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Optimal control of partial differential equations is an important task in applied mathematics where it is used in order to optimize, for example, industrial or medical processes. In this thesis we investigate an optimal control problem with tracking type cost functional for the Cattaneo equation with distributed control, that is, \(\tau y_{tt} + y_t - \Delta y = u\). Our focus is on the theoretical and numerical analysis of the limit process \(\tau \to 0\) where we prove the convergence of solutions of the Cattaneo equation to solutions of the heat equation.
We start by deriving both the Cattaneo and the classical heat equation as well as introducing our notation and some functional analytic background. Afterwards, we prove the well-posedness of the Cattaneo equation for homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions, that is, we show the existence and uniqueness of a weak solution together with its continuous dependence on the data. We need this in the following, where we investigate the optimal control problem for the Cattaneo equation: We show the existence and uniqueness of a global minimizer for an optimal control problem with tracking type cost functional and the Cattaneo equation as a constraint. Subsequently, we do an asymptotic analysis for \(\tau \to 0\) for both the forward equation and the aforementioned optimal control problem and show that the solutions of these problems for the Cattaneo equation converge strongly to the ones for the heat equation. Finally, we investigate these problems numerically, where we examine the different behaviour of the models and also consider the limit \(\tau \to 0\), suggesting a linear convergence rate.

The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a numerical solver for the Navier-Stokes equations, based on an underlying molecular dynamic model. Recently, it has been extended towardsthe simulation of complex fluids. We use the asymptotic expansion technique to investigate the standard scheme, the initialization problem and possible developments towards moving boundary and fluid-structure interaction problems. At the same time, it will be shown how the mathematical analysis can be used to understand and improve the algorithm. First of all, we elaborate the tool "asymptotic analysis", proposing a general formulation of the technique and explaining the methods and the strategy we use for the investigation. A first standard application to the LBM is described, which leads to the approximation of the Navier-Stokes solution starting from the lattice Boltzmann equation. As next, we extend the analysis to investigate origin and dynamics of initial layers. A class of initialization algorithms to generate accurate initial values within the LB framework is described in detail. Starting from existing routines, we will be able to improve the schemes in term of efficiency and accuracy. Then we study the features of a simple moving boundary LBM. In particular, we concentrate on the initialization of new fluid nodes created by the variations of the computational fluid domain. An overview of existing possible choices is presented. Performing a careful analysis of the problem we propose a modified algorithm, which produces satisfactory results. Finally, to set up an LBM for fluid structure interaction, efficient routines to evaluate forces are required. We describe the Momentum Exchange algorithm (MEA). Precise accuracy estimates are derived, and the analysis leads to the construction of an improved method to evaluate the interface stresses. In conclusion, we test the defined code and validate the results of the analysis on several simple benchmarks. From the theoretical point of view, in the thesis we have developed a general formulation of the asymptotic expansion, which is expected to offer a more flexible tool in the investigation of numerical methods. The main practical contribution offered by this work is the detailed analysis of the numerical method. It allows to understand and improve the algorithms, and construct new routines, which can be considered as starting points for future researches.