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In this article we formally describe a declarative approach for encoding plan operatorsin proof planning, the so-called methods. The notion of method evolves from the much studiedconcept tactic and was first used by Bundy. While significant deductive power has been achievedwith the planning approach towards automated deduction, the procedural character of the tacticpart of methods, however, hinders mechanical modification. Although the strength of a proofplanning system largely depends on powerful general procedures which solve a large class ofproblems, mechanical or even automated modification of methods is nevertheless necessary forat least two reasons. Firstly methods designed for a specific type of problem will never begeneral enough. For instance, it is very difficult to encode a general method which solves allproblems a human mathematician might intuitively consider as a case of homomorphy. Secondlythe cognitive ability of adapting existing methods to suit novel situations is a fundamentalpart of human mathematical competence. We believe it is extremely valuable to accountcomputationally for this kind of reasoning.The main part of this article is devoted to a declarative language for encoding methods,composed of a tactic and a specification. The major feature of our approach is that the tacticpart of a method is split into a declarative and a procedural part in order to enable a tractableadaption of methods. The applicability of a method in a planning situation is formulatedin the specification, essentially consisting of an object level formula schema and a meta-levelformula of a declarative constraint language. After setting up our general framework, wemainly concentrate on this constraint language. Furthermore we illustrate how our methodscan be used in a Strips-like planning framework. Finally we briefly illustrate the mechanicalmodification of declaratively encoded methods by so-called meta-methods.

The hallmark of traditional Artificial Intelligence (AI) research is the symbolic representation and processing of knowledge. This is in sharp contrast to many forms of human reasoning, which to an extraordinary extent, rely on cases and (typical) examples. Although these examples could themselves be encoded into logic, this raises the problem of restricting the corresponding model classes to include only the intended models.There are, however, more compelling reasons to argue for a hybrid representa-tion based on assertions as well as examples. The problems of adequacy, availability of information, compactness of representation, processing complexity, and last but not least, results from the psychology of human reasoning, all point to the same conclusion: Common sense reasoning requires different knowledge sources and hybrid reasoning principles that combine symbolic as well as semantic-based inference. In this paper we address the problem of integrating semantic representations of examples into automateddeduction systems. The main contribution is a formal framework for combining sentential with direct representations. The framework consists of a hybrid knowledge base, made up of logical formulae on the one hand and direct representations of examples on the other, and of a hybrid reasoning method based on the resolution calculus. The resulting hybrid resolution calculus is shown to be sound and complete.

Unification in an Extensional Lambda Calculus with Ordered Function Sorts and Constant Overloading
(1999)

We develop an order-sorted higher-order calculus suitable forautomatic theorem proving applications by extending the extensional simplytyped lambda calculus with a higher-order ordered sort concept and constantoverloading. Huet's well-known techniques for unifying simply typed lambdaterms are generalized to arrive at a complete transformation-based unificationalgorithm for this sorted calculus. Consideration of an order-sorted logicwith functional base sorts and arbitrary term declarations was originallyproposed by the second author in a 1991 paper; we give here a correctedcalculus which supports constant rather than arbitrary term declarations, aswell as a corrected unification algorithm, and prove in this setting resultscorresponding to those claimed there.

An important research problem is the incorporation of "declarative" knowledge into an automated theorem prover that can be utilized in the search for a proof. An interesting pro-posal in this direction is Alan Bundy's approach of using explicit proof plans that encapsulatethe general form of a proof and is instantiated into a particular proof for the case at hand. Wegive some examples that show how a "declarative" highlevel description of a proof can be usedto find proofs of apparently "similiar" theorems by analogy. This "analogical" information isused to select the appropriate axioms from the database so that the theorem can be proved.This information is also used to adjust some options of a resolution theorem prover. In orderto get a powerful tool it is necessary to develop an epistemologically appropriate language todescribe proofs, for which a large set of examples should be used as a testbed. We presentsome ideas in this direction.

Let \(X\) be a Banach lattice. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a linear operator \(A:D(A) \to X\), \(D(A)\subseteq X\), to be of positive \(C^0\)-scalar type are given. In addition, the question is discussed which conditions on the Banach lattice imply that every operator of positive \(C^0\)-scalar type is necessarily of positive scalar type.

In the scalar case one knows that a complex normalized function of boundedvariation \(\phi\) on \([0,1]\) defines a unique complex regular Borel measure\(\mu\) on \([0,1]\). In this note we show that this is no longer true in generalin the vector valued case, even if \(\phi\) is assumed to be continuous. Moreover, the functions \(\phi\) which determine a countably additive vectormeasure \(\mu\) are characterized.

Struktur und Werkzeuge des experiment-spezifischen Datenbereichs der SFB501 Erfahrungsdatenbank
(1999)

Software-Entwicklungsartefakte müssen zielgerichtet während der Durchführung eines Software- Projekts erfasst werden, um für die Wiederverwendung aufbereitet werden zu können. Die methodische Basis hierzu bildet im Sonderforschungsbereich 501 das Konzept der Erfahrungsdatenbank. In ihrem experiment-spezifischen Datenbereich werden für jedes Entwicklungsprojekt alle Software-Entwicklungsartefakte abgelegt, die während des Lebenszyklus eines Projektes anfallen. In ihrem übergreifenden Datenbereich werden all die jenigen Artefakte aus dem experiment-spezifischen Datenbereich zusammengefasst, die für eine Wiederverwendung in nachfolgenden Projekten in Frage kommen. Es hat sich gezeigt, dass bereits zur Nutzung der Datenmengen im experiment- spezifischen Datenbereich der Erfahrungsdatenbank ein systematischer Zugriff notwendig ist. Ein systematischer Zugriff setzt jedoch eine normierte Struktur voraus. Im experiment-spezifischen Bereich werden zwei Arten von Experimenttypen unterschieden: "Kontrollierte Experimente" und "Fallstudien". Dieser Bericht beschreibt die Ablage- und Zugriffsstruktur für den Experimenttyp "Fallstudien". Die Struktur wurde aufgrund der Erfahrungen in ersten Fallstudien entwickelt und evaluiert.

The following two norms for holomorphic functions \(F\), defined on the right complex half-plane \(\{z \in C:\Re(z)\gt 0\}\) with values in a Banach space \(X\), are equivalent:
\[\begin{eqnarray*} \lVert F \rVert _{H_p(C_+)} &=& \sup_{a\gt0}\left( \int_{-\infty}^\infty \lVert F(a+ib) \rVert ^p \ db \right)^{1/p}
\mbox{, and} \\ \lVert F \rVert_{H_p(\Sigma_{\pi/2})} &=& \sup_{\lvert \theta \lvert \lt \pi/2}\left( \int_0^\infty \left \lVert F(re^{i \theta}) \right \rVert ^p\ dr \right)^{1/p}.\end{eqnarray*}\] As a consequence, we derive a description of boundary values ofsectorial holomorphic functions, and a theorem of Paley-Wiener typefor sectorial holomorphic functions.

Quantum Chaos
(1999)

The study of dynamical quantum systems, which are classically chaotic, and the search for quantum manifestations of classical chaos, require large scale numerical computations. Special numerical techniques developed and applied in such studies are discussed: The numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr-odinger equation, the construction of quantum phase space densities, quantum dynamics in phase space, the use of phase space entropies for characterizing localization phenomena, etc. As an illustration, the dynamics of a driven one-dimensional anharmonic oscillator is studied, both classically and quantum mechanically. In addition, spectral properties and chaotic tunneling are addressed.