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Partitioned chain grammars
(1979)

This paper introduces a new class of grammars, the partitioned chain grammars, for which efficient parsers can be automatically generated. Besides being efficiently parsable these grammars possess a number of other properties, which make them very attractive for the use in parser-generators. They for instance form a large grammarclass and describe all deterministic context-free languages. Main advantage of the partitioned chain grammars however is, that given a language it is usually easier to describe it by a partitioned chain grammar than to construct a grammar of some other type commonly used in parser-generators for it.

Fast reconstruction formulae in x-ray computerized tomography demand the directions, in which the measurements are taken, to be equally distributed over the whole circle. In many applications data can only be provided in a restricted range. Here the intrinsic difficulties are studied by giving a singular value decomposition of the Radon transform in a restricted range. Practical limitations are deduced.

The Trippstadt Problem
(1984)

Close to Kaiserslautern is the town of Trippstadt, which, together with five other small towns forms a local administration unit (Verbandsgemeinde) called Kaiserslautern-Süd. Trippstadt has its own beautiful public swimming pool, which causes problems though; the cost for the upkeep of the pool is higher than the income and thus has to be divided among the towns belonging to the Verbandsgemeinde. Because of this problem the administration wanted to find out which fraction of the total number of pool visitors came from the different towns. They planned to ask each pool guest where he came from. They did this for only three days though because the waiting lines at the cashiers became unbearably long and they could see that because of this the total number of guests would decrease. Then they wondered how to find a better method to get the same data and that was when I was asked to help with the solution of the problem.

We report on the exchange bias effect as a function of the in-plane direction of the applied field in two-fold symmetric, epitaxial Ni80Fe20/Fe50Mn50 bilayers grown on Cu(110) single crystal substrates. An enhancement of the exchange bias field, Heb, up to a factor of two is observed if the external field is nearly, but not fully aligned perpendicular to the symmetry direction of the exchange bias field. From the measurement of the ex-change bias field as a function of the in-plane angle of the applied field, the unidirectional, uniaxial and four-fold anisotropy contributions are determined with high precision. The symmetry direction of the unidirec-tional anisotropy switches with increasing NiFe thickness from [110] to [001].

In these notes we will discuss some aspects of a problem arising in carindustry. For the sake of clarity we will set the problem into an extremely simplified scheme. Suppose that we have a body which is emitting sound, and that the sound is measured at a finite number of points around the body. We wish to determine the intensity of the sound at an observation point which is moving.

We want to study solid objects in real three dimensional space aiming at two issues:; (i1) modelling solids subject to boolean set algebra, including wire models,; (i2) determining the behaviour of moving solids, e.g. when they collide and the resulting points of contact.; ; This research has been initiated by the FORD Motor Company, Cologne. It is motivated by the intention to provide for a model of an automatical car gear, which gives a high precision basis to the optimization of moving tolerances.

Estimation of P(R kl/gleich S) is considered for the simple stress-strength model of failure. Using the Pareto and Power distributions together with their combined form a useful parametric solution is obtained and is illustrated numerically. It is shown that these models are also applicable when only the tails of distributions for R and S are considered. An application to the failure study concerning the fractures is also included.

Stability and Robustness Properties of Universal Adaptive Controllers for First Order Linear Systems
(1987)

The question: What is an adaptive controller? is as old as the word adaptive control itself. In this paper we will adopt a pragmatic viewpoint which identifies adaptive controllers with nonlinear feedback controllers, designed for classes (families) of linear systems. In contrast to classical linear feedback controllers which are designed for individual systems, these non-linear controllers are required to achieve a specific design objective (such as e.g. stability, tracking or decoupling) for a whole prescribed family of linear systems.

Patterns are considered as normalized measures and distances between them are defined as distances of the corresponding measures using metrics in measure spaces. This idea can be applied for pattern recognition if smeared patterns have to be compared with given ideal patterns. Different metrics are sensitive to different characteristics of the patterns - this is demonstrated in discussing examples. Particular attention is paid to a problem of Quality Control for an artificial fabric, where the distance to uniformity is defined and evaluated; the results are now used in industry.

As shown by Krasnosel" skii, the classical Preisach model allows to construct a hysteresis operator Wbetween spaces of real functions of time. This construction, via the definition of a measure mü in the so-called Preisach plane, is recalled. Characterizations in terms of mü are given for several mapping and continuity properties of W in various function spaces, for the invertibility of W and for the corresponding mapping and continuity properties of the inverse.

