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- Fallbasiertes Schliessen (5)
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- case-based problem solving (5)
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We present an approach to learning cooperative behavior of agents. Our ap-proach is based on classifying situations with the help of the nearest-neighborrule. In this context, learning amounts to evolving a set of good prototypical sit-uations. With each prototypical situation an action is associated that should beexecuted in that situation. A set of prototypical situation/action pairs togetherwith the nearest-neighbor rule represent the behavior of an agent.We demonstrate the utility of our approach in the light of variants of thewell-known pursuit game. To this end, we present a classification of variantsof the pursuit game, and we report on the results of our approach obtained forvariants regarding several aspects of the classification. A first implementationof our approach that utilizes a genetic algorithm to conduct the search for a setof suitable prototypical situation/action pairs was able to handle many differentvariants.

The common wisdom that goal orderings can be used to improve planning performance is nearly as old as planning itself. During the last decades of research several approaches emerged that computed goal orderings for different planning paradigms, mostly in the area of state-space planning. For partial-order, plan-space planners goal orderings have not been investigated in much detail. Mechanisms developed for statespace planning are not directly applicable because partial-order planners do not have a current (world) state. Further, it is not completely clear how plan-space planners should make use of goal orderings. This paper describes an approach to extract goal orderings to be used by the plan-space planner CAPlan. The extraction of goal orderings is based on the analysis of an extended version of operator graphs which previously have been found useful for the analysis of interactions and recursion of plan-space planners.

Die Verwendung von existierenden Planungsansätzen zur Lösung von realen Anwendungs- problemen führt meist schnell zur Erkenntnis, dass eine vorliegende Problemstellung im Prinzip zwar lösbar ist, der exponentiell anwachsende Suchraum jedoch nur die Behandlung relativ kleiner Aufgabenstellungen erlaubt. Beobachtet man jedoch menschliche Planungsexperten, so sind diese in der Lage bei komplexen Problemen den Suchraum durch Abstraktion und die Verwendung bekannter Fallbeispiele als Heuristiken, entscheident zu verkleinern und so auch für schwierige Aufgabenstellungen zu einer akzeptablen Lösung zu gelangen. In dieser Arbeit wollen wir am Beispiel der Arbeitsplanung ein System vorstellen, das Abstraktion und fallbasierte Techniken zur Steuerung des Inferenzprozesses eines nichtlinearen, hierarchischen Planungssystems einsetzt und so die Komplexität der zu lösenden Gesamtaufgabe reduziert.

We describe a hybrid architecture supporting planning for machining workpieces. The archi- tecture is built around CAPlan, a partial-order nonlinear planner that represents the plan already generated and allows external control decision made by special purpose programs or by the user. To make planning more efficient, the domain is hierarchically modelled. Based on this hierarchical representation, a case-based control component has been realized that allows incremental acquisition of control knowledge by storing solved problems and reusing them in similar situations.

We describe a hybrid case-based reasoning system supporting process planning for machining workpieces. It integrates specialized domain dependent reasoners, a feature-based CAD system and domain independent planning. The overall architecture is build on top of CAPlan, a partial-order nonlinear planner. To use episodic problem solving knowledge for both optimizing plan execution costs and minimizing search the case-based control component CAPlan/CbC has been realized that allows incremental acquisition and reuse of strategical problem solving experience by storing solved problems as cases and reusing them in similar situations. For effective retrieval of cases CAPlan/CbC combines domain-independent and domain-specific retrieval mechanisms that are based on the hierarchical domain model and problem representation.

In den letzten Jahren wurden Methoden des fallbasierten Schliessens häufig in Bereichen verwendet, in denen traditionell symbolische Verfahren zum Einsatz kommen, beispielsweise in der Klassifikation. Damit stellt sich zwangsläufig die Frage nach den Unterschieden bzw. der Mächtigkeit dieser Lernverfahren. Jantke [Jantke, 1992] hat bereits Gemeinsamkeiten von Induktiver Inferenz und fallbasierter Klassifikation untersucht. In dieser Arbeit wollen wir einige Zusammenhänge zwischen der Fallbasis, dem Ähnlichkeitsmass und dem zu erlernenden Begriff verdeutlichen. Zu diesem Zweck wird ein einfacher symbolischer Lernalgorithmus (der Versionenraum nach [Mitchell, 1982]) in eine äquivalente, fallbasiert arbeitende Variante transformiert. Die vorgestellten Ergebnisse bestätigen die Äquivalenz von symbolischen und fallbasierten Ansätzen und zeigen die starke Abhängigkeit zwischen dem im System verwendeten Mass und dem zu lernenden Begriff.

Die Mehrzahl aller CBR-Systeme in der Diagnostik verwendet für das Fallretrieval ein numerisches Ähnlichkeitsmass. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, bei dem durch die Einführung eines an den Komponenten des zu diagnostizierenden technischen Systems orientierten Ähnlichkeitsbegriffs nicht nur das Retrieval wesentlich verbessert werden kann, sondern sich auch die Möglichkeit zu einer echten Fall- und Lösungstransformation bietet. Dies führt wiederum zu einer erheblichen Verkleinerung der Fallbasis. Die Ver- wendung dieses Ähnlichkeitsbegriffes setzt die Integration von zusätzlichem Wissen voraus, das aus einem qualitativem Modell der Domäne (im Sinne der modellbasierten Diagnostik) gewonnen wird.

Patdex is an expert system which carries out case-based reasoning for the fault diagnosis of complex machines. It is integrated in the Moltke workbench for technical diagnosis, which was developed at the university of Kaiserslautern over the past years, Moltke contains other parts as well, in particular a model-based approach; in Patdex where essentially the heuristic features are located. The use of cases also plays an important role for knowledge acquisition. In this paper we describe Patdex from a principal point of view and embed its main concepts into a theoretical framework.

In nebenläufigen Systemen erleichtert das Konzept der Atomarität vonOperationen, konkurrierende Zugriffe in größere, leichter beherrschbareAbschnitte zu unterteilen. Wenn wir aber Spezifikationen in der forma-len Beschreibungstechnik Estelle betrachten, erweist es sich, daß es un-ter bestimmten Umständen schwierig ist, die Atomarität der sogenanntenTransitionen bei Implementationen exakt einzuhalten, obwohl diese Ato-marität eine konzeptuelle Grundlage der Semantik von Estelle ist. Es wirdaufgezeigt, wie trotzdem sowohl korrekte als auch effiziente nebenläufigeImplementationen erreicht werden können. Schließlich wird darauf hinge-wiesen, daß die das Problem auslösenden Aktionen oft vom Spezifiziererleicht von vorneherein vermieden werden können; und dies gilt auch überden Kontext von Estelle hinaus.

Bestimmung der Ähnlichkeit in der fallbasierten Diagnose mit simulationsfähigen Maschinenmodellen
(1999)

Eine Fallbasis mit bereits gelösten Diagnoseproblemen Wissen über die Struktur der Maschine Wissen über die Funktion der einzelnen Bauteile (konkret und abstrakt) Die hier vorgestellte Komponente setzt dabei auf die im Rahmen des Moltke-Projektes entwickelten Systeme Patdex[Wes91] (fallbasierte Diagnose) und iMake [Sch92] bzw. Make [Reh91] (modellbasierte Generierung von Moltke- Wissensbasen) auf.

The feature interaction problem in telecommunications systems increasingly obstructsthe evolution of such systems. We develop formal detection criteria which render anecessary (but less than sufficient) condition for feature interactions. It can be checkedmechanically and points out all potentially critical spots. These have to be analyzedmanually. The resulting resolution decisions are incorporated formally. Some prototypetool support is already available. A prerequisite for formal criteria is a formal definitionof the problem. Since the notions of feature and feature interaction are often used in arather fuzzy way, we attempt a formal definition first and discuss which aspects can beincluded in a formalization (and therefore in a detection method). This paper describeson-going work.

