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- Case Based Reasoning (4)
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Vorgestellt wird ein System basierend auf einem 3D-Scanner nach dem Licht- schnitt-Prinzip mit dem es möglich ist, einen Menschen innerhalb von 1,5 Sekun- den dreidimensional zu erfassen. Mit Hilfe von Evolutionären Algorithmen wird über eine modellbasierte Dateninterpretation die Auswertung der Meßdaten betrie- ben, so daß beliebige Körpermaße ermittelt werden können. Das Ergebnis ist ein individualisiertes CAD-Modells der Person im Rechner. Ein derartiges Modell kann als virtuelle Kleiderpuppe zur Produktion von Maßbekleidung dienen.

We derive a new class of particle methods for conservation laws, which are based on numerical flux functions to model the interactions between moving particles. The derivation is similar to that of classical Finite-Volume methods; except that the fixed grid structure in the Finite-Volume method is substituted by so-called mass packets of particles. We give some numerical results on a shock wave solution for Burgers equation as well as the well-known one-dimensional shock tube problem.

In the present paper multilane models for vehicular traffic are considered. A microscopic multilane model based on reaction thresholds is developed. Based on this model an Enskog like kinetic model is developed. In particular, care is taken to incorporate the correlations between the vehicles. From the kinetic model a fluid dynamic model is derived. The macroscopic coefficients are deduced from the underlying kinetic model. Numerical simulations are presented for all three levels of description in [10]. Moreover, a comparison of the results is given there.

In this paper the work presented in [6] is continued. The present paper contains detailed numerical investigations of the models developed there. A numerical method to treat the kinetic equations obtained in [6] are presented and results of the simulations are shown. Moreover, the stochastic correlation model used in [6] is described and investigated in more detail.

In this paper the kinetic model for vehicular traffic developed in [3,4] is considered and theoretical results for the space homogeneous kinetic equation are presented. Existence and uniqueness results for the time dependent equation are stated. An investigation of the stationary equation leads to a boundary value problem for an ordinary differential equation. Existence of the solution and some properties are proved. A numerical investigation of the stationary equation is included.

Groups can be studied using methods from different fields such as combinatorial group theory or string rewriting. Recently techniques from Gröbner basis theory for free monoid rings (non-commutative polynomial rings) respectively free group rings have been added to the set of methods due to the fact that monoid and group presentations (in terms of string rewriting systems) can be linked to special polynomials called binomials. In the same mood, the aim of this paper is to discuss the relation between Nielsen reduced sets of generators and the Todd-Coxeter coset enumeration procedure on the one side and the Gröbner basis theory for free group rings on the other. While it is well-known that there is a strong relationship between Buchberger's algorithm and the Knuth-Bendix completion procedure, and there are interpretations of the Todd-Coxeter coset enumeration procedure using the Knuth-Bendix procedure for special cases, our aim is to show how a verbatim interpretation of the Todd-Coxeter procedure can be obtained by linking recent Gröbner techniques like prefix Gröbner bases and the FGLM algorithm as a tool to study the duality of ideals. As a side product our procedure computes Nielsen reduced generating sets for subgroups in finitely generated free groups.

The term enterprise modelling, synonymous with enterprise engineering, refers to methodologies developed for modelling activities, states, time, and cost within an enterprise architecture. They serve as a vehicle for evaluating and modelling activities resources etc. CIM - OSA (Computer Integrated Manufacturing Open Systems Architecture) is a methodology for modelling computer integrated environments, and its major objective is the appropriate integration of enterprise operations by means of efficient information exchange within the enterprise. PERA is another methodology for developing models of computer integrated manufacturing environments. The department of industrial engineering in Toronto proposed the development of ontologies as a vehicle for enterprise integration. The paper reviews the work carried out by various researchers and computing departments on the area of enterprise modelling and points out other modelling problems related to enterprise integration.

We present a particle method for the numerical simulation of boundary value problems for the steady-state Boltzmann equation. Referring to some recent results concerning steady-state schemes, the current approach may be used for multi-dimensional problems, where the collision scattering kernel is not restricted to Maxwellian molecules. The efficiency of the new approach is demonstrated by some numerical results obtained from simulations for the (two-dimensional) BEnard's instability in a rarefied gas flow.