The performance of a combustion engine is essentially determined by the charge cycle, i.e. by the inflow of fresh air through the inlet pipe into the cylinder after a combustion cycle. The amount of air, exchanged during this process, depends on many factors, e.g. the number of revolutions per minute, the temperature, the engine and valve geometry. In order to have a tool in designing the engine one is interested in calculating this amount. The proper calculation would involve the solution of three-dimensional hydrodynamical equations governing the gas flow including chemical reactions in a complicated geometry, consisting of the cylinder, valves, inlet and outlet pipe. Since this is clearly too ambitious, we consider a simplified model.

As an alternative to the commonly used Monte Carlo Simulation methods for solving the Boltzmann equation we have developed a new code with certain important improvements. We present results of calculations on the reentry phase of a space shuttle. One aim was to test physical models of internal energies and of gas-surface interactions.

We present the concept of a universal adaptive tracking controller for classes of linear systems. For the class of scalar minimum phase systems of relative degree one, adaptive tracking is shown for arbitrary finite dimensional reference signals. The controller requires no identificaiton of the system parameters. Robustness properties are explored.

Industrial mathematics has many faces; but its essential feature is the cooperation of partners - from industry and from universities - with quite different interest (business versus academic carreer), normally working on different time scales. They measure success in a different way (selling rate against citing index), they have different hierarchies of values and are very often distrusting each other. Industry doubts that mathematicians are willing and/or able to produce something real practical and useful (and the mathematicians should not be too much surprised about this attitude, they very often doubt themselves) - mathematicians are afraid to loose their competence (their ideal of scientific truth, to say it more idealistically), to sell their souls.

Special technological applications like the construction of a dental attachment require structural parts which have very small operall dimensions. Very often these parts are subjected to high loadings. The failure of a small spring was the starting point for an investigation with the aim to design a suitable new spring shape.

We consider universal adaptive stabilization and tracking controllers for classes of linear systems. Under the technical assumption of linear scaling invariance necessary and sufficient conditions for adaptive stabilization are derived. For scalar systems sufficient conditions for adaptive tracking of finite dimensional reference signals are explored.

This article describes the basic concepts of an extensible customizable knowledge-basedgraphical editor and its adoption to the DOCASE methodology and tool environment. Oneaspect in this field is the mapping of conceptual models (expressed in a specific language)to their graphical representations. This also has impacts to the semantic of the user actionsin a graphical editor tool. The ability to extend and customize the editor can be used tobuild specific graphical interfaces to various kinds of tools in the software developmentprocess. Major aspects of ODE are semantics-directed editing besides normal syntax-directed editing, support of abstraction mechanisms, multiple modeless views to attack com-plexity, semantic analization and animation. The result is an highly customizable graphicaleditor construction set that matches requirements of applications in many domains of systemdesign.

On the Moving Preisach Model
(1990)

Fleeces made from artificial fabric are the basic material for many products, ranging from carpets to napkins. Itturns out that their quality is determined by the distribution of the fibres, which can be measured eithter by the optical transmission properties or by the thickness of the material. In both cases one obtains a 2-dimensional signal and one would like to have an objective quality criterion, based on a suitable analysis of these data, which, moreover, can be automated.; In this paper we propose a solution to this problem, based on multiresolution techniques, which have been developed in image analysis through the last few years. Moreover, we use these techniques to investigate fractal properties of the textures.

We present a deterministic simulation scheme for the Boltzmann Semiconductor Equation. The convergence of the method is shown for a simplified space homogeneous case. Numerical experiments, which are very promising, are also given in this situation. The extension for the application to the space inhomogeneous equation with a self consistent electric field is quoted. Theoretical considerations in that case are in preparation.

This paper contains the basic ideas and practical aspects for numerical methods for solving the Boltzmann Equation. The main field of application considered is the reentry of a Space Shuttle in the transition from free molecular flow to continuum flow. The method used will be called Finite Pointset Method (FPM) approximating the solution by finite sets of particles in a rigorously defined way. Convergence results are cited while practical aspects of the algorithm are emphasized. Ideas for the transition to the Navier Stokes domain are shortly discussed.

Treating polyatomic gases in kinetic gas theory requires an appropriate molecule model taking into account the additional internal structure of the gas particles. In this paper we describe two such models, each arising from quite different approaches to this problem. A simulation scheme for solving the corresponding kinetic equations is presented and some numerical results to 1D shockwaves are compared.