Contrary to symbolic learning approaches, which represent a learned concept explicitly, case-based approaches describe concepts implicitly by a pair (CB; sim), i.e. by a measure of similarity sim and a set CB of cases. This poses the question if there are any differences concerning the learning power of the two approaches. In this article we will study the relationship between the case base, the measure of similarity, and the target concept of the learning process. To do so, we transform a simple symbolic learning algorithm (the version space algorithm) into an equivalent case- based variant. The achieved results strengthen the hypothesis of the equivalence of the learning power of symbolic and case-based methods and show the interdependency between the measure used by a case-based algorithm and the target concept.

Collecting Experience on the Systematic Development of CBR Applications using the INRECA Methodology
(1999)

This paper presents an overview of the INRECA methodology for building and maintaining CBR applications. This methodology supports the collection and reuse of experience on the systematic development of CBR applications. It is based on the experience factory and the software process modeling approach from software engineering. CBR development experience is documented using software process models and stored in different levels of generality in a three-layered experience base. Up to now, experience from 9 industrial projects enacted by all INRECA II partners has been collected.

Automata-Theoretic vs. Property-Oriented Approaches for the Detection of Feature Interactions in IN
(1999)

The feature interaction problem in Intelligent Networks obstructs more and morethe rapid introduction of new features. Detecting such feature interactions turns out to be a big problem. The size of the systems and the sheer computational com-plexity prevents the system developer from checking manually any feature against any other feature. We give an overview on current (verification) approaches and categorize them into property-oriented and automata-theoretic approaches. A comparisonturns out that each approach complements the other in a certain sense. We proposeto apply both approaches together in order to solve the feature interaction problem.

Planning means constructing a course of actions to achieve a specified set of goals when starting from an initial situation. For example, determining a sequence of actions (a plan) for transporting goods from an initial location to some destination is a typical planning problem in the transportation domain. Many planning problems are of practical interest.

MOLTKE is a research project dealing with a complex technical application. After describing the domain of CNCmachining centers and the applied KA methods, we summarize the concrete KA problems which we have to handle. Then we describe a KA mechanism which supports an engineer in developing a diagnosis system. In chapter 6 weintroduce learning techniques operating on diagnostic cases and domain knowledge for improving the diagnostic procedure of MOLTKE. In the last section of this chapter we outline some essential aspects of organizationalknowledge which is heavily applied by engineers for analysing such technical systems (Qualitative Engineering). Finally we give a short overview of the actual state of realization and our future plans.

Most automated theorem provers suffer from the problem that theycan produce proofs only in formalisms difficult to understand even forexperienced mathematicians. Efforts have been made to transformsuch machine generated proofs into natural deduction (ND) proofs.Although the single steps are now easy to understand, the entire proofis usually at a low level of abstraction, containing too many tedioussteps. Therefore, it is not adequate as input to natural language gen-eration systems.To overcome these problems, we propose a new intermediate rep-resentation, called ND style proofs at the assertion level . After illus-trating the notion intuitively, we show that the assertion level stepscan be justified by domain-specific inference rules, and that these rulescan be represented compactly in a tree structure. Finally, we describea procedure which substantially shortens ND proofs by abstractingthem to the assertion level, and report our experience with furthertransformation into natural language.

In this paper we show that distributing the theorem proving task to several experts is a promising idea. We describe the team work method which allows the experts to compete for a while and then to cooperate. In the cooperation phase the best results derived in the competition phase are collected and the less important results are forgotten. We describe some useful experts and explain in detail how they work together. We establish fairness criteria and so prove the distributed system to be both, complete and correct. We have implementedour system and show by non-trivial examples that drastical time speed-ups are possible for a cooperating team of experts compared to the time needed by the best expert in the team.

Constructing an analogy between a known and already proven theorem(the base case) and another yet to be proven theorem (the target case) oftenamounts to finding the appropriate representation at which the base and thetarget are similar. This is a well-known fact in mathematics, and it was cor-roborated by our empirical study of a mathematical textbook, which showedthat a reformulation of the representation of a theorem and its proof is in-deed more often than not a necessary prerequisite for an analogical inference.Thus machine supported reformulation becomes an important component ofautomated analogy-driven theorem proving too.The reformulation component proposed in this paper is embedded into aproof plan methodology based on methods and meta-methods, where the latterare used to change and appropriately adapt the methods. A theorem and itsproof are both represented as a method and then reformulated by the set ofmetamethods presented in this paper.Our approach supports analogy-driven theorem proving at various levels ofabstraction and in principle makes it independent of the given and often acci-dental representation of the given theorems. Different methods can representfully instantiated proofs, subproofs, or general proof methods, and hence ourapproach also supports these three kinds of analogy respectively. By attachingappropriate justifications to meta-methods the analogical inference can oftenbe justified in the sense of Russell.This paper presents a model of analogy-driven proof plan construction andfocuses on empirically extracted meta-methods. It classifies and formally de-scribes these meta-methods and shows how to use them for an appropriatereformulation in automated analogy-driven theorem proving.

Following Buchberger's approach to computing a Gröbner basis of a poly-nomial ideal in polynomial rings, a completion procedure for finitely generatedright ideals in Z[H] is given, where H is an ordered monoid presented by a finite,convergent semi - Thue system (Sigma; T ). Taking a finite set F ' Z[H] we get a(possibly infinite) basis of the right ideal generated by F , such that using thisbasis we have unique normal forms for all p 2 Z[H] (especially the normal formis 0 in case p is an element of the right ideal generated by F ). As the orderingand multiplication on H need not be compatible, reduction has to be definedcarefully in order to make it Noetherian. Further we no longer have p Delta x ! p 0for p 2 Z[H]; x 2 H. Similar to Buchberger's s - polynomials, confluence criteriaare developed and a completion procedure is given. In case T = ; or (Sigma; T ) is aconvergent, 2 - monadic presentation of a group providing inverses of length 1 forthe generators or (Sigma; T ) is a convergent presentation of a commutative monoid ,termination can be shown. So in this cases finitely generated right ideals admitfinite Gröbner bases. The connection to the subgroup problem is discussed.

This case study examines in detail the theorems and proofs that are shownby analogy in a mathematical textbook on semigroups and automata, thatis widely used as an undergraduate textbook in theoretical computer scienceat German universities (P. Deussen, Halbgruppen und Automaten, Springer1971). The study shows the important role of restructuring a proof for findinganalogous subproofs, and of reformulating a proof for the analogical trans-formation. It also emphasizes the importance of the relevant assumptions ofa known proof, i.e., of those assumptions actually used in the proof. In thisdocument we show the theorems, the proof structure, the subproblems andthe proofs of subproblems and their analogues with the purpose to providean empirical test set of cases for automated analogy-driven theorem proving.Theorems and their proofs are given in natural language augmented by theusual set of mathematical symbols in the studied textbook. As a first step weencode the theorems in logic and show the actual restructuring. Secondly, wecode the proofs in a Natural Deduction calculus such that a formal analysisbecomes possible and mention reformulations that are necessary in order toreveal the analogy.

We provide an overview of UNICOM, an inductive theorem prover for equational logic which isbased on refined rewriting and completion techniques. The architecture of the system as well as itsfunctionality are described. Moreover, an insight into the most important aspects of the internalproof process is provided. This knowledge about how the central inductive proof componentof the system essentially works is crucial for human users who want to solve non-trivial prooftasks with UNICOM and thoroughly analyse potential failures. The presentation is focussedon practical aspects of understanding and using UNICOM. A brief but complete description ofthe command interface, an installation guide, an example session, a detailed extended exampleillustrating various special features and a collection of successfully handled examples are alsoincluded.

While most approaches to similarity assessment are oblivious of knowledge and goals, there is ample evidence that these elements of problem solving play an important role in similarity judgements. This paper is concerned with an approach for integrating assessment of similarity into a framework of problem solving that embodies central notions of problem solving like goals, knowledge and learning.