In this paper we present a domain decomposition approach for the coupling of Boltzmann and Euler equations. Particle methods are used for both equations. This leads to a simple implementation of the coupling procedure and to natural interface conditions between the two domains. Adaptive time and space discretizations and a direct coupling procedure leads to considerable gains in CPU time compared to a solution of the full Boltzmann equation. Several test cases involving a large range of Knudsen numbers are numerically investigated.

For the determination of the earth" s gravity field many types of observations are available nowadays, e.g., terrestrial gravimetry, airborne gravimetry, satellite-to-satellite tracking, satellite gradiometry etc. The mathematical connection between these observables on the one hand and gravity field and shape of the earth on the other hand, is called the integrated concept of physical geodesy. In this paper harmonic wavelets are introduced by which the gravitational part of the gravity field can be approximated progressively better and better, reflecting an increasing flow of observations. An integrated concept of physical geodesy in terms of harmonic wavelets is presented. Essential tools for approximation are integration formulas relating an integral over an internal sphere to suitable linear combinations of observation functionals, i.e., linear functionals representing the geodetic observables. A scale discrete version of multiresolution is described for approximating the gravitational potential outside and on the earth" s surface. Furthermore, an exact fully discrete wavelet approximation is developed for the case of band-limited wavelets. A method for combined global outer harmonic and local harmonic wavelet modelling is proposed corresponding to realistic earth" s models. As examples, the role of wavelets is discussed for the classical Stokes problem, the oblique derivative problem, satellite-to-satellite tracking, satellite gravity gradiometry, and combined satellite-to-satellite tracking and gradiometry.

The paper presents a process-oriented view on knowledge management in software development. We describe requirements on knowledge management systems from a process-oriented perspective, introduce a process modeling language MILOS and its use for knowledge management. Then we explain how a process-oriented knowledge management system can be implemented using advanced but available information technologies.

Application of Moment Realizability Criteria for Coupling of the Boltzmann and Euler Equations
(1998)

The moment realizability criteria have been used to test the domains of validity of the Boltzmann and Euler Equations. With the help of this criteria teh coupling of the Boltzmann and Euler equations have been performed in two dimensional spatial space. The time evolution of domain decompositions for such equations have been presented in different time steps. The numerical resulta obtained from the coupling code have been compared with those from the pure Boltzmann one.

On the one hand, in the world of Product Data Technology (PDT), the ISO standard STEP (STandard for the Exchange of Product model data) gains more and more importance. STEP includes the information model specification language EXPRESS and its graphical notation EXPRESS-G. On the other hand, in the Software Engineering world in general, mainly other modelling languages are in use - particularly the Unified Modeling Language (UML), recently adopted to become a standard by the Object Management Group, will probably achieve broad acceptance. Despite a strong interconnection of PDT with the Software Engineering area, there is a lack of bridging elements concerning the modelling language level. This paper introduces a mapping between EXPRESS-G and UML in order to define a linking bridge and bring the best of both worlds together. Hereby the feasibility of a mapping is shown with representative examples; several problematic cases are discussed as well as possible solutions presented.

In order to improve the distribution system for the Nordic countries the BASF AG considered 13 alternative scenarios to the existing system. These involved the construction of warehouses at various locations. For every scenario the transportation, storage, and handling cost incurred was to be as low as possible, where restrictions on the delivery time were given. The scenarios were evaluated according to (minimal) total cost and weighted average delivery time. The results led to a restriction to only three cases, involving only one new warehouse each. For these a more accurate model for the cost was developped and evaluated, yielding results similar to a simple linear model. Since there were no clear preferences between cost and delivery time, the final decision was chosen to represent a compromise between the two criteria.

Knowledge about the distribution of a statistical estimator is important for various purposes like, for example, the construction of confidence intervals for model parameters or the determiation of critical values of tests. A widely used method to estimate this distribution is the so-called bootstrap which is based on an imitation of the probabilistic structure of the data generating process on the basis of the information provided by a given set of random observations. In this paper we investigate this classical method in the context of artificial neural networks used for estimating a mapping from input to output space. We establish consistency results for bootstrap estimates of the distribution of parameter estimates.