This report contains the following three papers about computations of rarefied gas flows:; ; a) Rarefied gas flow around a disc with different angles of attack, published in the proceedings of the 17th RGD Symposium, Aachen, 1990.; ; b) Hypersonic flow calculations around a 3D-deltawing at low Knudsen numbers, published in the proceedings of the 17th RGD Symposium,; Aachen, 1990.; ; c) Rarefied gas flow around a 3D-deltawing, published in the proceedings of the Workshop on Hypersonic Flows for Reentry Problems,; Part 1, Antibes, France, January 22-25, 1990.; ; All computations are part of the HERMES Research and Development Program.

Retrieval of cases is one important step within the case-based reasoning paradigm. We propose an improvement of this stage in the process model for finding most similar cases with an average effort of O[log2n], n number of cases. The basic idea of the algorithm is to use the heterogeneity of the search space for a density-based structuring and to employ this precomputed structure, a k-d tree, for efficient case retrieval according to a given similarity measure sim. In addition to illustrating the basic idea, we present the expe- rimental results of a comparison of four different k-d tree generating strategies as well as introduce the notion of virtual bounds as a new one that significantly reduces the retrieval effort from a more pragmatic perspective. The presented approach is fully implemented within the (Patdex) system, a case-based reasoning system for diagnostic applications in engineering domains.

Based on the experiences from an autonomous mobile robot project called MOBOT-III, we found hard realtime-constraints for the operating- system-design. ALBATROSS is "A flexible multi-tasking and realtime network-operating-system-kernel". The focusin this article is on a communication-scheme fulfilling the previous demanded assurances. The centralchapters discuss the shared buffer management and the way to design the communication architecture.Some further aspects beside the strict realtime-requirements like the possibilities to control and watch a running system, are mentioned. ALBATROSS is actually implemented on a multi-processor VMEbus-system.

We have presented here a two-dimensional kinetical scheme for equations governing the motion of a compressible flow of an ideal gas (air) based on the Kaniel method. The basic flux functions are computed analytically and have been used in the organization of the flux computation. The algorithm is implemented and tested for the 1D shock and 2D shock-obstacle interaction problems.

The paper presents a parallelization technique for the finite pointset method, a numerical method for rarefied gas flows.; First we give a short introduction to the Boltzmann equation, which describes the behaviour of rarefied gas flows. The basic ideas of the finite pointset method are presented and a strategy to parallelize the algorithm will be explained. It is shown that a static processor partition leads to an insufficient load-balance of the processors. Therefore an optimized parallelization technique based on an adaptive processor partition will be introduced, which improves the efficiency of the simulation code over the whole region of interesting flow situation. Finally we present a comparison of the CPU-times between a parallel computer and a vector computer.

Using particle methods to solve the Boltzmann equation for rarefied gases numerically, in realistic streaming problems, huge differences in the total number of particles per cell arise. In order to overcome the resulting numerical difficulties the application of a weighted particle concept is well-suited. The underlying idea is to use different particle masses in different cells depending on the macroscopic density of the gas. Discrepance estimates and numerical results are given.

The wave equation with a Preisach hysteresis operator can be considered as a one-dimensional projection of Maxwell" s equations in a ferromagnetic medium. An initial-boundary value problem for this equation is solved here with emphasizing the fact that under a bounded forcing term the solutions remain bounded. This is due to the strong dissipation of hysteresis energies. New proofs of hysteresis energy inequalities are given without referring to the structure of hysteresis memory.

The efficient numerical treatment of the Boltzmann equation is a very important task in many fields of application. Most of the practically relevant numerical schemes are based on the simulation of large particle systems that approximate the evolution of the distribution function described by the Boltzmann equation. In particular, stochastic particle systems play an important role in the construction of various numerical algorithms.

The conversion efficiency of laser energy into kinetic ion energy in a laser-produced plasma has been investigated for two quite different targets: graphite and tantalum. The laser energy (intensity) varied from several mJ to 200 mJ (1O^9 to 7 x 10^10 W cm-2) which is appropriate to many applications of a laser produced ion source. The conversion efficiency as a function of the laser energy was directly determined by differential measurements of the charge, kinetic energy and angular emission distribution of the plasma ions in absolute units. Whilst for the Ta target a nearly constant efficiency of about 30% was observed, the graphite result shows an unexpectedly strong enhancement of the transfer efficiency of up to 80% in the laser intensity range around 1.5 x l0^10 W cm-2. It is assumed that the results are related to the difference in the surface roughness of the targets.

