the total phenol content is 1.44 g/L with PEF.

In this study, the dependence of the cyclic deformation behavior on the surface morphology of metastable austenitic HSD® 600 TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel was investigated. This steel—with the alloying concept Mn-Al-Si—shows a fully austenitic microstructure with deformation-induced twinning at ambient temperature. Four different surface morphologies were analyzed: as-received with a so-called rolling skin, after up milling, after down milling, and a reference morphology achieved by polishing. The morphologies were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Focused Ion Beam (FIB), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) as well as confocal microscopy methods and show significant differences in initial residual stresses, phase fractions, topographies and microstructures. For specimens with all variants of the morphologies, fatigue tests were performed in the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) regime to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior and fatigue life. Moreover, this study focused on the frequency-dependent self-heating of the specimens caused by cyclic plasticity in the HCF regime. The results show that both surface morphology and specimen temperature have a significant influence on the cyclic deformation behavior of HSD® 600 TWIP steel in the HCF regime.

We report on generation of pulsed broadband terahertz radiation utilizing the inverse spin hall effect in Fe/Pt bilayers on MgO and sapphire substrates. The emitter was optimized with respect to layer thickness, growth parameters, substrates and geometrical arrangement. The experimentally determined optimum layer thicknesses were in qualitative agreement with simulations of the spin current induced in the ferromagnetic layer. Our model takes into account generation of spin polarization, spin diffusion and accumulation in Fe and Pt and electrical as well as optical properties of the bilayer samples. Using the device in a counterintuitive orientation a Si lens was attached to increase the collection efficiency of the emitter. The optimized emitter provided a bandwidth of up to 8 THz which was mainly limited by the low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAS) photoconductive antenna used as detector and the pulse length of the pump laser. The THz pulse length was as short as 220 fs for a sub 100 fs pulse length of the 800 nm pump laser. Average pump powers as low as 25 mW (at a repetition rate of 75 MHz) have been used for terahertz generation. This and the general performance make the spintronic terahertz emitter compatible with established emitters based on optical rectification in nonlinear crystals.

Postmortem Analysis of Decayed Online Social Communities: Cascade Pattern Analysis and Prediction
(2018)

Recently, many online social networks, such as MySpace, Orkut, and Friendster, have faced inactivity decay of their members, which contributed to the collapse of these networks. The reasons, mechanics, and prevention mechanisms of such inactivity decay are not fully understood. In this work, we analyze decayed and alive subwebsites from the Stack Exchange platform. The analysis mainly focuses on the inactivity cascades that occur among the members of these communities. We provide measures to understand the decay process and statistical analysis to extract the patterns that accompany the inactivity decay. Additionally, we predict cascade size and cascade virality using machine learning. The results of this work include a statistically significant difference of the decay patterns between the decayed and the alive subwebsites. These patterns are mainly cascade size, cascade virality, cascade duration, and cascade similarity. Additionally, the contributed prediction framework showed satisfactorily prediction results compared to a baseline predictor. Supported by empirical evidence, the main findings of this work are (1) there are significantly different decay patterns in the alive and the decayed subwebsites of the Stack Exchange; (2) the cascade’s node degrees contribute more to the decay process than the cascade’s virality, which indicates that the expert members of the Stack Exchange subwebsites were mainly responsible for the activity or inactivity of the Stack Exchange subwebsites; (3) the Statistics subwebsite is going through decay dynamics that may lead to it becoming fully-decayed; (4) the decay process is not governed by only one network measure, it is better described using multiple measures; (5) decayed subwebsites were originally less resilient to inactivity decay, unlike the alive subwebsites; and (6) network’s structure in the early stages of its evolution dictates the activity/inactivity characteristics of the network.

