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We are concerned with a parameter choice strategy for the Tikhonov regularization \((\tilde{A}+\alpha I)\tilde{x}\) = T* \(\tilde{y}\)+ w where \(\tilde{A}\) is a (not necessarily selfadjoint) approximation of T*T and T*\(\tilde y\)+ w is a perturbed form of the (not exactly computed) term T*y. We give conditions for convergence and optimal convergence rates.

Let \(a_i i:= 1,\dots,m.\) be an i.i.d. sequence taking values in \(\mathbb{R}^n\). Whose convex hull is interpreted as a stochastic polyhedron \(P\). For a special class of random variables which decompose additively relative to their boundary simplices, eg. the volume of \(P\), integral representations of their first two moments are given which lead to asymptotic estimations of variances for special "additive variables" known from stochastic approximation theory in case of rotationally symmetric distributions.

Let \(a_1, i:=1,\dots,m\), be an i.i.d. sequence taking values in \(\mathbb{R}^n\), whose convex hull is interpreted as a stochastic polyhedron \(P\). For a special class of random variables, which decompose additively relative to their boundary simplices, eg. the volume of \(P\), simple integral representations of its first two moments are given in case of rotationally symmetric distributions in order to facilitate estimations of variances or to quantify large deviations from the mean.

We show that the different module structures of GF(\(q^m\)) arising from the intermediate fields of GF(\(q^m\))and GF(q) can be studied simultaneously with the help of some basic properties of cyclotomic polynomials. We use this ideas to give a detailed and constructive proof of the most difficult part of a Theorem of D. Blessenohl and K. Johnsen (1986), i.e., the existence of elements v in GF(\(q^m\)) over GF(q) which generate normal bases over any intermediate field of GF(\(q^m\)) and GF(q), provided that m is a prime power. Such elements are called completely free in GF(\(q^m\)) over GF(q). We develop a recursive formula for the number of completely free elements in GF(\(q^m\)) over GF(q) in the case where m is a prime power. Some of the results can be generalized to finite cyclic Galois extensions
over arbitrary fields.

We present a generalization of Proth's theorem for testing certain large integers for primality. The use of Gauß sums leads to a much simpler approach to these primality criteria as compared to the earlier tests. The running time of the algorithms is bounded by a polynomial in the length of the input string. The applicability of our algorithms is linked to certain diophantine approximations of \(l\)-adic roots of unity.

Hyperidentities
(1992)

The concept of a free algebra plays an essential role in universal algebra and in computer science. Manipulation of terms, calculations and the derivation of identities are performed in free algebras. Word problems, normal forms, system of reductions, unification and finite bases of identities are topics in algebra and logic as well as in computer science. A very fruitful point of view is to consider structural properties of free algebras. A.I. Malcev initiated a thorough research of the congruences of free algebras. Henceforth congruence permutable, congruence distributive and congruence modular varieties are
intensively studied. A lot of Malcev type theorems are connected to the congruence lattice of free algebras. Here we consider free algebras as semigroups of compositions of terms and more specific as clones of terms. The properties of these semigroups and clones are adequately described by hyperidentities. Naturally a lot of theorems of "semigroup" or "clone" type can be derived. This topic of research is still in its beginning and therefore a lot öf concepts and results cannot be presented in a final and polished form. Furthermore a lot of problems and questions are open which are of importance for the further development of the theory of hyperidentities.

Virtual Reality (VR) is to be seen as the superset of simulation and animation. Visualization is done by rendering. The fundamental model of VR accounts for all phenomenons to be modelled with help of a computer. Examples range from simple dragging actions with a mouse device to the complex simulation of physically based animation.

Gauss Frame Offsets
(1992)

User interfaces for large distributed applications have to handle specific problems: the complexity of the application itself and the integration of online-data into the user interface. A main task of the user interface architecture is to provide powerful tools to design and augment the end-user system easily, hence giving the designer more time to focus on user requirements. Our experiences developing a user interface system for a process control room showed that a lot of time during the development process is wasted for the integration of online-data residing anywhere but not in the user interface itself. Furtheron external data may be kept by different kinds of programs, e.g. C-programs running
a numerical process model or PROLOG-programs running a diagnosis system, both in parallel to the process and in parallel to the user interface. Facing these specific requirements, we developed a user interface architecture following two main goals: 1. integration of external information into high-level graphical objects and 2. the system should be open for any program running as a separate process using its own problem-oriented language. The architecture is based on two approaches: an asynchronous, distributed and language independent communication model and an object model describing the problem domain and the interface using object-oriented techniques. Other areas like rule-based programming are involved, too. With this paper, we will present the XAVIA user interface architecture, the (as far as we know) first user inteface architecture, which is consequently based on a distributed object model.

Weighted k-cardinality trees
(1992)

We consider the k -CARD TREE problem, i.e., the problem of finding in a given undirected graph G a subtree with k edges, having minimum weight. Applications of this problem arise in oil-field leasing and facility layout. While the general problem is shown to be strongly NP hard, it can be solved in polynomial time if G is itself a tree. We give an integer programming formulation of k-CARD TREE, and an efficient exact separation routine for a set of generalized subtour elimination constraints. The polyhedral structure of the convex huLl of the integer solutions is studied.

Facility location problems in the plane are among the most widely used tools of Mathematical Programming in modeling real-world problems. In many of these problems restrictions have to be considered which correspond to regions in which a placement of new locations is forbidden. We consider center and median problems where the forbidden set is
a union of pairwise disjoint convex sets. As applications we discuss the assembly of printed circuit boards, obnoxious facility location and the location of emergency facilities.