In this paper we continue the study of p - groups G of square order \(p^{2n}\) and investigate the existence of partial congruence partitions (sets of mutually disjoint subgroups of order \(p^n\)) in G. Partial congruence partitions are used to construct translation nets and partial difference sets, two objects studied extensively in finite geometries and combinatorics. We prove that the maximal number of mutually disjoint subgroups of order \(p^n\) in a group G of order \(p^{2n}\) cannot be more than \((p^{n-1}-1)(p-1)^{-1}\) provided that \(n\ge4\)and that G is not elementary abelian. This improves a result in [6] and as we do not distinguish the cases p=2 and p odd in the present paper, we also have a generalization of D. FROHARDT' s theorem on 2 - groups in [4]. Furthermore we study groups of order \(p^6\). We can show that for each odd prime number, there exist exactly four nonisomorphic groups which contain at least p+2 mutually disjoint subgroups of order \(p^3\). Again, as we do not distinguish between the even and the odd case in advance, we in particular obtain
D. GLUCK' s and A. P. SPRAGUE' s classification of groups of order 64 which contain at least 4 mutually disjoint subgroups of order 8 in [5] and [13] respectively.

In this paper the existence of translation transversal designs which is equivalent to the existence of certain particular partitions in finite groups is studied. All considerations are based on the fact that the particular component of such a partition (the component representing the point classes of the corresponding design) is a normal subgroup of the translation group. With regard to groups admitting an (s,k,\(\lambda\))-partiton, on one hand the already known families of such groups are determined without using R. BAER's, 0.H.KEGEL's and M. SUZUKI' s classification of finite groups with partition and on the other hand some new results on the special structure of p - groups are proved. Furthermore, the existence of a series of nonabelian p - groups of odd order which can be represented as translation groups of certain (s,k,1) - translation transversal designs is shown; moreover, the translation groups are normal subgroups of collineation groups acting regularly on the set of flags of the same designs.

The notion of Q-Gorenstein smoothings has been introduced by Kollar. ([KoJ], 6.2.3). This notion is essential for formulating Kollar's conjectures on smoothing components for rational surface singularities. He conjectures, loosely speaking, that every smoothing of a rational surface singularity can be obtained by blowing down a deformation of a partial resolution, this partial resolution having the property (among others) that the singularities occuring on it all have qG-smoothings. (For more details and precise statements see [Ko], ch. 6.). It is therefore of interest to construct singularities having qG-smoothings.

Limits of instantons
(1991)

Moduli for singularities
(1991)

The aim of this article is to give a survey on recent results about moduli spaces for curve singularities and for modules over the local ring of a fixed curve singularity. We emphasize especially the general concept which lies behind these constructions.
Therefore, the article might be useful to the reader who wishes to have the leading ideas and the main steps of the proofs explained without going into all the details. We also calculate explicit examples (for singularities and for modules) which illustrate
the general theorems.

Trimming of surfaces and volumes, curve and surface modeling via Bézier's idea of destortion, segmentation, reparametrization, geometric continuity are examples of applications of functional composition. This paper shows how to
compose polynomial and rational tensor product Bézier representations. The problem of composing Bezier splines and B-spline representations will also be addressed in this paper.

The use of non-volatile semiconductor memory within an extended storage hierarchy promises significant performance improvements for transaction processing. Although page-addressable semiconductor memories like extended memory, solid-state disks and disk caches are commercially available since several years, no detailed investigation of their use for transaction processing has been performed so far. We present a comprehensive simulation study that compares the performance of these storage types and of different usage forms. The following usage forms are considered: allocation of entire log and database files in non-volatile semiconductor memory, using a so-called write buffer to perform disk writes asynchronously, and caching of database pages at intermediate storage levels (in addition to main memory caching). Our simulations are conducted with both synthetically generated workloads and traces from real-life database applications. In particular, simulation results will be presented for the debit-credit workload frequently used in transaction processing benchmarks. As expected, the greatest performance improvements (but at the highest cost) can be achieved by storing log and database files completely in non-volatile semiconductor memory. For update-intensive
workloads, a limited amount of non-volatile memory used as a write buffer also proved to be very effective. To reduce the number of disk reads; caching of database pages in addition to main memory is best supported by an extended memory buffer. In this respect, disk caches are found to be less effective as they are designed for one-level caching. Different storage costs suggest that it may be cost-effective to use two or even three of the intermediate storage types together. The performance improvements obtainable by the use of non-volatile semiconductor memory is also found to reduce the need for sophisticated DBMS buffer management in order to achieve high transaction processing performance.

