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A growing share of all software development project work is being done by geographically distributed teams. To satisfy shorter product design cycles, expert team members for a development project may need to be r ecruited globally. Yet to avoid extensive travelling or r eplacement costs, distributed project work is preferred. Current-generation software engineering tools and ass ociated systems, processes, and methods were for the most part developed to be used within a single enterprise. Major innovations have lately been introduced to enable groupware applications on the Internet to support global collaboration. However, their deployment for distributed software projects requires further research. In partic ular, groupware methods must seamlessly be integrated with project and product management systems to make them attractive for industry. In this position paper we outline the major challenges concerning distributed (virtual) software projects. Based on our experiences with software process modeling and enactment environments, we then propose approaches to solve those challenges.

MOLTKE is a research project dealing with a complex technical application. After describing the domain of CNCmachining centers and the applied KA methods, we summarize the concrete KA problems which we have to handle. Then we describe a KA mechanism which supports an engineer in developing a diagnosis system. In chapter 6 weintroduce learning techniques operating on diagnostic cases and domain knowledge for improving the diagnostic procedure of MOLTKE. In the last section of this chapter we outline some essential aspects of organizationalknowledge which is heavily applied by engineers for analysing such technical systems (Qualitative Engineering). Finally we give a short overview of the actual state of realization and our future plans.

In this paper we will present a design model (in the sense of KADS) for the domain of technical diagnosis. Based on this we will describe the fully implemented expert system shell MOLTKE 3.0, which integrates common knowledge acquisition methods with techniques developed in the fields of Model-Based Diagnosis and Machine Learning, especially Case-Based Reasoning.

Case-based knowledge acquisition, learning and problem solving for diagnostic real world tasks
(1999)

Within this paper we focus on both the solution of real, complex problems using expert system technology and the acquisition of the necessary knowledge from a case-based reasoning point of view. The development of systems which can be applied to real world problems has to meet certain requirements. E.g., all available information sources have to be identified and utilized. Normally, this involves different types of knowledge for which several knowledge representation schemes are needed, because no scheme is equally natural for all sources. Facing empirical knowledge it is important to complement the use of manually compiled, statistic and otherwise induced knowledge by the exploitation of the intuitive understandability of case-based mechanisms. Thus, an integration of case-based and alternative knowledge acquisition and problem solving mechanisms is necessary. For this, the basis is to define the "role" which case-based inference can "play" within a knowledge acquisition workbench. We will discuss a concrete casebased architecture, which has been applied to technical diagnosis problems, and its integration into a knowledge acquisition workbench which includes compiled knowledge and explicit deep models, additionally.

Today, the worlds and terminologies of mechanical engineering and software engineering coexist, but they do not always work together seamlessly. Both worlds have developed their own separate formal vocabulary for expressing their concepts as well as for capturing and communicating their respective domain knowledge. But, these two vocabularies are not unified, interwoven, or at least interconnected in a reasonable manner. Thus, the subject of this paper is a comparison of the vocabularies of the two fields, namely feature technology from the area of mechanical engineering and software design patterns from the software engineering domain. Therefore, a certain amount of definitions, history, examples, etc. is presented for features as well as for design patterns. After this, an analysis is carried out to identify analogies and differences. The main intention of this paper is to inform both worlds - mechanical and software engineering - about the other side's terminology and to start a discussion about potential mutual benefits and possibilities to bridge the gap between these two worlds, e.g. to improve the manageability of CAx product development processes.

PANDA is a run-time package based on a very small operating system kernel which supports distributed applications written in C++. It provides powerful abstractions such as very efficient user-level threads, a uniform global address space, object and thread mobility, garbage collection, and persistent objects. The paper discusses the design ration- ales underlying the PANDA system. The fundamental features of PANDA are surveyed, and their implementation in the current prototype environment is outlined.

Distributed systems are an alternative to shared-memorymultiprocessors for the execution of parallel applications.PANDA is a runtime system which provides architecturalsupport for efficient parallel and distributed program-ming. PANDA supplies means for fast user-level threads,and for a transparent and coordinated sharing of objectsacross a homogeneous network. The paper motivates themajor architectural choices that guided our design. Theproblem of sharing data in a distributed environment isdiscussed, and the performance of appropriate mecha-nisms provided by the PANDA prototype implementation isassessed.