We consider a transmission boundary-value problem for the time-harmonic Maxwell equations neglecting displacement currents. The usual transmission conditions, which require the continuity of the tangential components of the electric and magnetic fields across boundaries are slightly modified. For this new problem we show that the uniqueness of the solution depends on the topological properties of the domains under consideration. Finally we obtain existence results by using a boundary integral equation approach.

We consider a transmission boundary-value problem for the time-harmonic Maxwell equations without displacement currents. As transmission conditions we use the continuity of the tangential parts of the magnetic field H and the continuity of the normal components of the magnetization B=müH. This problem, which is posed over all IR3, is then restricted to a bounded domain by introducing artificial boundary conditions. We present uniqueness and existence proofs for this problem using an integral equation approach and compare the results with those obtained in the unbounded case.

We consider two transmission boundary-value problems for the time-harmonic Maxwell equations without displacement currents. For the first problem we use the continuity of the tangential parts of the electric and magnetic fields across material discontinuities as transmission conditions. In the second case the continuity of the tangential components of the electric field E is replaced by the continuity of the normal component of the magnetization B=müH. For this problem existence of solutions is already shown in [6]. If the domains under consideration are not simply connected the solution is not unique. In this paper, we improve the regularity results obtained in [6] and then prove existence and uniqueness theorems for the first problem by extracting its solution out of the set of all solutions of the second problem. Thus we establish a connection between the solutions corresponding to the different transmission boundary conditions.

In this paper noises and disturbances are treated as distributions of some general class. The problem of sensitivity minimization is considered. A design procedure for the construction of Luenberger observers which estimate the state of a system with a given rate of accuracy has been proposed. The design procedure is applied to identify the first derivatives of an oscillating signal. The constraints on a noise and on a sampling which are necessary to estimate the derivatives to a given accuracy have been obtained.

A multiparameter, polynomial feedback strategy is introduced to solve the universal adapative tracking problem for a class of multivariable minimum phase system and reference signals generated by a known linear time-invariant differential equation. For 2-input, 2-output, minimum phase systems (A,B,C) with det(CB)0, a different polynomial tracking controller is given which does not invoke a spectrum unmixing set.

Several topological necessary conditions of smooth stabilization in the large have been obtained. In particular, if a smooth single-input nonlinear system is smoothly stabilizable in the large at some point of a connected component of equilibria set, then the connected component is to be an unknoted, unbounded curve.

The polynomial approach introduced in Fuhrmann [1991] is extended to cover the crucial area of AAK theory, namely the characterization of zero location of the Schmidt vectors of the Hankel operators. This is done using the duality theory developed in that paper but with a twist. First we get the standard, lower bound, estimates on the number of unstable zeroes of the minimal degree Schmidt vectors of the Hankel operator. In the case of the Schmidt vector corresponding to the smallest singular the lower bound is in fact achieved. This leads to a solution of a Bezout equation. We use this Bezout equation to introduce another Hankel operator which have singular values that are the inverse of the singular values of the original Hankel operator.

Diffeomorphisms are given between different subsets of linear systems of fixed McMillan degree. The sets considered are the set of all systems of fixed McMillan degree, the subset of stable systems, the subset of bounded real systems, the subset of positive real systems, the subset of stable systems with Hankel singular values bounded by one. State space techniques are used in the proofs.

The paper presents theoretical and numerical investigations on simulation methods for the Boltzmann equation with axisymmetric geometry. The main task is to reduce the computational effort by taking advantage of the symmetry in the solution of the Boltzmann equation.; The reduction automatically leads to the concept of weighting functions for the radial space coordinate and therefore to a modified Boltzmann equation. Consequently the classical simulation methods have to be modified according to the new equation.; The numerical results shown in this paper - rarefied gas flows around a body with axisymmetric geometry - were done in the framework of the European space project HERMES.

The performance of napkins is nowadays improved substantially by embedding granules of a superabsorbent into the cellulose matrix. In this paper a continuous model for the liquid transport in such an Ultra Napkin is proposed. Its mean feature is a nonlinear diffusion equation strongly coupled with an ODE describing a reversible absorbtion process. An efficient numerical method based on a symmetrical time splitting and a finite difference scheme of ADI-predictor-corrector type has been developed to solve these equations in a three dimensional setting. Numerical results are presented that can be used to optimize the granule distribution.

On the Mróz Model
(1992)

Elements of the differential topology are used to prove necessary conditions for stabilizability in large by a smooth feedback. Criteria for the smooth feedback stabilizing a smooth nonlinear system locally to have the smooth piecewise smooth extension, which stabilizes the system over a given compact set, have been obtained.

A method of decoupling normalizing transformations has been developed. According to the method only the part of differential equations corresponding to the dynamic on a center manifold has to be modified by means of the normalizing transformations of a Poincare type. The existence of the normalizing transformation completely decoupling the stable dynamic from the center manifold dynamic has been proved. A numerical procedure for the calculation of asymptotic series for the decoupling normalizing transformation has been proposed. The developed method is especially important for the perturbation theory of center manifold and, in particular, for the local stabilization theory. In the paper some sufficient conditions for local stabilization have been given.

Given a proper antistable rational transfer function g, a balanced realization of g is contructed as a matrix representation of the abstract shift realization introduced in Fuhrmann [1976]. The required basis is constructed as a union of sets of polynomials orthogonal with respect to weights given by the square of the absolute values of minimal degree Schmidt vectors of the corresponding Hankel operators. This extends results of Fuhrmann [1991], obtained in the generic case.

For the online collision detection with a multi-arm robot a fast method for computing the so-called collision vector is presented. Manipulators and obstacles are modelled by sets of convex polytopes. Known distance algorithms serve as a foundation. To speed up the collision detection dynamic obstacles are approximated by geometric primitives and organized in hierarchies. On-line, the here introduced Dynamic Hierarchies are adjusted to the current arm configuration. A comparison with previous methods shows an increased acceleration of the computations.