In modern algebraic geometry solutions of polynomial equations are studied from a qualitative point of view using highly sophisticated tools such as cohomology, \(D\)-modules and Hodge structures. The latter have been unified in Saito’s far-reaching theory of mixed Hodge modules, that has shown striking applications including vanishing theorems for cohomology. A mixed Hodge module can be seen as a special type of filtered \(D\)-module, which is an algebraic counterpart of a system of linear differential equations. We present the first algorithmic approach to Saito’s theory. To this end, we develop a Gröbner basis theory for a new class of algebras generalizing PBW-algebras.
The category of mixed Hodge modules satisfies Grothendieck’s six-functor formalism. In part these functors rely on an additional natural filtration, the so-called \(V\)-filtration. A key result of this thesis is an algorithm to compute the \(V\)-filtration in the filtered setting. We derive from this algorithm methods for the computation of (extraordinary) direct image functors under open embeddings of complements of pure codimension one subvarieties. As side results we show how to compute vanishing and nearby cycle functors and a quasi-inverse of Kashiwara’s equivalence for mixed Hodge modules.
Describing these functors in terms of local coordinates and taking local sections, we reduce the corresponding computations to algorithms over certain bifiltered algebras. It leads us to introduce the class of so-called PBW-reduction-algebras, a generalization of the class of PBW-algebras. We establish a comprehensive Gröbner basis framework for this generalization representing the involved filtrations by weight vectors.

The scales of white beetles strongly scatter light within a thin disordered network of
chitin filaments. There is no comparable artificial material achieving such a high scat-
tering strength within a thin layer of low refractive index material. Several analyses
investigated the scattering but could not explain the underlying concept. Here a model
system is described, which has the same optical properties as the white beetles’ scales
in the visible wavelength range. With some modification, it also explains the behavior
of the structures in the near infrared range. The comparison of the original structure and
the model system is done by finite-difference time-domain calculations. The calcula-
tions show excellent agreement with the beetles’ scales with respect to the reflectance,
the time-of-flight, and the intensity distribution in the far-field.

Relating mathematical concepts to graphical representations is a challenging task for students. In this paper, we introduce two visual strategies to qualitatively interpret the divergence of graphical vector field representations. One strategy is based on the graphical interpretation of partial derivatives, while the other is based on the flux concept. We test the effectiveness of both strategies in an instruction-based eye-tracking study with N = 41 physics majors. We found that students’ performance improved when both strategies were introduced (74% correct) instead of only one strategy (64% correct), and students performed best when they were free to choose between the two strategies (88% correct). This finding supports the idea of introducing multiple representations of a physical concept to foster student understanding.Relevant eye-tracking measures demonstrate that both strategies imply different visual processing of the vector field plots, therefore reflecting conceptual differences between the strategies. Advanced analysis methods further reveal significant differences in eye movements between the best and worst performing students. For instance, the best students performed predominantly horizontal and vertical saccades, indicating correct interpretation of partial derivatives. They also focused on smaller regions when they balanced positive and negative flux. This mixed method research leads to new insights into student visual processing of vector field representations, highlights the advantages and limitations of eye-tracking methodologies in this context, and discusses implications for teaching and for future research. The introduction of saccadic direction analysis expands traditional methods, and shows the potential to discover new insights into student understanding and learning difficulties.

III/V semiconductor quantum dots (QD) are in the focus of optoelectronics research for about 25 years now. Most of the work
has been done on InAs QD on GaAs substrate. But, e.g., Ga(As)Sb (antimonide) QD on GaAs substrate/buffer have also gained
attention for the last 12 years.There is a scientific dispute on whether there is a wetting layer before antimonide QD formation, as
commonly expected for Stransky-Krastanov growth, or not. Usually ex situ photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscope
(AFM) measurements are performed to resolve similar issues. In this contribution, we show that reflectance anisotropy/difference
spectroscopy (RAS/RDS) can be used for the same purpose as an in situ, real-time monitoring technique. It can be employed not
only to identify QD growth via a distinct RAS spectrum, but also to get information on the existence of a wetting layer and its
thickness. The data suggest that for antimonide QD growth the wetting layer has a thickness of 1 ML (one monolayer) only.

Cyanobacteria of biological soil crusts (BSCs) represent an important part of circumpolar
and Alpine ecosystems, serve as indicators for ecological condition and climate
change, and function as ecosystem engineers by soil stabilization or carbon and nitrogen
input. The characterization of cyanobacteria from both polar regions remains
extremely important to understand geographic distribution patterns and community
compositions. This study is the first of its kind revealing the efficiency of combining
denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), light microscopy and culture-based
16S rRNA gene sequencing, applied to polar and Alpine cyanobacteria dominated
BSCs. This study aimed to show the living proportion of cyanobacteria as an extension
to previously published meta-transcriptome
data of the same study sites.
Molecular fingerprints showed a distinct clustering of cyanobacterial communities
with a close relationship between Arctic and Alpine populations, which differed from
those found in Antarctica. Species richness and diversity supported these results,
which were also confirmed by microscopic investigations of living cyanobacteria
from the BSCs. Isolate-based
sequencing corroborated these trends as cold biome
clades were assigned, which included a potentially new Arctic clade of Oculatella.
Thus, our results contribute to the debate regarding biogeography of cyanobacteria
of cold biomes.