Elements of the differential topology are used to prove necessary conditions for stabilizability in large by a smooth feedback. Criteria for the smooth feedback stabilizing a smooth nonlinear system locally to have the smooth piecewise smooth extension, which stabilizes the system over a given compact set, have been obtained.

A method of decoupling normalizing transformations has been developed. According to the method only the part of differential equations corresponding to the dynamic on a center manifold has to be modified by means of the normalizing transformations of a Poincare type. The existence of the normalizing transformation completely decoupling the stable dynamic from the center manifold dynamic has been proved. A numerical procedure for the calculation of asymptotic series for the decoupling normalizing transformation has been proposed. The developed method is especially important for the perturbation theory of center manifold and, in particular, for the local stabilization theory. In the paper some sufficient conditions for local stabilization have been given.

The performance of napkins is nowadays improved substantially by embedding granules of a superabsorbent into the cellulose matrix. In this paper a continuous model for the liquid transport in such an Ultra Napkin is proposed. Its mean feature is a nonlinear diffusion equation strongly coupled with an ODE describing a reversible absorbtion process. An efficient numerical method based on a symmetrical time splitting and a finite difference scheme of ADI-predictor-corrector type has been developed to solve these equations in a three dimensional setting. Numerical results are presented that can be used to optimize the granule distribution.

On the Mróz Model
(1992)

We consider a transmission boundary-value problem for the time-harmonic Maxwell equations neglecting displacement currents. The usual transmission conditions, which require the continuity of the tangential components of the electric and magnetic fields across boundaries are slightly modified. For this new problem we show that the uniqueness of the solution depends on the topological properties of the domains under consideration. Finally we obtain existence results by using a boundary integral equation approach.

We consider a transmission boundary-value problem for the time-harmonic Maxwell equations without displacement currents. As transmission conditions we use the continuity of the tangential parts of the magnetic field H and the continuity of the normal components of the magnetization B=müH. This problem, which is posed over all IR3, is then restricted to a bounded domain by introducing artificial boundary conditions. We present uniqueness and existence proofs for this problem using an integral equation approach and compare the results with those obtained in the unbounded case.

We consider two transmission boundary-value problems for the time-harmonic Maxwell equations without displacement currents. For the first problem we use the continuity of the tangential parts of the electric and magnetic fields across material discontinuities as transmission conditions. In the second case the continuity of the tangential components of the electric field E is replaced by the continuity of the normal component of the magnetization B=müH. For this problem existence of solutions is already shown in [6]. If the domains under consideration are not simply connected the solution is not unique. In this paper, we improve the regularity results obtained in [6] and then prove existence and uniqueness theorems for the first problem by extracting its solution out of the set of all solutions of the second problem. Thus we establish a connection between the solutions corresponding to the different transmission boundary conditions.

In this paper noises and disturbances are treated as distributions of some general class. The problem of sensitivity minimization is considered. A design procedure for the construction of Luenberger observers which estimate the state of a system with a given rate of accuracy has been proposed. The design procedure is applied to identify the first derivatives of an oscillating signal. The constraints on a noise and on a sampling which are necessary to estimate the derivatives to a given accuracy have been obtained.

A multiparameter, polynomial feedback strategy is introduced to solve the universal adapative tracking problem for a class of multivariable minimum phase system and reference signals generated by a known linear time-invariant differential equation. For 2-input, 2-output, minimum phase systems (A,B,C) with det(CB)0, a different polynomial tracking controller is given which does not invoke a spectrum unmixing set.

Several topological necessary conditions of smooth stabilization in the large have been obtained. In particular, if a smooth single-input nonlinear system is smoothly stabilizable in the large at some point of a connected component of equilibria set, then the connected component is to be an unknoted, unbounded curve.

Given a proper antistable rational transfer function g, a balanced realization of g is contructed as a matrix representation of the abstract shift realization introduced in Fuhrmann [1976]. The required basis is constructed as a union of sets of polynomials orthogonal with respect to weights given by the square of the absolute values of minimal degree Schmidt vectors of the corresponding Hankel operators. This extends results of Fuhrmann [1991], obtained in the generic case.

The polynomial approach introduced in Fuhrmann [1991] is extended to cover the crucial area of AAK theory, namely the characterization of zero location of the Schmidt vectors of the Hankel operators. This is done using the duality theory developed in that paper but with a twist. First we get the standard, lower bound, estimates on the number of unstable zeroes of the minimal degree Schmidt vectors of the Hankel operator. In the case of the Schmidt vector corresponding to the smallest singular the lower bound is in fact achieved. This leads to a solution of a Bezout equation. We use this Bezout equation to introduce another Hankel operator which have singular values that are the inverse of the singular values of the original Hankel operator.