To prove difficult theorems in a mathematical field requires substantial know-ledge of that field. In this thesis a frame-based knowledge representation formal-ism including higher-order sorted logic is presented, which supports a conceptualrepresentation and to a large extent guarantees the consistency of the built-upknowledge bases. In order to operationalize this knowledge, for instance, in anautomated theorem proving system, a class of sound morphisms from higher-orderinto first-order logic is given, in addition a sound and complete translation ispresented. The translations are bijective and hence compatible with a later proofpresentation.In order to prove certain theorems the comprehension axioms are necessary,(but difficult to handle in an automated system); such theorems are called trulyhigher-order. Many apparently higher-order theorems (i.e. theorems that arestated in higher-order syntax) however are essentially first-order in the sense thatthey can be proved without the comprehension axioms: for proving these theoremsthe translation technique as presented in this thesis is well-suited.

We transform a user-friendly formulation of aproblem to a machine-friendly one exploiting the variabilityof first-order logic to express facts. The usefulness of tacticsto improve the presentation is shown with several examples.In particular it is shown how tactical and resolution theoremproving can be combined.

There are well known examples of monoids in literature which do not admit a finite andcanonical presentation by a semi-Thue system over a fixed alphabet, not even over an arbi-trary alphabet. We introduce conditional Thue and semi-Thue systems similar to conditionalterm rewriting systems as defined by Kaplan. Using these conditional semi-Thue systems wegive finite and canonical presentations of the examples mentioned above. Furthermore weshow, that each finitely generated monoid with decidable word problem is embeddable in amonoid which has a finite canonical conditional presentation.

Typical examples, that is, examples that are representative for a particular situationor concept, play an important role in human knowledge representation and reasoning.In real life situations more often than not, instead of a lengthy abstract characteriza-tion, a typical example is used to describe the situation. This well-known observationhas been the motivation for various investigations in experimental psychology, whichalso motivate our formal characterization of typical examples, based on a partial orderfor their typicality. Reasoning by typical examples is then developed as a special caseof analogical reasoning using the semantic information contained in the correspondingconcept structures. We derive new inference rules by replacing the explicit informa-tion about connections and similarity, which are normally used to formalize analogicalinference rules, by information about the relationship to typical examples. Using theseinference rules analogical reasoning proceeds by checking a related typical example,this is a form of reasoning based on semantic information from cases.

This paper concerns a knowledge structure called method , within a compu-tational model for human oriented deduction. With human oriented theoremproving cast as an interleaving process of planning and verification, the body ofall methods reflects the reasoning repertoire of a reasoning system. While weadopt the general structure of methods introduced by Alan Bundy, we make anessential advancement in that we strictly separate the declarative knowledgefrom the procedural knowledge. This is achieved by postulating some stand-ard types of knowledge we have identified, such as inference rules, assertions,and proof schemata, together with corresponding knowledge interpreters. Ourapproach in effect changes the way deductive knowledge is encoded: A newcompound declarative knowledge structure, the proof schema, takes the placeof complicated procedures for modeling specific proof strategies. This change ofparadigm not only leads to representations easier to understand, it also enablesus modeling the even more important activity of formulating meta-methods,that is, operators that adapt existing methods to suit novel situations. In thispaper, we first introduce briefly the general framework for describing methods.Then we turn to several types of knowledge with their interpreters. Finally,we briefly illustrate some meta-methods.

We present a framework for the integration of the Knuth-Bendix completion algorithm with narrowing methods, compiled rewrite rules, and a heuristic difference reduction mechanism for paramodulation. The possibility of embedding theory unification algorithms into this framework is outlined. Results are presented and discussed for several examples of equality reasoning problems in the context of an actual implementation of an automated theorem proving system (the Mkrp-system) and a fast C implementation of the completion procedure. The Mkrp-system is based on the clause graph resolution procedure. The thesis shows the indispensibility of the constraining effects of completion and rewriting for equality reasoning in general and quantifies the amount of speed-up caused by various enhancements of the basic method. The simplicity of the superposition inference rule allows to construct an abstract machine for completion, which is presented together with computation times for a concrete implementation.

This report presents the main ideas underlyingtheOmegaGamma mkrp-system, an environmentfor the development of mathematical proofs. The motivation for the development ofthis system comes from our extensive experience with traditional first-order theoremprovers and aims to overcome some of their shortcomings. After comparing the benefitsand drawbacks of existing systems, we propose a system architecture that combinesthe positive features of different types of theorem-proving systems, most notably theadvantages of human-oriented systems based on methods (our version of tactics) andthe deductive strength of traditional automated theorem provers.In OmegaGamma mkrp a user first states a problem to be solved in a typed and sorted higher-order language (called POST ) and then applies natural deduction inference rules inorder to prove it. He can also insert a mathematical fact from an integrated data-base into the current partial proof, he can apply a domain-specific problem-solvingmethod, or he can call an integrated automated theorem prover to solve a subprob-lem. The user can also pass the control to a planning component that supports andpartially automates his long-range planning of a proof. Toward the important goal ofuser-friendliness, machine-generated proofs are transformed in several steps into muchshorter, better-structured proofs that are finally translated into natural language.This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, SFB 314 (D2, D3)

An important property and also a crucial point ofa term rewriting system is its termination. Transformation or-derings, developed by Bellegarde & Lescanne strongly based on awork of Bachmair & Dershowitz, represent a general technique forextending orderings. The main characteristics of this method aretwo rewriting relations, one for transforming terms and the otherfor ensuring the well-foundedness of the ordering. The centralproblem of this approach concerns the choice of the two relationssuch that the termination of a given term rewriting system can beproved. In this communication, we present a heuristic-based al-gorithm that partially solves this problem. Furthermore, we showhow to simulate well-known orderings on strings by transformationorderings.

This report presents a methodology to guide equational reasoningin a goal directed way. Suggested by rippling methods developed inthe field of inductive theorem proving we use attributes of terms andheuristics to determine bridge lemmas, i.e. lemmas which have tobe used during the proof of the theorem. Once we have found sucha bridge lemma we use the techniques of difference unification andrippling to enable its use.

This paper develops a sound and complete transformation-based algorithm forunification in an extensional order-sorted combinatory logic supporting constantoverloading and a higher-order sort concept. Appropriate notions of order-sortedweak equality and extensionality - reflecting order-sorted fij-equality in thecorresponding lambda calculus given by Johann and Kohlhase - are defined, andthe typed combinator-based higher-order unification techniques of Dougherty aremodified to accommodate unification with respect to the theory they generate. Thealgorithm presented here can thus be viewed as a combinatory logic counterpartto that of Johann and Kohlhase, as well as a refinement of that of Dougherty, andprovides evidence that combinatory logic is well-suited to serve as a framework forincorporating order-sorted higher-order reasoning into deduction systems aimingto capitalize on both the expressiveness of extensional higher-order logic and theefficiency of order-sorted calculi.

We consider the problem of verifying confluence and termination of conditionalterm rewriting systems (TRSs). For unconditional TRSs the critical pair lemmaholds which enables a finite test for confluence of (finite) terminating systems.And for ensuring termination of unconditional TRSs a couple of methods forconstructing appropiate well-founded term orderings are known. If however ter-mination is not guaranteed then proving confluence is much more difficult. Re-cently we have obtained some interesting results for unconditional TRSs whichprovide sufficient criteria for termination plus confluence in terms of restrictedtermination and confluence properties. In particular, we have shown that anyinnermost terminating and locally confluent overlay system is complete, i.e. ter-minating and confluent. Here we generalize our approach to the conditional caseand show how to solve the additional complications due to the presence of con-ditions in the rules. Our main result can be stated as follows: Any conditionalTRS which is an innermost terminating semantical overlay system such that all(conditional) critical pairs are joinable is complete.