Influence of the Crystal Surface on the Austenitic and Martensitic Phase Transition in Pure Iron
(2018)

Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we studied the influence that free
surfaces exert on the austenitic and martensitic phase transition in iron. For several single-indexed
surfaces—such as (100)bcc and (110)bcc as well as (100)fcc and (110)fcc surfaces—appropriate
pathways exist that allow for the transformation of the surface structure. These are the Bain,
Mao, Pitsch, and Kurdjumov–Sachs pathways, respectively. Tilted surfaces follow the pathway
of the neighboring single-indexed plane. The austenitic transformation temperature follows the
dependence of the specific surface energy of the native bcc phase; here, the new phase nucleates at
the surface. In contrast, the martensitic transformation temperature steadily decreases when tilting
the surface from the (100)fcc to the (110)fcc orientation. This dependence is caused by the strong
out-of-plane deformation that (110)fcc facets experience under the transformation; here, the new
phase also nucleates in the bulk rather than at the surface.

Education is the Achilles heel of successful resuscitation in cardiac arrest. Therefore, we aim to contribute to the educational efficiency by providing a novel augmented-reality (AR) guided interactive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) "trainer". For this trainer, a mixed reality smart glass, Microsoft HoloLens, and a CPR manikin covered with pressure sensors were used. To introduce the CPR procedure to a learner, an application with an intractable virtual teacher model was designed. The teaching scenario consists of the two main parts, theory and practice. In the theoretical part, the virtual teacher provides all information about the CPR procedure. Afterward, the user will be asked to perform the CPR cycles in three different stages. In the first two stages, it is aimed to gain the muscle memory with audio and optical feedback system. In the end, the performance of the participant is evaluated by the virtual teacher.

We present a study comparing the effect of real-time wearable feedback with traditional training methods for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim is to ensure that the students can deliver CPR with the right compression speed and depth. On the wearable side, we test two systems: one based on a combination of visual feedback and tactile information on a smart-watch and one based on visual feedback and audio information on a Google Glass. In a trial with 50 subjects (23 trainee nurses and 27 novices,) we compare those modalities to standard human teaching that is used in nurse training. While a single traditional teaching session tends to improve only the percentage of correct depth, it has less effect on the percentage of effective CPR (depth and speed correct at the same time). By contrast, in a training session with the wearable feedback device, the average percentage of time when CPR is effective improves by up to almost 25%.

For modeling approaches in systems biology, knowledge of the absolute abundances of cellular proteins is essential. One way to gain this knowledge is the use of quantification concatamers (QconCATs), which are synthetic proteins consisting of proteotypic peptides derived from the target proteins to be quantified. The QconCAT protein is labeled with a heavy isotope upon expression in E. coli and known amounts of the purified protein are spiked into a whole cell protein extract. Upon tryptic digestion, labeled and unlabeled peptides are released from the QconCAT and the native proteins, respectively, and both are quantified by LC-MS/MS. The labeled Q-peptides then serve as standards for determining the absolute quantity of the native peptides/proteins. Here we have applied the QconCAT approach to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for the absolute quantification of the major proteins and protein complexes driving photosynthetic light reactions in the thylakoid membranes and carbon fixation in the pyrenoid. We found that with 25.2 attomol/cell the Rubisco large subunit makes up 6.6% of all proteins in a Chlamydomonas cell and with this exceeds the amount of the small subunit by a factor of 1.56. EPYC1, which links Rubisco to form the pyrenoid, is eight times less abundant than RBCS, and Rubisco activase is 32-times less abundant than RBCS. With 5.2 attomol/cell, photosystem II is the most abundant complex involved in the photosynthetic light reactions, followed by plastocyanin, photosystem I and the cytochrome b6/f complex, which range between 2.9 and 3.5 attomol/cell. The least abundant complex is the ATP synthase with 2 attomol/cell. While applying the QconCAT approach, we have been able to identify many potential pitfalls associated with this technique. We analyze and discuss these pitfalls in detail and provide an optimized workflow for future applications of this technique.