Diffeomorphisms are given between different subsets of linear systems of fixed McMillan degree. The sets considered are the set of all systems of fixed McMillan degree, the subset of stable systems, the subset of bounded real systems, the subset of positive real systems, the subset of stable systems with Hankel singular values bounded by one. State space techniques are used in the proofs.

The paper presents theoretical and numerical investigations on simulation methods for the Boltzmann equation with axisymmetric geometry. The main task is to reduce the computational effort by taking advantage of the symmetry in the solution of the Boltzmann equation.; The reduction automatically leads to the concept of weighting functions for the radial space coordinate and therefore to a modified Boltzmann equation. Consequently the classical simulation methods have to be modified according to the new equation.; The numerical results shown in this paper - rarefied gas flows around a body with axisymmetric geometry - were done in the framework of the European space project HERMES.

For the online collision detection with a multi-arm robot a fast method for computing the so-called collision vector is presented. Manipulators and obstacles are modelled by sets of convex polytopes. Known distance algorithms serve as a foundation. To speed up the collision detection dynamic obstacles are approximated by geometric primitives and organized in hierarchies. On-line, the here introduced Dynamic Hierarchies are adjusted to the current arm configuration. A comparison with previous methods shows an increased acceleration of the computations.

We show that the different module structures of GF(\(q^m\)) arising from the intermediate fields of GF(\(q^m\))and GF(q) can be studied simultaneously with the help of some basic properties of cyclotomic polynomials. We use this ideas to give a detailed and constructive proof of the most difficult part of a Theorem of D. Blessenohl and K. Johnsen (1986), i.e., the existence of elements v in GF(\(q^m\)) over GF(q) which generate normal bases over any intermediate field of GF(\(q^m\)) and GF(q), provided that m is a prime power. Such elements are called completely free in GF(\(q^m\)) over GF(q). We develop a recursive formula for the number of completely free elements in GF(\(q^m\)) over GF(q) in the case where m is a prime power. Some of the results can be generalized to finite cyclic Galois extensions
over arbitrary fields.

Let \(a_1, i:=1,\dots,m\), be an i.i.d. sequence taking values in \(\mathbb{R}^n\), whose convex hull is interpreted as a stochastic polyhedron \(P\). For a special class of random variables, which decompose additively relative to their boundary simplices, eg. the volume of \(P\), simple integral representations of its first two moments are given in case of rotationally symmetric distributions in order to facilitate estimations of variances or to quantify large deviations from the mean.

We are concerned with a parameter choice strategy for the Tikhonov regularization \((\tilde{A}+\alpha I)\tilde{x}\) = T* \(\tilde{y}\)+ w where \(\tilde{A}\) is a (not necessarily selfadjoint) approximation of T*T and T*\(\tilde y\)+ w is a perturbed form of the (not exactly computed) term T*y. We give conditions for convergence and optimal convergence rates.

Let \(a_i i:= 1,\dots,m.\) be an i.i.d. sequence taking values in \(\mathbb{R}^n\). Whose convex hull is interpreted as a stochastic polyhedron \(P\). For a special class of random variables which decompose additively relative to their boundary simplices, eg. the volume of \(P\), integral representations of their first two moments are given which lead to asymptotic estimations of variances for special "additive variables" known from stochastic approximation theory in case of rotationally symmetric distributions.

User interfaces for large distributed applications have to handle specific problems: the complexity of the application itself and the integration of online-data into the user interface. A main task of the user interface architecture is to provide powerful tools to design and augment the end-user system easily, hence giving the designer more time to focus on user requirements. Our experiences developing a user interface system for a process control room showed that a lot of time during the development process is wasted for the integration of online-data residing anywhere but not in the user interface itself. Furtheron external data may be kept by different kinds of programs, e.g. C-programs running
a numerical process model or PROLOG-programs running a diagnosis system, both in parallel to the process and in parallel to the user interface. Facing these specific requirements, we developed a user interface architecture following two main goals: 1. integration of external information into high-level graphical objects and 2. the system should be open for any program running as a separate process using its own problem-oriented language. The architecture is based on two approaches: an asynchronous, distributed and language independent communication model and an object model describing the problem domain and the interface using object-oriented techniques. Other areas like rule-based programming are involved, too. With this paper, we will present the XAVIA user interface architecture, the (as far as we know) first user inteface architecture, which is consequently based on a distributed object model.

Gauss Frame Offsets
(1992)