As the properties of components have gradually become clearer, attention has started to turn to the architectural issues which govern their interaction and composition. In this paper we identify some of the major architectural questions affecting component-based software develop-ment and describe the predominant architectural dimensions. Of these, the most interesting is the "architecture hierarchy" which we believe is needed to address the "interface vicissitude" problem that arises whenever interaction refinement is explicitly documented within a component-based system. We present a solution to this problem based on the concept of stratified architectures and object metamorphosis Finally, we describe how these concepts may assist in increasing the tailorability of component-based frameworks.

Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird gezeigt, daß Frauen sowohl durch die Gesetzgebung als auch durch arbeitsmarktpolitische und steuerliche Rahmenbedingungen benachteiligt werden. Es stellt sich die Frage, inwieweit eine Verbesserung der Altersversorgung für die Frau vorgenommen werden kann. Dabei muß eine verbesserte und an die Bedürfnisse der Frauen angepaßte Altersvorsorge nicht unbedingt auf die bestehende gesetzliche Rentenversicherung (GRV) aufbauen.

This paper presents a new kind of abstraction, which has been developed for the purpose of proofplanning. The basic idea of this paper is to abstract a given theorem and to find an abstractproof of it. Once an abstract proof has been found, this proof has to be refined to a real proofof the original theorem. We present a goal oriented abstraction for the purpose of equality proofplanning, which is parameterized by common parts of the left- and right-hand sides of the givenequality. Therefore, this abstraction technique provides an abstract equality problem which ismore adequate than those generated by the abstractions known so far. The presented abstractionalso supports the heuristic search process based on the difference reduction paradigm. We give aformal definition of the abstract space including the objects and their manipulation. Furthermore,we prove some properties in order to allow an efficient implementation of the presented abstraction.

In this paper we show that distributing the theorem proving task to several experts is a promising idea. We describe the team work method which allows the experts to compete for a while and then to cooperate. In the cooperation phase the best results derived in the competition phase are collected and the less important results are forgotten. We describe some useful experts and explain in detail how they work together. We establish fairness criteria and so prove the distributed system to be both, complete and correct. We have implementedour system and show by non-trivial examples that drastical time speed-ups are possible for a cooperating team of experts compared to the time needed by the best expert in the team.

We investigate one of the classical problems of the theory ofterm rewriting, namely termination. We present an ordering for compar-ing higher-order terms that can be utilized for testing termination anddecreasingness of higher-order conditional term rewriting systems. Theordering relies on a first-order interpretation of higher-order terms anda suitable extension of the RPO.

In this paper we are interested in an algebraic specification language that (1) allowsfor sufficient expessiveness, (2) admits a well-defined semantics, and (3) allows for formalproofs. To that end we study clausal specifications over built-in algebras. To keep thingssimple, we consider built-in algebras only that are given as the initial model of a Hornclause specification. On top of this Horn clause specification new operators are (partially)defined by positive/negative conditional equations. In the first part of the paper wedefine three types of semantics for such a hierarchical specification: model-theoretic,operational, and rewrite-based semantics. We show that all these semantics coincide,provided some restrictions are met. We associate a distinguished algebra A spec to ahierachical specification spec. This algebra is initial in the class of all models of spec.In the second part of the paper we study how to prove a theorem (a clause) valid in thedistinguished algebra A spec . We first present an abstract framework for inductive theoremprovers. Then we instantiate this framework for proving inductive validity. Finally wegive some examples to show how concrete proofs are carried out.This report was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, SFB 314 (D4-Projekt)

Chains of Recurrences (CRs) are a tool for expediting the evaluation of elementary expressions over regular grids. CR based evaluations of elementaryexpressions consist of 3 major stages: CR construction, simplification, and evaluation. This paper addresses CR simplifications. The goal of CRsimplifications is to manipulate a CR such that the resulting expression is more efficiently to evaluate. We develop CR simplification strategies which takethe computational context of CR evaluations into account. Realizing that it is infeasible to always optimally simplify a CR expression, we give heuristicstrategies which, in most cases, result in a optimal, or close-to-optimal expressions. The motivations behind our proposed strategies are discussed and theresults are illustrated by various examples.

The problem of providing connectivity for a collection of applications is largely one of data integration: the communicating parties must agree on thesemantics and syntax of the data being exchanged. In earlier papers [#!mp:jsc1!#,#!sg:BSG1!#], it was proposed that dictionaries of definitions foroperators, functions, and symbolic constants can effectively address the problem of semantic data integration. In this paper we extend that earlier work todiscuss the important issues in data integration at the syntactic level and propose a set of solutions that are both general, supporting a wide range of dataobjects with typing information, and efficient, supporting fast transmission and parsing.