We will answer a question posed in [DJK91], and will show that Huet's completion algorithm [Hu81] becomes incomplete, i.e. it may generate a term rewriting system that is not confluent, if it is modified in a way that the reduction ordering used for completion can be changed during completion provided that the new ordering is compatible with the actual rules. In particular, we will show that this problem may not only arise if the modified completion algorithm does not terminate: Even if the algorithm terminates without failure, the generated finite noetherian term rewriting system may be non-confluent. Most existing implementations of the Knuth-Bendix algorithm provide the user with help in choosing a reduction ordering: If an unorientable equation is encountered, then the user has many options, especially, the one to orient the equation manually. The integration of this feature is based on the widespread assumption that, if equations are oriented by hand during completion and the completion process terminates with success, then the generated finite system is a maybe non terminating but locally confluent system (see e.g. [KZ89]). Our examples will show that this assumption is not true.

Even though it is not very often admitted, partial functions do play asignificant role in many practical applications of deduction systems. Kleenehas already given a semantic account of partial functions using three-valuedlogic decades ago, but there has not been a satisfactory mechanization. Recentyears have seen a thorough investigation of the framework of many-valuedtruth-functional logics. However, strong Kleene logic, where quantificationis restricted and therefore not truth-functional, does not fit the frameworkdirectly. We solve this problem by applying recent methods from sorted logics.This paper presents a resolution calculus that combines the proper treatmentof partial functions with the efficiency of sorted calculi.

The team work method is a concept for distributing automated theoremprovers and so to activate several experts to work on a given problem. We haveimplemented this for pure equational logic using the unfailing KnuthADBendixcompletion procedure as basic prover. In this paper we present three classes ofexperts working in a goal oriented fashion. In general, goal oriented experts perADform their job "unfair" and so are often unable to solve a given problem alone.However, as a team member in the team work method they perform highly effiADcient, even in comparison with such respected provers as Otter 3.0 or REVEAL,as we demonstrate by examples, some of which can only be proved using teamwork.The reason for these achievements results from the fact that the team workmethod forces the experts to compete for a while and then to cooperate by exADchanging their best results. This allows one to collect "good" intermediate resultsand to forget "useless" ones. Completion based proof methods are frequently reADgarded to have the disadvantage of being not goal oriented. We believe that ourapproach overcomes this disadvantage to a large extend.

In 1978, Klop demonstrated that a rewrite system constructed by adding the untyped lambda calculus, which has the Church-Rosser property, to a Church-Rosser first-order algebraic rewrite system may not be Church-Rosser. In contrast, Breazu-Tannen recently showed that argumenting any Church-Rosser first-order algebraic rewrite system with the simply-typed lambda calculus results in a Church-Rosser rewrite system. In addition, Breazu-Tannen and Gallier have shown that the second-order polymorphic lambda calculus can be added to such rewrite systems without compromising the Church-Rosser property (for terms which can be provably typed). There are other systems for which a Church-Rosser result would be desirable, among them being X^t+SP+FIX, the simply-typed lambda calculus extended with surjective pairing and fixed points. This paper will show that Klop's untyped counterexample can be lifted to a typed system to demonstrate that X^t+SP+FIX is not Church-Rosser.

Over the past thirty years there have been significant achievements in the field of auto-mated theorem proving with respect to the reasoning power of the inference engines.Although some effort has also been spent to facilitate more user friendliness of the de-duction systems, most of them failed to benefit from more recent developments in therelated fields of artificial intelligence (AI), such as natural language generation and usermodeling. In particular, no model is available which accounts both for human deductiveactivities and for human proof presentation. In this thesis, a reconstructive architecture issuggested which substantially abstracts, reorganizes and finally translates machine-foundproofs into natural language. Both the procedures and the intermediate representationsof our architecture find their basis in computational models for informal mathematicalreasoning and for proof presentation. User modeling is not incorporated into the currenttheory, although we plan to do so later.

This paper presents a new way to use planning in automated theorem provingby means of distribution. To overcome the problem that often subtasks fora proof problem can not be detected a priori (which prevents the use of theknown planning and distribution techniques) we use a team of experts that workindependently with different heuristics on the problem. After a certain amount oftime referees judge their results using the impact of the results on the behaviourof the expert and a supervisor combines the selected results to a new startingpoint.This supervisor also selects the experts that can work on the problem inthe next round. This selection is a reactive planning task. We outline whichinformation the supervisor can use to fulfill this task and how this informationis processed to result in a plan or to revise a plan. We also show that the useof planning for the assignment of experts to the team allows the system to solvemany different examples in an acceptable time with the same start configurationand without any consultation of the user.Plans are always subject to changeShin'a'in proverb

The background of this paper is the area of case-based reasoning. This is a reasoning technique where one tries to use the solution of some problem which has been solved earlier in order to obta in a solution of a given problem. As example of types of problems where this kind of reasoning occurs very often is the diagnosis of diseases or faults in technical systems. In abstract terms this reduces to a classification task. A difficulty arises when one has not just one solved problem but when there are very many. These are called "cases" and they are stored in the case-base. Then one has to select an appropriate case which means to find one which is "similar" to the actual problem. The notion of similarity has raised much interest in this context. We will first introduce a mathematical framework and define some basic concepts. Then we will study some abstract phenomena in this area and finally present some methods developed and realized in a system at the University of Kaiserslautern.

The introduction of sorts to first-order automated deduction has broughtgreater conciseness of representation and a considerable gain in efficiency byreducing the search space. It is therefore promising to treat sorts in higherorder theorem proving as well.In this paper we present a generalization of Huet's Constrained Resolutionto an order-sorted type theory SigmaT with term declarations. This system buildscertain taxonomic axioms into the unification and conducts reasoning withthem in a controlled way. We make this notion precise by giving a relativizationoperator that totally and faithfully encodes SigmaT into simple type theory.

In this report we present a case study of employing goal-oriented heuristics whenproving equational theorems with the (unfailing) Knut-Bendix completion proce-dure. The theorems are taken from the domain of lattice ordered groups. It will bedemonstrated that goal-oriented (heuristic) criteria for selecting the next critical paircan in many cases significantly reduce the search effort and hence increase per-formance of the proving system considerably. The heuristic, goalADoriented criteriaare on the one hand based on so-called "measures" measuring occurrences andnesting of function symbols, and on the other hand based on matching subterms.We also deal with the property of goal-oriented heuristics to be particularly helpfulin certain stages of a proof. This fact can be addressed by using them in a frame-work for distributed (equational) theorem proving, namely the "teamwork-method".

Planverfahren
(1999)

We tested the GYROSTAR ENV-05S. This device is a sensor for angular velocity. There- fore the orientation must be calculated by integration of the angular velocity over time. The devices output is a voltage proportional to the angular velocity and relative to a reference. The test where done to find out under which conditions it is possible to use this device for estimation of orientation.

A map for an autonomous mobile robot (AMR) in an indoor environment for the purpose ofcontinuous position and orientation estimation is discussed. Unlike many other approaches, this map is not based on geometrical primitives like lines and polygons. An algorithm is shown , where the sensordata of a laser range finder can be used to establish this map without a geometrical interpretation of the data. This is done by converting single laser radar scans to statistical representations of the environ-ment, so that a crosscorrelation of an actu al converted scan and this representative results into the actual position and orientation in a global coordinate system. The map itsel f is build of representative scansfor the positions where the AMR has been, so that it is able to find its position and orientation by c omparing the actual scan with a scan stored in the map.

One of the problems of autonomous mobile systems is the continuous tracking of position and orientation. In most cases, this problem is solved by dead reckoning, based on measurement of wheel rotations or step counts and step width. Unfortunately dead reckoning leads to accumulation of drift errors and is very sensitive against slippery. In this paper an algorithm for tracking position and orientation is presented being nearly independent from odometry and its problems with slippery. To achieve this results, a rotating range-finder is used, delivering scans of the environmental structure. The properties of this structure are used to match the scans from different locations in order to find their translational and rotational displacement. For this purpose derivatives of range-finder scans are calculated which can be used to find position and orientation by crosscorrelation.