Poor posture in childhood and adolescence is held responsible for the occurrence
of associated disorders in adult age. This study aimed to verify whether body
posture in adolescence can be enhanced through the improvement of neuromuscular
performance, attained by means of targeted strength, stretch, and body perception
training, and whether any such improvement might also transition into adulthood. From
a total of 84 volunteers, the posture development of 67 adolescents was checked
annually between the age of 14 and 20 based on index values in three posture
situations. 28 adolescents exercised twice a week for about 2 h up to the age of 18, 24
adolescents exercised continually up to the age of 20. Both groups practiced other
additional sports for about 1.8 h/week. Fifteen persons served as a non-exercising
control group, practicing optional sports of about 1.8 h/week until the age of 18,
after that for 0.9 h/week. Group allocation was not random, but depended on the
participants’ choice. A linear mixed model was used to analyze the development
of posture indexes among the groups and over time and the possible influence of
anthropometric parameters (weight, size), of optional athletic activity and of sedentary
behavior. The post hoc pairwise comparison was performed applying the Scheffé test.
The significance level was set at 0.05. The group that exercised continually (TR20)
exhibited a significant posture parameter improvement in all posture situations from
the 2nd year of exercising on. The group that terminated their training when reaching
adulthood (TR18) retained some improvements, such as conscious straightening of the
body posture. In other posture situations (habitual, closed eyes), their posture results
declined again from age 18. The effect sizes determined were between Eta² = 0.12 and
Eta² = 0.19 and represent moderate to strong effects. The control group did not exhibit
any differences. Anthropometric parameters, additional athletic activities and sedentary
behavior did not influence the posture parameters significantly. An additional athletic
training of 2 h per week including elements for improved body perception seems to
have the potential to improve body posture in symptom free male adolescents and
young adults.

To investigate whether participants can activate only one spatially oriented number line at a time or
multiple number lines simultaneously, they were asked to solve a unit magnitude comparison task
(unit smaller/larger than 5) and a parity judgment task (even/odd) on two-digit numbers. In both these
primary tasks, decades were irrelevant. After some of the primary task trials (randomly), participants
were asked to additionally solve a secondary task based on the previously presented number. In
Experiment 1, they had to decide whether the two-digit number presented for the primary task was
larger or smaller than 50. Thus, for the secondary task decades were relevant. In contrast, in Experiment
2, the secondary task was a color judgment task, which means decades were irrelevant. In Experiment
1, decades’ and units’ magnitudes influenced the spatial association of numbers separately. In contrast,
in Experiment 2, only the units were spatially associated with magnitude. It was concluded that
multiple number lines (one for units and one for decades) can be activated if attention is focused on
multiple, separate magnitude attributes.

Cutting-edge cancer therapy involves producing individualized medicine for many patients at the same time. Within this process, most steps can be completed for a certain number of patients simultaneously. Using these resources efficiently may significantly reduce waiting times for the patients and is therefore crucial for saving human lives. However, this involves solving a complex scheduling problem, which can mathematically be modeled as a proportionate flow shop of batching machines (PFB). In this thesis we investigate exact and approximate algorithms for tackling many variants of this problem. Related mathematical models have been studied before in the context of semiconductor manufacturing.

The size congruity effect involves interference between numerical magnitude and physical size of visually presented numbers: congruent numbers (either both small or both large in numerical magnitude and physical size) are responded to faster than incongruent ones (small numerical magnitude/large physical size or vice versa). Besides, numerical magnitude is associated with lateralized response codes, leading to the Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect: small numerical magnitudes are preferably responded to on the left side and large ones on the right side. Whereas size congruity effects are ascribed to interference between stimulus dimensions in the decision stage, SNARC effects are understood as (in)compatibilities in stimulus-response combinations. Accordingly, size congruity and SNARC effects were previously found to be independent in parity and in physical size judgment tasks. We investigated their dependency in numerical magnitude judgment tasks. We obtained independent size congruity and SNARC effects in these tasks and replicated this observation for the parity judgment task. The results confirm and extend the notion that size congruity and SNARC effects operate in different representational spaces. We discuss possible implications for number representation.