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We report on generation of pulsed broadband terahertz radiation utilizing the inverse spin hall effect in Fe/Pt bilayers on MgO and sapphire substrates. The emitter was optimized with respect to layer thickness, growth parameters, substrates and geometrical arrangement. The experimentally determined optimum layer thicknesses were in qualitative agreement with simulations of the spin current induced in the ferromagnetic layer. Our model takes into account generation of spin polarization, spin diffusion and accumulation in Fe and Pt and electrical as well as optical properties of the bilayer samples. Using the device in a counterintuitive orientation a Si lens was attached to increase the collection efficiency of the emitter. The optimized emitter provided a bandwidth of up to 8 THz which was mainly limited by the low-temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAS) photoconductive antenna used as detector and the pulse length of the pump laser. The THz pulse length was as short as 220 fs for a sub 100 fs pulse length of the 800 nm pump laser. Average pump powers as low as 25 mW (at a repetition rate of 75 MHz) have been used for terahertz generation. This and the general performance make the spintronic terahertz emitter compatible with established emitters based on optical rectification in nonlinear crystals.

In this paper, we demonstrate the power of functional data models for a statistical analysis of stimulus-response experiments which is a quite natural way to look at this kind of data and which makes use of the full information available. In particular, we focus on the detection of a change in the mean of the response in a series of stimulus-response curves where we also take into account dependence in time.

The scales of white beetles strongly scatter light within a thin disordered network of
chitin filaments. There is no comparable artificial material achieving such a high scat-
tering strength within a thin layer of low refractive index material. Several analyses
investigated the scattering but could not explain the underlying concept. Here a model
system is described, which has the same optical properties as the white beetles’ scales
in the visible wavelength range. With some modification, it also explains the behavior
of the structures in the near infrared range. The comparison of the original structure and
the model system is done by finite-difference time-domain calculations. The calcula-
tions show excellent agreement with the beetles’ scales with respect to the reflectance,
the time-of-flight, and the intensity distribution in the far-field.

Based on the Lindblad master equation approach we obtain a detailed microscopic model of photons in a dye-filled cavity, which features condensation of light. To this end we generalise a recent non-equilibrium approach of Kirton and Keeling such that the dye-mediated contribution to the photon-photon interaction in the light condensate is accessible due to an interplay of coherent and dissipative dynamics. We describe the steady-state properties of the system by analysing the resulting equations of motion of both photonic and matter degrees of freedom. In particular, we discuss the existence of two limiting cases for steady states: photon Bose-Einstein condensate and laser-like. In the former case, we determine the corresponding dimensionless photon-photon interaction strength by relying on realistic experimental data and find a good agreement with previous theoretical estimates. Furthermore, we investigate how the dimensionless interaction strength depends on the respective system parameters.

Influence of the Crystal Surface on the Austenitic and Martensitic Phase Transition in Pure Iron
(2018)

Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we studied the influence that free
surfaces exert on the austenitic and martensitic phase transition in iron. For several single-indexed
surfaces—such as (100)bcc and (110)bcc as well as (100)fcc and (110)fcc surfaces—appropriate
pathways exist that allow for the transformation of the surface structure. These are the Bain,
Mao, Pitsch, and Kurdjumov–Sachs pathways, respectively. Tilted surfaces follow the pathway
of the neighboring single-indexed plane. The austenitic transformation temperature follows the
dependence of the specific surface energy of the native bcc phase; here, the new phase nucleates at
the surface. In contrast, the martensitic transformation temperature steadily decreases when tilting
the surface from the (100)fcc to the (110)fcc orientation. This dependence is caused by the strong
out-of-plane deformation that (110)fcc facets experience under the transformation; here, the new
phase also nucleates in the bulk rather than at the surface.

Motivation: Mathematical models take an important place in science and engineering.
A model can help scientists to explain dynamic behavior of a system and to understand
the functionality of system components. Since length of a time series and number of
replicates is limited by the cost of experiments, Boolean networks as a structurally simple
and parameter-free logical model for gene regulatory networks have attracted interests
of many scientists. In order to fit into the biological contexts and to lower the data
requirements, biological prior knowledge is taken into consideration during the inference
procedure. In the literature, the existing identification approaches can only deal with a
subset of possible types of prior knowledge.
Results: We propose a new approach to identify Boolean networks fromtime series data
incorporating prior knowledge, such as partial network structure, canalizing property,
positive and negative unateness. Using vector form of Boolean variables and applying
a generalized matrix multiplication called the semi-tensor product (STP), each Boolean
function can be equivalently converted into a matrix expression. Based on this, the
identification problem is reformulated as an integer linear programming problem to
reveal the system matrix of Boolean model in a computationally efficient way, whose
dynamics are consistent with the important dynamics captured in the data. By using
prior knowledge the number of candidate functions can be reduced during the inference.
Hence, identification incorporating prior knowledge is especially suitable for the case of
small size time series data and data without sufficient stimuli. The proposed approach is
illustrated with the help of a biological model of the network of oxidative stress response.
Conclusions: The combination of efficient reformulation of the identification problem
with the possibility to incorporate various types of prior knowledge enables the
application of computational model inference to systems with limited amount of time
series data. The general applicability of thismethodological approachmakes it suitable for
a variety of biological systems and of general interest for biological and medical research.