Dynamic Lambda Calculus
(1999)

The goal of this paper is to lay a logical foundation for discourse theories by providing analgebraic foundation of compositional formalisms for discourse semantics as an analogon tothe simply typed (lambda)-calculus. Just as that can be specialized to type theory by simply providinga special type for truth values and postulating the quantifiers and connectives as constantswith fixed semantics, the proposed dynamic (lambda)-calculus DLC can be specialized to (lambda)-DRT byessentially the same measures, yielding a much more principled and modular treatment of(lambda)-DRT than before; DLC is also expected to eventually provide a conceptually simple basisfor studying higher-order unification for compositional discourse theories.Over the past few years, there have been a series of attempts [Zee89, GS90, EK95, Mus96,KKP96, Kus96] to combine the Montagovian type theoretic framework [Mon74] with dynamicapproaches, such as DRT [Kam81]. The motivation for these developments is to obtain a generallogical framework for discourse semantics that combines compositionality and dynamic binding.Let us look at an example of compositional semantics construction in (lambda)-DRT which is one ofthe above formalisms [KKP96, Kus96]. By the use of fi-reduction we arrive at a first-order DRTrepresentation of the sentence A i man sleeps. (i denoting an index for anaphoric binding.)

This paper shows how a new approach to theorem provingby analogy is applicable to real maths problems. This approach worksat the level of proof-plans and employs reformulation that goes beyondsymbol mapping. The Heine-Borel theorem is a widely known result inmathematics. It is usually stated in R 1 and similar versions are also truein R 2 , in topology, and metric spaces. Its analogical transfer was proposedas a challenge example and could not be solved by previous approachesto theorem proving by analogy. We use a proof-plan of the Heine-Boreltheorem in R 1 as a guide in automatically producing a proof-plan of theHeine-Borel theorem in R 2 by analogy-driven proof-plan construction.

This paper addresses a model of analogy-driven theorem proving that is more general and cognitively more adequate than previous approaches. The model works at the level ofproof-plans. More precisely, we consider analogy as a control strategy in proof planning that employs a source proof-plan to guide the construction of a proof-plan for the target problem. Our approach includes a reformulation of the source proof-plan. This is in accordance with the well known fact that constructing ananalogy in maths often amounts to first finding the appropriate representation which brings out the similarity of two problems, i.e., finding the right concepts and the right level of abstraction. Several well known theorems were processed by our analogy-driven proof-plan construction that could not be proven analogically by previous approaches.

This paper addresses analogy-driven auto-mated theorem proving that employs a sourceproof-plan to guide the search for a proof-planof the target problem. The approach presen-ted uses reformulations that go beyond symbolmappings and that incorporate frequently usedre-representations and abstractions. Severalrealistic math examples were successfully pro-cessed by our analogy-driven proof-plan con-struction. One challenge example, a Heine-Borel theorem, is discussed here. For this ex-ample the reformulaitons are shown step bystep and the modifying actions are demon-strated.

Analogy in CLAM
(1999)

CL A M is a proof planner, developed by the Dream group in Edinburgh,that mainly operates for inductive proofs. This paper addresses the questionhow an analogy model that I developed independently of CL A M can beapplied to CL A M and it presents analogy-driven proof plan construction as acontrol strategy of CL A M . This strategy is realized as a derivational analogythat includes the reformulation of proof plans. The analogical replay checkswhether the reformulated justifications of the source plan methods hold inthe target as a permission to transfer the method to the target plan. SinceCL A M has very efficient heuristic search strategies, the main purpose ofthe analogy is to suggest lemmas, to replay not commonly loaded methods,to suggest induction variables and induction terms, and to override controlrather than to construct a target proof plan that can be built by CL A Mitself more efficiently.

Distributed systems are an alternative to shared-memorymultiprocessors for the execution of parallel applications.PANDA is a runtime system which provides architecturalsupport for efficient parallel and distributed program-ming. PANDA supplies means for fast user-level threads,and for a transparent and coordinated sharing of objectsacross a homogeneous network. The paper motivates themajor architectural choices that guided our design. Theproblem of sharing data in a distributed environment isdiscussed, and the performance of appropriate mecha-nisms provided by the PANDA prototype implementation isassessed.

AbstractOne main purpose for the use of formal description techniques (FDTs) is formal reasoningand verification. This requires a formal calculus and a suitable formal semantics of theFDT. In this paper, we discuss the basic verification requirements for Estelle, and howthey can be supported by existing calculi. This leads us to the redefinition of the stanADdard Estelle semantics using Lamport's temporal logic of actions and Dijkstra's predicatetransformers.

The increasing use of distributed computer systems leads to an increasingneed for distributed applications. Their development in various domains like of-fice automation or computer integrated manufacturing is not sufficiently sup-ported by current techniques. New software engineering concepts are needed inthe three areas 'languages', 'tools', and 'environments'. We believe that object-oriented techniques and graphics support are key approaches to major achieve-ments in all three areas. As a consequence, we developed a universal object-oriented graphical editor ODE as one of our basic tools (tool building tool).ODE is based on the object-oriented paradigm, with some important extensionslike built-in object relations. It has an extensible functional language which al-lows for customization of the editor. ODE was developed as part of DOCASE, asoftware production environment for distributed applications. The basic ideas ofDOCASE will be presented and the requirements for ODE will be pointed out.Then ODE will be described in detail, followed by a sample customization ofODE: the one for the DOCASE design language.

Der ständig zunehmende Einsatz verteilter DV-Systeme führt zu einem stark steigendenBedarf an verteilten Anwendungen. Deren Entwicklung in den verschiedensten Anwen-dungsfeldern wie Fabrik- und Büroautomatisierung ist für die Anwender bislang kaum zuhandhaben. Neue Konzepte des Software Engineering sind daher notwendig, und zwar inden drei Bereichen 'Sprachen', 'Werkzeuge' und 'Umgebungen'. Objekt-orientierte Me-thoden und graphische Unterstützung haben sich bei unseren Arbeiten als besonders taug-lich herausgestellt, um in allen drei Bereichen deutliche Fortschritte zu erzielen. Entspre-chend wurde ein universeller objektorientierter graphischer Editor, ODE, als einesunserer zentralen Basis-Werkzeuge ('tool building tool') entwickelt. ODE basiert aufdem objekt-orientierten Paradigma sowie einer leicht handhabbaren funktionalen Sprachefür Erweiterungen; außerdem erlaubt ODE die einfache Integration mit anderen Werk-zeugen und imperativ programmierten Funktionen. ODE entstand als Teil von DOCASE,einer Software-Produktionsumgebung für verteilte Anwendungen. Grundzüge von DO-CASE werden vorgestellt, Anforderungen an ODE abgeleitet. Dann wird ODE detaillier-ter beschrieben. Es folgt eine exemplarische Beschreibung einer Erweiterung von ODE,nämlich der für die DOCASE-Entwurfssprache.

In diesem Aufsatz geht es um eine Klassifikation von Programmen nach zwei orthogonalen Kriterien.Programm und Software werden dabei nicht als Synonyme angesehen; Programm sein wird hiergleichgesetzt mit ausführbar sein, d.h. etwas ist dann und nur dann ein Programm, wenn man die Fragebeantworten kann, was es denn heißen solle, dieses Etwas werde ausgeführt. Es gibt durchaus Softwa-regebilde, bezüglich derer diese Frage keinen Sinn hat und die demzufolge auch keine Programme sind - beispielsweise eine Funktions - oder eine Klassenbibliothek.Klassifikation ist von Nutzen, wenn sie Vielfalt überschaubarer macht - die Vielfalt der Schüler einergroßen Schule wird überschaubarer, wenn die Schüler "klassifiziert" sind, d.h. wenn sie in ihren Klas-senzimmern sitzen. Die im folgenden vorgestellte Klassifikation soll die Vielfalt von Programmenüberschaubarer machen.

