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This work is dedicated to the wavelet modelling of regional and temporal variations of the Earth's gravitational potential observed by GRACE. In the first part, all required mathematical tools and methods involving spherical wavelets are introduced. Then we apply our method to monthly GRACE gravity fields. A strong seasonal signal can be identified, which is restricted to areas, where large-scale redistributions of continental water mass are expected. This assumption is analyzed and verified by comparing the time series of regionally obtained wavelet coefficients of the gravitational signal originated from hydrology models and the gravitational potential observed by GRACE. The results are in good agreement to previous studies and illustrate that wavelets are an appropriate tool to investigate regional time-variable effects in the gravitational field.

In this paper we introduce a multiscale technique for the analysis of deformation phenomena of the Earth. Classically, the basis functions under use are globally defined and show polynomial character. In consequence, only a global analysis of deformations is possible such that, for example, the water load of an artificial reservoir is hardly to model in that way. Up till now, the alternative to realize a local analysis can only be established by assuming the investigated region to be flat. In what follows we propose a local analysis based on tools (Navier scaling functions and wavelets) taking the (spherical) surface of the Earth into account. Our approach, in particular, enables us to perform a zooming-in procedure. In fact, the concept of Navier wavelets is formulated in such a way that subregions with larger or smaller data density can accordingly be modelled with a higher or lower resolution of the model, respectively.

In this paper a known orthonormal system of time- and space-dependent functions, that were derived out of the Cauchy-Navier equation for elastodynamic phenomena, is used to construct reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. After choosing one of the spaces the corresponding kernel is used to define a function system that serves as a basis for a spline space. We show that under certain conditions there exists a unique interpolating or approximating, respectively, spline in this space with respect to given samples of an unknown function. The name "spline" here refers to its property of minimising a norm among all interpolating functions. Moreover, a convergence theorem and an error estimate relative to the point grid density are derived. As numerical example we investigate the propagation of seismic waves.

In this paper we construct spline functions based on a reproducing kernel Hilbert space to interpolate/approximate the velocity field of earthquake waves inside the Earth based on traveltime data for an inhomogeneous grid of sources (hypocenters) and receivers (seismic stations). Theoretical aspects including error estimates and convergence results as well as numerical results are demonstrated.

We present results and views about a project in assisted living. The scenario is a room in which an elderly and/or disabled person lives who is not able to perform certain actions due to restricted mobility. We enable the person to express commands verbally that will then be executed automatically. There are several severe problems involved that complicate the situation. The person may utter the command in a rather unexpected way, the person makes an error or the action cannot be performed due to several reasons. In our approach we present an architecture with three components: The recognition component that contains novel features in the signal processing, the analysis component that logically analyzes the command, and the execution component that performs the action automatically. All three components communicate with each other.

The purpose of this paper is to present the state of the art in singular optimal control. If the Hamiltonian in an interval \([t_1,t_2]\) is independent of the control we call the control in this interval singular. Singular optimal controls appear in many applications so that research has been motivated since the 1950s. Often optimal controls consist of nonsingular and singular parts where the junctions between these parts are mostly very difficult to find. One section of this work shows the actual knowledge about the location of the junctions and the behaviour of the control at the junctions. The definition and the properties of the orders (problem order and arc order), which are important in this context, are given, too. Another chapter considers multidimensional controls and how they can be treated. An alternate definition of the orders in the multidimensional case is proposed and a counterexample, which confirms a remark given in the 1960s, is given. A voluminous list of optimality conditions, which can be found in several publications, is added. A strategy for solving optimal control problems numerically is given, and the existing algorithms are compared with each other. Finally conclusions and an outlook on the future research is given.

In this paper we construct a multiscale solution method for the gravimetry problem, which is concerned with the determination of the earth's density distribution from gravitational measurements. For this purpose isotropic scale continuous wavelets for harmonic functions on a ball and on a bounded outer space of a ball, respectively, are constructed. The scales are discretized and the results of numerical calculations based on regularization wavelets are presented. The obtained solutions yield topographical structures of the earth's surface at different levels of localization ranging from continental boundaries to local structures such as Ayer's Rock and the Amazonas area.

The purpose of satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) and/or satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG) is to determine the gravitational field on and outside the Earth's surface from given gradients of the gravitational potential and/or the gravitational field at satellite altitude. In this paper both satellite techniques are analysed and characterized from mathematical point of view. Uniqueness results are formulated. The justification is given for approximating the external gravitational field by finite linear combination of certain gradient fields (for example, gradient fields of single-poles or multi-poles) consistent to a given set of SGG and/or SST data. A strategy of modelling the gravitational field from satellite data within a multiscale concept is described; illustrations based on the EGM96 model are given.

The inverse problem of recovering the Earth's density distribution from satellite data of the first or second derivative of the gravitational potential at orbit height is discussed. This problem is exponentially ill-posed. In this paper a multiscale regularization technique using scaling functions and wavelets constructed for the corresponding integro-differential equations is introduced and its numerical applications are discussed. In the numerical part the second radial derivative of the gravitational potential at 200 km orbit height is calculated on a point grid out of the NASA/GSFC/NIMA Earth Geopotential Model (EGM96). Those simulated derived data out of SGG satellite measurements are taken for convolutions with the introduced scaling functions yielding a multiresolution analysis of harmonic density variations in the Earth's crust.

This paper provides a brief overview of two linear inverse problems concerned with the determination of the Earth’s interior: inverse gravimetry and normal mode tomography. Moreover, a vector spline method is proposed for a combined solution of both problems. This method uses localised basis functions, which are based on reproducing kernels, and is related to approaches which have been successfully applied to the inverse gravimetric problem and the seismic traveltime tomography separately.