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In einem Beitrag zu Platons Philosophie des Abstiegs schreibt C.F. v. Weizsäcker, er sei "überzeugt, daß die griechische Philosophie, dieses in allen Weltkulturen einzigartige Kunstwerk, ohne das mathematische Paradigma undenkbar gewesen wäre" . Und in seiner berühmten Kant-Vorlesung im WS 1935/36 erklärte M. Heidegger, es sei "kein Zufall, daß die Kritik der reinen Vernunft... ständig von einer Besinnung auf das Wesen des Mathematischen und der Mathematik begleitet sei" . Was hier über Platon und Kant gesagt wird, trifft auf fast alle abendländischen Philosophen von Rang zu: Explizit oder implizit spielt die Mathematik eine entscheidende Rolle für die neue philosophische Konzeption. Welche Gründe sind es, die der Mathematik einen so hohen Stellenwert im Denken der maßgebenden Philosophen sichern? Mit welchen Intentionen und Zielvorstellungen montieren Philosophen seit Platon bis Heidegger, seit Aristoteles bis Bloch immer wieder Aussagen über Mathematik in ihre Philosophie? Weshalb war in den vergangenen zweieinhalb Jahrtausenden keine andere Wissenschaft für die Philosophie so >>frag-würdig<< wie die Mathematik? Die Philosophie hat - dies ist offensichtlich - den Dialog mit der Mathematik immer wieder gesucht. Und wie steht es um das Interesse der Mathematik an einem Dialog mit der Philosophie? In einem äußerst gehaltvollen und auch heute noch sehr lesenswerten Aufsatz Mathematik und Antike stellt der Mathematiker O. Toeplitz 1925 die Frage, "ob einmal im Dasein der Mathematik die Philosophie bestimmend in sie eingegriffen hat, ihre eigentliche definitive Gestalt gebildet hat" ? Eine derartige Initiative aus der Mathematik heraus zum Dialog mit der Philosophie ist kein Einzelfall. Cantor, Hilbert, Weyl, Gödel und Robinson - um nur einige Repräsentanten der neueren Mathematik in Erinnerung zu rufen - haben sich immer wieder um Kontakte mit der Philosophie bemüht.

Locally Maximal Clones II
(1999)

We consider a scale discrete wavelet approach on the sphere based on spherical radial basis functions. If the generators of the wavelets have a compact support, the scale and detail spaces are finite-dimensional, so that the detail information of a function is determined by only finitely many wavelet coefficients for each scale. We describe a pyramid scheme for the recursive determination of the wavelet coefficients from level to level, starting from an initial approximation of a given function. Basic tools are integration formulas which are exact for functions up to a given polynomial degree and spherical convolutions.

Moment inequalities for the Boltzmann equation and applications to spatially homogeneous problems
(1999)

Some inequalities for the Boltzmann collision integral are proved. These inequalities can be considered as a generalization of the well-known Povzner inequality. The inequalities are used to obtain estimates of moments of solution to the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation for a wide class of intermolecular forces. We obtained simple necessary and sufficient conditions (on the potential) for the uniform boundedness of all moments. For potentials with compact support the following statement is proved. .....

We consider nonparametric estimation of the coefficients a_i(.), i=1,...,p, on a time-varying autoregressive process. Choosing an orthonormal wavelet basis representation of the functions a_i(.), the empirical wavelet coefficients are derived from the time series data as the solution of a least squares minimization problem. In order to allow the a_i(.) to be functions of inhomogeneous regularity, we apply nonlinear thresholding to the empirical coefficients and obtain locally smoothed estimates of the a_i(.). We show that the resulting estimators attain the usual minimax L_2-rates up to a logarithmic factor, simultaneously in a large scale of Besov classes. The finite-sample behaviour of our procedure is demonstrated by application to two typical simulated examples.

We study families V of curves in P2(C) of degree d having exactly r singular points of given topological or analytic types. We derive new sufficient conditions for V to be T-smooth (smooth of the expected dimension), respectively to be irreducible. For T-smoothness these conditions involve new invariants of curve singularities and are conjectured to be asymptotically proper, i.e., optimal up to a constant factor. To obtain the results, we study the Castelnuovo function, prove the irreducibility of the Hilbert scheme of zero-dimensional schemes associated to a cluster of infinitely near points of the singularities and deduce new vanishing theorems for ideal sheaves of zero-dimensional schemes in P2. Moreover, we give a series of examples of cuspidal curves where the family V is reducible, but where ss1(P2nC) coincides (and is abelian) for all C 2 V .

After the notion of Gröbner bases and an algorithm for constructing them was introduced by Buchberger [Bu1, Bu2] algebraic geometers have used Gröbner bases as the main computational tool for many years, either to prove a theorem or to disprove a conjecture or just to experiment with examples in order to obtain a feeling about the structure of an algebraic variety. Nontrivial problems coming either from logic, mathematics or applications usually lead to nontrivial Gröbner basis computations, which is the reason why several improvements have been provided by many people and have been implemented in general purpose systems like Axiom, Maple, Mathematica, Reduce, etc., and systems specialized for use in algebraic geometry and commutative algebra like CoCoA, Macaulay and Singular. The present paper starts with an introduction to some concepts of algebraic geometry which should be understood by people with (almost) no knowledge in this field. In the second chapter we introduce standard bases (generalization of Gr"obner bases to non-well-orderings), which are needed for applications to local algebraic geometry (singularity theory), and a method for computing syzygies and free resolutions. The last chapter describes a new algorithm for computing the normalization of a reduced affine ring and gives an elementary introduction to singularity theory. Then we describe algorithms, using standard bases, to compute infinitesimal deformations and obstructions, which are basic for the deformation theory of isolated singularities. It is impossible to list all papers where Gr"obner bases have been used in local and global algebraic geometry, and even more impossible to give an overview about these contributions. We have, therefore, included only references to papers mentioned in this tutorial paper. The interested reader will find many more in the other contributions of this volume and in the literature cited there.