Bei der Programmierung geht es in vielfältiger Form um Identifikation von Individuen: Speicherorte,Datentypen, Werte, Klassen, Objekte, Funktionen u.ä. müssen definierend oder selektierend identifiziert werden.Die Ausführungen zur Identifikation durch Zeigen oder Nennen sind verhältnismäßig kurz gehalten,wogegen der Identifikation durch Umschreiben sehr viel Raum gewidmet ist. Dies hat seinen Grunddarin, daß man zum Zeigen oder Nennen keine strukturierten Sprachformen benötigt, wohl aber zumUmschreiben. Daß die Betrachtungen der unterschiedlichen Formen funktionaler Umschreibungen soausführlich gehalten sind, geschah im Hinblick auf ihre Bedeutung für die Begriffswelt der funktionalen Programmierung. Man hätte zwar die Formen funktionaler Umschreibungen auch im Mosaikstein "Programmzweck versus Programmform" im Kontext des dort dargestellten Konzepts funktionaler Programme behandeln können, aber der Autor meint, daß der vorliegende Aufsatz der angemessenerePlatz dafür sei.

Formalismen und Anschauung
(1999)

In der Philosophie ist es selbstverständlich, daß Autoren, die Erkenntnisse früherer Philosophen weitergeben oder kommentieren, die Originalliteratur kennen und sich in ihrer Argumentation explizit auf bestimmte Stellen in den Originaldarstellungen beziehen. In der Technik dagegen ist es allgemein akzeptierte Praxis, daß Autoren von Lehrbüchern, in denen Erkenntnisse früherer Forscher dargestellt oder kommentiert werden, nicht die Originaldarstellungen zugrunde legen, sondern sich mit den Darstellungen in der Sekundärliteratur begnügen. Man denke an die Erkenntnisse von Boole oder Maxwell, die in sehr vielen Lehrbüchern der Digitaltechnik bzw. der theoretischen Elektrotechnik vermittelt werden, ohne daß die Autoren dieser Lehrbücher auf die Originalschriften von Boole oder Maxwell Bezug nehmen. Dagegen wird man wohl kaum ein Buch über Erkenntnisse von Aristoteles oder Kant finden, dessen Autor sich nicht explizit auf bestimmte Stellen in den Schriften dieser Philosophen bezieht.

Die systemtheoretische Begründung für die Einführung des Zustandsbegriffs findet man im Mosaik-stein "Der Zustandsbegriff in der Systemtheorie". Während sich die dortige Betrachtung sowohl mitkontinuierlichen als auch mit diskreten Systemen befaßt, wird hier die Betrachtung auf diskrete Sy-steme beschränkt.

Umgangssprachlich wurde das Wort Daten schon gebraucht, lange bevor der Computer erfundenwurdeund die AbkürzungEDV für "Elektronische Datenverarbeitung" in die Alltagssprache gelangte.So sagte beispielsweise der Steuerberater zu seinem Klienten: "Bevor ich Ihre Steuererklärung fertigmachen kann, brauche ich von Ihnen noch ein paar Daten." Oder der Straßenbaureferent einer Stadtschrieb an den Oberbürgermeister: "Für die Entscheidung, welche der beiden in Frage stehenden Stra-ßen vorrangig ausgebaut werden soll, müssen wir noch eine Datenerhebung durchführen." Bei diesenDaten ging es zwar oft um Zahlen - Geldbeträge, Anzahl der Kinder, Anzahl der Beschäftigungsmo-nate, gezählte Autos - , aber eine Gleichsetzung von Daten mit Zahlen wäre falsch. Zum einen wärenZahlen ohne mitgelieferte Wörter wie Monatseinkommen, Kinderzahl u.ä. für den Steuerberater nutz-los, zum anderen will das Finanzamt u.a. auch den Arbeitgeber des Steuerpflichtigen wissen, und dazumuß eine Adresse angegeben werden, aber keine Zahl.

Für die Systemtheorie ist der Begriff Zustand ein sehr zentraler Begriff. Das Wort "Zustand" wird um-gangssprachlich recht häufig verwendet, aber wenn man die Leute fragen würde, was sie denn meinen,wenn sie das Wort Zustand benützen, dann würde man sicher nicht die präzise Definition bekommen,die man für die Systemtheorie braucht.

This paper presents a completely systematic design procedure for asynchronous controllers.The initial step is the construction of a signal transition graph (STG, an interpreted Petri net) ofthe dialog between data path and controller: a formal representation without reference to timeor internal states. To implement concurrently operating control structures, and also to reducedesign effort and circuit cost, this STG can be decomposed into overlapping subnets. A univer-sal initial solution is then obtained by algorithmically constructing a primitive flow table fromeach component net. This step links the procedure to classical asynchronous design, in particu-lar to its proven optimization methods, without restricting the set of solutions. In contrast toother approaches, there is no need to extend the original STG intuitively.

An interrupter for use in a daisy-chained VME bus interrupt system has beendesigned and implemented as an asynchronous sequential circuit. The concur-rency of the processes posed a design problem that was solved by means of asystematic design procedure that uses Petri nets for specifying system and in-terrupter behaviour, and for deriving a primitive flow table. Classical designand additional measures to cope with non-fundamental mode operation yieldeda coded state-machine representation. This was implemented on a GAL 22V10,chosen for its hazard-preventing structure and for rapid prototyping in studentlaboratories.

A growing share of all software development project work is being done by geographically distributed teams. To satisfy shorter product design cycles, expert team members for a development project may need to be r ecruited globally. Yet to avoid extensive travelling or r eplacement costs, distributed project work is preferred. Current-generation software engineering tools and ass ociated systems, processes, and methods were for the most part developed to be used within a single enterprise. Major innovations have lately been introduced to enable groupware applications on the Internet to support global collaboration. However, their deployment for distributed software projects requires further research. In partic ular, groupware methods must seamlessly be integrated with project and product management systems to make them attractive for industry. In this position paper we outline the major challenges concerning distributed (virtual) software projects. Based on our experiences with software process modeling and enactment environments, we then propose approaches to solve those challenges.

Coordinating distributed processes, especially engineering and software design processes, has been a research topic for some time now. Several approaches have been published that aim at coordinating large projects in general, and large software development processes in specific. However, most of these approaches focus on the technical part of the design process and omit management activities like planning and scheduling the project, or monitoring it during execution. In this paper, we focus on coordinating the management activities that accompany the technical software design process. We state the requirements for a Software Engineering Environm ent (SEE) accommodating management, and we describe a possible architecture for such an SEE.

This paper describes the architecture and concept of operation of a Framework for Adaptive Process Modeling and Execution (FAME). The research addresses the absence of robust methods for supporting the software process management life cycle. FAME employs a novel, model-based approach in providing automated support for different activities in the software development life cycle including project definition, process design, process analysis, process enactment, process execution status monitoring, and execution status-triggered process redesign. FAME applications extend beyond the software development domain to areas such as agile manufacturing, project management, logistics planning, and business process reengineering.

CORBA Lacks Venom
(1999)

Distributed objects bring to distributed computing such desirable properties of modularisation, abstraction and reuse easing the burden of development and maintenance by diminishing the gap between implementation and real-world objects. Distributed objects, however, need a consistent framework in which inter-object communication may take place. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is a distributed object standard. CORBA's primary protocol is the Internet Interoperable Object Protocol limited to blocked synchronous remote procedure calls, over TCP/IP which is inappropriate for systems requiring timely guarantees.

