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Abstract
The main theme of this thesis is about Graph Coloring Applications and Defining Sets in Graph Theory.
As in the case of block designs, finding defining sets seems to be difficult problem, and there is not a general conclusion. Hence we confine us here to some special types of graphs like bipartite graphs, complete graphs, etc.
In this work, four new concepts of defining sets are introduced:
• Defining sets for perfect (maximum) matchings
• Defining sets for independent sets
• Defining sets for edge colorings
• Defining set for maximal (maximum) clique
Furthermore, some algorithms to find and construct the defining sets are introduced. A review on some known kinds of defining sets in graph theory is also incorporated, in chapter 2 the basic definitions and some relevant notations used in this work are introduced.
chapter 3 discusses the maximum and perfect matchings and a new concept for a defining set for perfect matching.
Different kinds of graph colorings and their applications are the subject of chapter 4.
Chapter 5 deals with defining sets in graph coloring. New results are discussed along with already existing research results, an algorithm is introduced, which enables to determine a defining set of a graph coloring.
In chapter 6, cliques are discussed. An algorithm for the determination of cliques using their defining sets. Several examples are included.

Satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) and satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG), respectively, are two measurement principles in modern satellite geodesy which yield knowledge of the first and second order radial derivative of the earth's gravitational potential at satellite altitude, respectively. A numerical method to compute the gravitational potential on the earth's surface from those observations should be capable of processing huge amounts of observational data. Moreover, it should yield a reconstruction of the gravitational potential at different levels of detail, and it should be possible to reconstruct the gravitational potential from only locally given data. SST and SGG are modeled as ill-posed linear pseudodifferential operator equations with an injective but non-surjective compact operator, which operates between Sobolev spaces of harmonic functions and such ones consisting of their first and second order radial derivatives, respectively. An immediate discretization of the operator equation is obtained by replacing the signal on its right-hand-side either by an interpolating or a smoothing spline which approximates the observational data. Here the noise level and the spatial distribution of the data determine whether spline-interpolation or spline-smoothing is appropriate. The large full linear equation system with positive definite matrix which occurs in the spline-interplation and spline-smoothing problem, respectively, is efficiently solved with the help of the Schwarz alternating algorithm, a domain decomposition method which allows it to split the large linear equation system into several smaller ones which are then solved alernatingly in an iterative procedure. Strongly space-localizing regularization scaling functions and wavelets are used to obtain a multiscale reconstruction of the gravitational potential on the earth's surface. In a numerical experiment the advocated method is successfully applied to reconstruct the earth's gravitational potential from simulated 'exact' and 'error-affected' SGG data on a spherical orbit, using Tikhonov regularization. The applicability of the numerical method is, however, not restricted to data given on a closed orbit but it can also cope with realistic satellite data.

A natural extension of point facility location problems are those problems in which facilities are extensive, i.e. those that can not be represented by isolated points but as some dimensional structures such as straight lines, segments of lines, polygonal curves or circles. In this paper a review of the existing work on the location of extensive facilities in continuous spaces is given. Gaps in the knowledge are identified and suggestions for further research are made.

Lineare Optimierung ist ein wichtiges Aufgabengebiet der angewandten Mathematik, da sich viele praktische Probleme mittels dieser Technik modellieren und lösen lassen. Diese Veröffentlichung soll helfen, Schüler an diese Thematik heranzuführen. Dabei soll der Vorgang des Modellierens, also die Reduktion des Problems auf die wesentlichen Merkmale, vermittelt werden. Anschließend an den Modellierungsprozeß können durch Einsatz der Simplex-Methode die linearen Optimierungsprobleme gelöst werden. Verschiedene praktische Beispiele dienen der Veranschaulichung des Vorgehens.

In this article, we investigate the maximum entropy moment closure in gas dynamics. We show that the usual choice of polynomial weight functions may lead to hyperbolic systems with an unpleasant state space: equilibrium states are boundary points with possibly singular fluxes. In order to avoid singularities, the necessary arises to find weight functions which growing sub-quadratically at infinity. Unfortunately, this requirement leads to a conflict with Galilean invariance of the moment systems because we can show that rotational and translational invariant, finite dimensional function spaces necessarily consist of polynomials.