Algorithmic ideal theory
(1999)

Algebraic geometers have used Gröbner bases as the main computational tool for many years, either to prove a theorem or to disprove a conjecture or just to experiment with examples in order to obtain a feeling about the structure of an algebraic variety. Non-trivial mathematical problems usually lead to non-trivial Gröbner basis computations, which is the reason why several improvements and efficient implementations have been provided by algebraic geometers (for example, the systems CoCoA, Macaulay and SINGULAR). The present paper starts with an introduction to some concepts of algebraic geometry which should be understood by people with (almost) no knowledge in this field. In the second chapter we introduce standard bases (generalization of Gröbner bases to non-well-orderings), which are needed for applications to local algebraic geometry (singularity theory), and a method for computing syzygies and free resolutions. In the third chapter several algorithms for primary decomposition of polynomial ideals are presented, together with a discussion of improvements and preferable choices. We also describe a newly invented algorithm for computing the normalization of a reduced affine ring. The last chapter gives an elementary introduction to singularity theory and then describes algorithms, using standard bases, to compute infinitesimal deformations and obstructions, which are basic for the deformation theory of isolated singularities. It is impossible to list all papers where Gröbner basis have been used in local and global algebraic geometry, and even more impossible to give an overview about these contributions. We have, therefore, included only a few references to papers which contain interesting applications and which are not mentioned in this tutorial paper. The interested reader will find many more in the other contributions of this volume and in the literature cited there.

Singular algebraic curves, their existence, deformation, families (from the local and global point of view) attract continuous attention of algebraic geometers since the last century. The aim of our paper is to give an account of results, new trends and bibliography related to the geometry of equisingular families of algebraic curves on smooth algebraic surfaces over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. This theory is founded in basic works of Plücker, Severi, Segre, Zariski, and has tight links and finds important applications in singularity theory, topology of complex algebraic curves and surfaces, and in real algebraic geometry.

If \(A\) generates a bounded cosine function on a Banach space \(X\) then the negative square root \(B\) of \(A\) generates a holomorphic semigroup, and this semigroup is the conjugate potential transform of the cosine function. This connection is studied in detail, and it is used for a characterization of cosine function generators in terms of growth conditions on the semigroup generated by \(B\). This characterization relies on new results on the inversion of the vector-valued conjugate potential transform.

We consider regularizing iterative procedures for ill-possed problems with random and nonrandom additive errors. The rate of square-mean convergence for iterative procedures with random errors is studied. The comparison theorem is established for the convergence of procedures with and without additive errors.

Vigenere-Verschlüsselung
(1999)

Complete presentations provide a natural solution to the word problem in monoids and groups. Here we give a simple way to construct complete presentations for the direct product of groups, when such presentations are available for the factors. Actually, the construction we are referring to is just the classical construction for direct products of groups, which has been known for a long time, but whose completeness-preserving properties had not been detected. Using this result and some known facts about Coxeter groups, we sketch an algorithm to obtain the complete presentation of any finite Coxeter group. A similar application to Abelian and Hamiltonian groups is mentioned.

Compared to standard numerical methods for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, Kinetic Schemes model propagation of information by particles instead of waves. In this article, the wave and the particle concept are shown to be closely related. Moreover, a general approach to the construction of Kinetic Schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws is given which summarizes several approaches discussed by other authors. The approach also demonstrates why Kinetic Schemes are particularly well suited for scalar conservation laws and why extensions to general systems are less natural.

Nonlinear dissipativity, asymptotical stability, and contractivity of (ordinary) stochastic differential equations (SDEs) with some dissipative structure and their discretizations are studied in terms of their moments in the spirit of Pliss (1977). For this purpose, we introduce the notions and discuss related concepts of dissipativity, growth- bounded and monotone coefficient systems, asymptotical stability and contractivity in wide and narrow sense, nonlinear A-stability, AN-stability, B-stability and BN-stability for stochastic dynamical systems - more or less as stochastic counterparts to deterministic concepts. The test class of in a broad sense interpreted dissipative SDEs as natural analogon to dissipative deterministic differential systems is suggested for stochastic-numerical methods. Then, in particular, a kind of mean square calculus is developed, although most of ideas and analysis can be carried over to general "stochastic Lp-case" (p * 1). By this natural restriction, the new stochastic concepts are theoretically meaningful, as in deterministic analysis. Since the choice of step sizes then plays no essential role in related proofs, we even obtain nonlinear A-stability, AN-stability, B-stability and BN-stability in the mean square sense for this implicit method with respect to appropriate test classes of moment-dissipative SDEs.