Multi-User Dimensions (MUDs) [3], and their Object-Oriented versions (MOOs) [6], are geographically distributed, programmable client-server systems that support the cooperation of multiple users according to the virtual environment metaphor. In this metaphor, users are allowed to concurrently navigate in a set of "virtual" rooms. Rooms are interconnected through doors and may contain objects. Users are allowed to explore the contents of rooms, create and manipulate objects, and contact other users visiting the same room.

This paper investigates the suitability of the mobile agents approach to the problem of integrating a collection of local DBMS into a single heterogeneous large-scale distributed DBMS. The paper proposes a model of distributed transactions as a set of mobile agents and presents the relevant execution semantics. In addition, the mechanisms which are needed to guarantee the ACID properties in the considered environment are discussed.

Although work processes, like software processes, include a number of process aspects such as defined phases and deadlines, they are not plannable in detail. However, the advantages of today's process management, such as effective document routing and timeliness, can only be achieved with detailed models of work processes. This paper suggests a concept that uses detailed process models in conjunction with the possibility of defining the way a process model determines the work of individuals. Based on the WAM approach1, which allows workers to choose methods for their tasks according to the situation, we describe features to carry out planned parts of a process with workers always being able to start exceptional mechanisms. These mechanisms are based on the modelling paradigm of linked abstraction workflows (LAWs) that describe workflows at different levels of abstraction and classify refinements of tasks by the way lower tasks can be used.

Concept mapping is a simple and intuitive visual form of knowledge representation. Concept maps can be categorized as informal or formal, where the latter is characterized by implementing a semantics model constraining their components. Software engineering is a domain that has successfully adopted formal concept maps to visualize and specify complex systems. Automated tools have been implemented to support these models although their semantic constraints are hardcoded within the systems and hidden from users. This paper presents the Constraint Graphs and jKSImapper systems. Constraint Graphs is a flexible and powerful graphical system interface for specifying concept mapping notations. In addition, jKSImapper is a multi-user concept mapping editor for the Internet and the World Wide Web. Together, these systems aim to support user-definable formal concept mapping notations and distributed collaboration on the Internet and the World Wide Web.

We argue in this paper that sophisticated mi-croplanning techniques are required even formathematical proofs, in contrast to the beliefthat mathematical texts are only schematicand mechanical. We demonstrate why para-phrasing and aggregation significantly en-hance the flexibility and the coherence ofthe text produced. To this end, we adoptedthe Text Structure of Meteer as our basicrepresentation. The type checking mecha-nism of Text Structure allows us to achieveparaphrasing by building comparable combi-nations of linguistic resources. Specified interms of concepts in an uniform ontologicalstructure called the Upper Model, our se-mantic aggregation rules are more compactthan similar rules reported in the literature.

This paper outlines an implemented system called PROVERB that explains machine -found natural deduction proofs in natural language. Different from earlier works, we pursue a reconstructive approach. Based on the observation that natural deduction proofs are at a too low level of abstraction compared with proofs found in mathematical textbooks, we define first the concept of so-called assertion level inference rules. Derivations justified by these rules can intuitively be understood as the application of a definition or a theorem. Then an algorithm is introduced that abstracts machine-found ND proofs using the assertion level inference rules. Abstracted proofs are then verbalized into natural language by a presentation module. The most significant feature of the presentation module is that it combines standard hierarchical text planning and techniques that locally organize argumentative texts based on the derivation relation under the guidance of a focus mechanism. The behavior of the system is demonstrated with the help of a concrete example throughout the paper.

We describe a technique to make application programs fault tolerant. This techADnique is based on the concept of checkpointing from an active program to one ormore passive backup copies which serve as an abstraction of stable memory. Ifthe primary copy fails, one of the backup copies takes over and resumes processADing service requests. After each failure a new backup copy is created in order torestore the replication degree of the service. All mechanisms necessary to achieveand maintain fault tolerance can be added automatically to the code of a nonADfaulttolerant server, thus making fault tolerance completely transparent for the applicaADtion programmer.

Even though it is not very often admitted, partial functionsdo play a significant role in many practical applications of deduction sys-tems. Kleene has already given a semantic account of partial functionsusing a three-valued logic decades ago. This approach allows rejectingcertain unwanted formulae as faulty, which the simpler two-valued onesaccept. We have developed resolution and tableau calculi for automatedtheorem proving that take the restrictions of the three-valued logic intoaccount, which however have the severe drawback that existing theo-rem provers cannot directly be adapted to the technique. Even recentlyimplemented calculi for many-valued logics are not well-suited, since inthose the quantification does not exclude the undefined element. In thiswork we show, that it is possible to enhance a two-valued theorem proverby a simple strategy so that it can be used to generate proofs for the the-orems of the three-valued setting. By this we are able to use an existingtheorem prover for a large fragment of the language.

This paper addresses two modi of analogical reasoning. Thefirst modus is based on the explicit representation of the justificationfor the analogical inference. The second modus is based on the repre-sentation of typical instances by concept structures. The two kinds ofanalogical inferences rely on different forms of relevance knowledge thatcause non-monotonicity. While the uncertainty and non-monotonicity ofanalogical inferences is not questioned, a semantic characterization ofanalogical reasoning has not been given yet. We introduce a minimalmodel semantics for analogical inference with typical instances.

We have developed a middleware framework for workgroup environments that can support distributed software development and a variety of other application domains requiring document management and change management for distributed projects. The framework enables hypermedia-based integration of arbitrary legacy and new information resources available via a range of protocols, not necessarily known in advance to us as the general framework developers nor even to the environment instance designers. The repositories in which such information resides may be dispersed across the Internet and/or an organizational intranet. The framework also permits a range of client models for user and tool interaction, and applies an extensible suite of collaboration services, including but not limited to multi-participant workflow and coordination, to their information retrievals and updates. That is, the framework is interposed between clients, services and repositories - thus "middleware". We explain how our framework makes it easy to realize a comprehensive collection of workgroup and workflow features we culled from a requirements survey conducted by NASA.

Independent development of system components may cause integration problems if their interaction is faulty. This problem may be solved by enforcing required component interactions at the system level. We have developed a system that automatically integrates control-oriented components, to make them consistent with aggregate system behavior re- quirements. Ourmethod is based on the automated synchronization method that modifies independently designed compo-nents to make them satisfy a set of user defined receptive safety properties. The automated synchroniza-tion allows us to design the compo nents as independent controllers that satisfy their individual requirements and to compose a correct executable system by combining the components and enforcing their interaction constraints. This approach gives component designers the freedom to design independently, and produce a functional system by combining the components and specifying their interaction requirements.

An agent-based approach to managing distributed, multi-platform software development projects
(1999)

This paper describes work undertaken within the context of the P3 (Project and Process Prompter) Project which aims to develop the Prompter tool, a 'decision-support tool to assist in the planning and managing of a software development project'. Prompter will have the ability to help software project managers to assimilate best practice and 'know how' in the field of software project management and incorporate expert critiquing to assist with solving the complex problems associated with software project management. This paper focuses on Prompters agent- based approach to tackling the problems of distributed, platform independent support.

Tomorrow's ways of doing business are likely to be far more challenging and interesting than today's due to technological advances that allow people to operate or cooperate anytime, anywhere. Today's workers are becoming mobile without the need of a work home base. Organizations are evolving from the hierarchical lines of control and information flow into more dynamic and flexible structures, where "teams" and individuals are the building blocks for forming task forces and work groups to deal with short and long term project tasks, issues and opportunities. Those individuals and teams will collaborate from their mobile desktops, whether at their offices, home or on the road. A revised paradigm for conducting small and large-scale development and integration is emerging, sometimes called the "virtual enterprise", both in the military and industrial environments. This new paradigm supports communication, cooperation and collaboration of geographically dispersed teams. In this paper we discuss experiences with specific technologies that were investigated by TRW's Infrastructure for Collaboration among Distributed Teams (ICaDT) project; an Independent Research and Development (IR&D) effort.