Relating mathematical concepts to graphical representations is a challenging task for students. In this paper, we introduce two visual strategies to qualitatively interpret the divergence of graphical vector field representations. One strategy is based on the graphical interpretation of partial derivatives, while the other is based on the flux concept. We test the effectiveness of both strategies in an instruction-based eye-tracking study with N = 41 physics majors. We found that students’ performance improved when both strategies were introduced (74% correct) instead of only one strategy (64% correct), and students performed best when they were free to choose between the two strategies (88% correct). This finding supports the idea of introducing multiple representations of a physical concept to foster student understanding.Relevant eye-tracking measures demonstrate that both strategies imply different visual processing of the vector field plots, therefore reflecting conceptual differences between the strategies. Advanced analysis methods further reveal significant differences in eye movements between the best and worst performing students. For instance, the best students performed predominantly horizontal and vertical saccades, indicating correct interpretation of partial derivatives. They also focused on smaller regions when they balanced positive and negative flux. This mixed method research leads to new insights into student visual processing of vector field representations, highlights the advantages and limitations of eye-tracking methodologies in this context, and discusses implications for teaching and for future research. The introduction of saccadic direction analysis expands traditional methods, and shows the potential to discover new insights into student understanding and learning difficulties.

Neuronal inhibition is mediated by glycine and/or GABA. Inferior colliculus (IC) neurons receive glycinergic and GABAergic
inputs, whereas inhibition in hippocampus (HC) predominantly relies on GABA. Astrocytes heterogeneously
express neurotransmitter transporters and are expected to adapt to the local requirements regarding neurotransmitter
homeostasis. Here we analyzed the expression of inhibitory neurotransmitter transporters in IC and HC astrocytes using
whole-cell patch-clamp and single-cell reverse transcription-PCR. We show that most astrocytes in both regions expressed
functional glycine transporters (GlyTs). Activation of these transporters resulted in an inward current (IGly) that
was sensitive to the competitive GlyT1 agonist sarcosine. Astrocytes exhibited transcripts for GlyT1 but not for
GlyT2. Glycine did not alter the membrane resistance (RM) arguing for the absence of functional glycine receptors (GlyRs).
Thus, IGly was mainly mediated by GlyT1. Similarly, we found expression of functional GABA transporters (GATs) in all IC
astrocytes and about half of the HC astrocytes. These transporters mediated an inward current (IGABA) that was sensitive to
the competitive GAT-1 and GAT-3 antagonists NO711 and SNAP5114, respectively. Accordingly, transcripts for GAT-1 and
GAT-3 were found but not for GAT-2 and BGT-1. Only in hippocampal astrocytes, GABA transiently reduced
RM demonstrating the presence of GABAA receptors (GABAARs). However, IGABA was mainly not contaminated
by GABAAR-mediated currents as RM changes vanished shortly after GABA application. In both regions, IGABA
was stronger than IGly. Furthermore, in HC the IGABA/IGly ratio was larger compared to IC. Taken together, our
results demonstrate that astrocytes are heterogeneous across and within distinct brain areas. Furthermore, we
could show that the capacity for glycine and GABA uptake varies between both brain regions.

Während des Forschungsprozesses zur Erstellung einer wissenschaftlichen Arbeit müssen zahlreiche Entscheidungen getroffen und auch gerechtfertigt werden. Dies gilt nicht nur für konzeptionelle Arbeiten, sondern insbesondere auch für empirisch ausgerichtete Arbeiten. In diesem Zusammenhang leistet der vorliegende Leitfaden einen Beitrag zur konzeptionellen sowie anwendungsbezogenen empirischen Grundlagenforschung im Controlling unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Vorgehensweise am Lehrstuhl für Unternehmensrechnung und Controlling. Das zentrale
Ziel des Leitfadens liegt dabei in dem Aufzeigen eines Überblicks über die Grundlagen der empirischen Forschung im Controlling. Hierzu wird in einem ersten Schritt die wissenschaftstheoretische Relevanz der fundierten empirischen Forschung im Kontext realwissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen aufgezeigt und diese mit dem Forschungskonzept des Lehrstuhls verknüpft. Hieran anschließend werden einige empirische Forschungsdesigns vorgestellt, wobei insbesondere die Methodik der Vignetten-studie näher erörtert wird. Abschließend befasst sich der folgende Beitrag mit der konzeptionell fundierten Durchführung einer empirischen Studie anhand des 6-Phasen-Modells nach Reiß und Sarris (2012).

Ecophysiological characterizations of photoautotrophic communities are not only necessary to identify the response of carbon fixation related to different climatic factors, but also to evaluate risks connected to changing environments. In biological soil crusts (BSCs), the description of ecophysiological features is difficult, due to the high variability in taxonomic composition and variable methodologies applied. Especially for BSCs in early successional stages, the available datasets are rare or focused on individual constituents, although these crusts may represent the only photoautotrophic component in many heavily disturbed ruderal areas, such as parking lots or building areas with increasing surface area worldwide. We analyzed the response of photosynthesis and respiration to changing BSC water contents (WCs), temperature and light in two early successional BSCs. We investigated whether the response of these parameters was different between intact BSC and the isolated dominating components. BSCs dominated by the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and dominated by the green alga Zygogonium ericetorum were examined. A major divergence between the two BSCs was their absolute carbon fixation rate on a chlorophyll basis, which was significantly higher for the cyanobacterial crust. Nevertheless, independent of species composition, both crust types and their isolated organisms had convergent features such as high light acclimatization and a minor and very late-occurring depression in carbon uptake at water suprasaturation. This particular setup of ecophysiological features may enable these communities to cope with a high variety of climatic stresses and may therefore be a reason for their success in heavily disturbed areas with ongoing human impact. However, the shape of the response was different for intact BSC compared to separated organisms, especially in absolute net photosynthesis (NP) rates. This emphasizes the importance of measuring intact BSCs under natural conditions for collecting reliable data for meaningful analysis of BSC ecosystem services.