The paper explores the role of artificial intelligence techniques in the development of an enhanced software project management tool, which takes account of the emerging requirement for support systems to address the increasing trend towards distributed multi-platform software development projects. In addressing these aims this research devised a novel architecture and framework for use as the basis of an intelligent assistance system for use by software project managers, in the planning and managing of a software project. This paper also describes the construction of a prototype system to implement this architecture and the results of a series of user trials on this prototype system.

In this paper, we present an approach to support distributed planning and scheduling, as well as the subsequent (also distributed) plan execution, in one system. The system will support the distributed planners and schedulers by providing task agendas for them, stating who needs to plan which tasks, and sending change notifications and warnings, if a planning or scheduling decision needs to be updated. The plan built using these mechanisms is then enacted by a workflow engine in the same system. This approach enables us to support interleaved planning and plan enactment, allowing the user to change the plan and schedule while the project is already under way. Deviations of the actual project enactment from the plan and schedule can automatically be detected, and necessary notifications will be sent to the concerned planner(s). This again facilitates the task of keeping the plan up to date, avoiding the complete invalidation of the plan as is often the case in conventional projects soon after enactment has started.

Emerging technologies such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, JavaTM technology, and software components, are changing the software business. Activities that have in the past been constrained by the need for intense information management increasingly involve cooperating organizations. Information management tools and techniques do not scale well in the face of this organizational complexity. An informal approach to information sharing, based largely on manual copying of information, cannot meet the demands of the task as size and complexity increase. Formal approaches to sharing information are based on groupware tools, but cooperating organizations do not always enjoy the trust or commonality of sophisticated infrastructure, methods, and skills that this approach requires. Bridging the gap requires a simple, loosely coupled, highly flexible strategy for information sharing. Extensive information relevant to different parts of the software life cycle should be interconnected in a simple, easily described way; such connections should permit selective information sharing by a variety of tools and in a variety of collaboration modes that vary in the amount of organizational coupling they require.

Komprimierungsverfahren
(1999)

Bedingt durch das Wachstum von Informationsnachfrage und -angebot werden effizientere Wege zur Repräsentation von Informationen aller Art benötigt. Dies kann sowohl durch Assimilation und Optimierung der gewählten Datenstruktur und ihrer Repräsentation als auch (additiv) durch Komprimierung derselbigen erreicht werden. Diese Ausarbeitung soll in pragmatischer Art und Weise in das Themengebiet der Komprimierung einführen. Vorgestellt werden insgesamt 3 Stellvertreter aus unterschiedlichen Bereichen : Komprimierung von Texten mittels Huffman-Code, Komprimierung von Bitlisten mittels Laufkomprimierung (RLE-Komprimierung), Komprimierung von - auf dem RGB-Farbmodell basierenden - Grafiken mittels eines eigenen Verfahrens. Während die ersten beiden Verfahren Vertreter verlustfreier Komprimierung sind, ist das Dritte ein Vertreter der verlustbehafteten Komprimierung. Die vorgestellten Verfahren werden zur Arrondierung an konkreten Beispielen eingeübt und schließlich sogar in der Programmiersprache Pascal implementiert. Die konkrete Realisation in einer gegebenen Programmiersprache birgt kanonischerweise die Gefahr, den Blick für das Wesentliche zu verlieren. Deshalb wurde bei der Erstellung dieser Ausarbeitung (im speziellen der Programmieraufgaben) akribisch auf Abstrahierung unnötiger Details geachtet.

This paper outlines the microplanner of PROVERB , a system that generates multilingual text from machine-found mathematical proofs. The main representational vehicle is the text structure proposed by Meteer. Following Panaget, we also distinguish between the ideational and the textual semantic categories, and use the upper model to replace the former. Based on this, a further extension is made to support aggregation before realization decisions are made. While our the framework of our macroplanner is kept languageindependent, our microplanner draws on language specific linguistic sources such as realization classes and lexicon. Since English and German are the first two languages to be generated and because the sublanguage of our mathematical domain is relatively limited, the upper model and the textual semantic categories are designed to cope with both languages. Since the work reported is still in progress, we also discuss open problems we are facing.

This paper describes the linguistic part of a system called PROVERB, which transforms, abstracts,and verbalizes machine-found proofs into formatedtexts. Linguistically, the architecture of PROVERB follows most application oriented systems, and is a pipelined control of three components. Its macroplanner linearizes a proof and plans mediating communicative acts by employing a combination of hierarchical planning and focus-guided navigation. The microplanner then maps communicative acts and domain concepts into linguistic resources, paraphrases and aggregates such resources to producethe final Text Structure. A Text Structure contains all necessary syntactic information, and can be executed by our realizer into grammatical sentences. The system works fully automatically and performs particularly well for textbook size examples.

This paper outlines the linguistic part of an implemented system namedPROVERB[3] that transforms, abstracts, and verbalizes machine-found proofs innatural language. It aims to illustrate, that state-of-the-art techniques of natural language processing are necessary to produce coherent texts that resemble those found in typical mathematical textbooks, in contrast to the belief that mathematical texts are only schematic and mechanical.The verbalization module consists of a content planner, a sentence planner, and a syntactic generator. Intuitively speaking, the content planner first decides the order in which proof steps should be conveyed. It also some messages to highlight global proof structures. Subsequently, thesentence planner combines and rearranges linguistic resources associated with messages produced by the content planner in order to produce connected text. The syntactic generat or finally produces the surface text.

This paper describes a declarative approach forencoding the plan operators in proof planning,the so-called methods. The notion of methodevolves from the much studied concept of a tac-tic and was first used by A. Bundy. Signific-ant deductive power has been achieved withthe planning approach towards automated de-duction; however, the procedural character ofthe tactic part of methods hinders mechanicalmodification. Although the strength of a proofplanning system largely depends on powerfulgeneral procedures which solve a large class ofproblems, mechanical or even automated modi-fication of methods is necessary, since methodsdesigned for a specific type of problems willnever be general enough. After introducing thegeneral framework, we exemplify the mechan-ical modification of methods via a particularmeta-method which modifies methods by trans-forming connectives to quantifiers.

Die Beweisentwicklungsumgebung Omega-Mkrp soll Mathematiker bei einer ihrer Haupttätigkeiten, nämlich dem Beweisen mathematischer Theoreme unterstützen. Diese Unterstützung muß so komfortabel sein, daß die Beweise mit vertretbarem Aufwand formal durchgeführt werden können und daß die Korrektheit der so erzeugten Beweise durch das System sichergestellt wird. Ein solches System wird sich nur dann wirklich durchsetzen, wenn die rechnergestützte Suche nach formalen Beweisen weniger aufwendig und leichter ist, als ohne das System. Um dies zu erreichen, ergeben sich verschiedene Anforderungen an eine solche Entwicklungsumgebung, die wir im einzelnen beschreiben. Diese betreffen insbesondere die Ausdruckskraft der verwendeten Objektsprache, die Möglichkeit, abstrakt über Beweispläne zu reden, die am Menschen orientierte Präsentation der gefundenen Beweise, aber auch die effiziente Unterstützung beim Füllen von Beweislücken. Das im folgenden vorgestellte Omega-Mkrp-System ist eine Synthese der Ansätze des vollautomatischen, des interaktiven und des planbasierten Beweisens und versucht erstmalig die Ergebnisse dieser drei Forschungsrichtungen in einem System zu vereinigen. Dieser Artikel soll eine Übersicht über unsere Arbeit an diesem System geben.

The multiple-view modeling of a product in a design context is discussed in this paper. We study the existing approaches for multiple-view modeling of a product and we give a brief analysis of them. Then we propose our approach which incorporates the multiple-model approach in STEP standard current works based on a single model. We propose a meta-model inspired by this approach for a multiple-view design environment. Next, we validate this meta-model with a case study. Finally we conclude and give some perspectives of this work. Keywords: product data modeling, multiple-view modeling, product data integration, STEP, functional model.