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Previously in this journal we have reported on fundamental transversemode selection (TMS#0) of broad area semiconductor lasers
(BALs) with integrated twice-retracted 4f set-up and film-waveguide lens as the Fourier-transform element. Now we choose and
report on a simpler approach for BAL-TMS#0, i.e., the use of a stable confocal longitudinal BAL resonator of length L with a
transverse constriction.The absolute value of the radius R of curvature of both mirror-facets convex in one dimension (1D) is R = L
= 2f with focal length f.The round trip length 2L = 4f againmakes up for a Fourier-optical 4f set-up and the constriction resulting
in a resonator-internal beam waist stands for a Fourier-optical low-pass spatial frequency filter. Good TMS#0 is achieved, as long
as the constriction is tight enough, but filamentation is not completely suppressed.
1. Introduction
Broad area (semiconductor diode) lasers (BALs) are intended
to emit high optical output powers (where “high” is relative
and depending on the material system). As compared to
conventional narrow stripe lasers, the higher power is distributed
over a larger transverse cross-section, thus avoiding
catastrophic optical mirror damage (COMD). Typical BALs
have emitter widths of around 100 ????m.
Thedrawback is the distribution of the high output power
over a large number of transverse modes (in cases without
countermeasures) limiting the portion of the light power in
the fundamental transverse mode (mode #0), which ought to
be maximized for the sake of good light focusability.
Thus techniques have to be used to support, prefer, or
select the fundamental transverse mode (transverse mode
selection TMS#0) by suppression of higher order modes
already upon build-up of the laser oscillation.
In many cases reported in the literature, either a BAL
facet, the

Destructive diseases of the lung like lung cancer or fibrosis are still often lethal. Also in case of fibrosis in the liver, the only possible cure is transplantation.
In this thesis, we investigate 3D micro computed synchrotron radiation (SR\( \mu \)CT) images of capillary blood vessels in mouse lungs and livers. The specimen show so-called compensatory lung growth as well as different states of pulmonary and hepatic fibrosis.
During compensatory lung growth, after resecting part of the lung, the remaining part compensates for this loss by extending into the empty space. This process is accompanied by an active vessel growing.
In general, the human lung can not compensate for such a loss. Thus, understanding this process in mice is important to improve treatment options in case of diseases like lung cancer.
In case of fibrosis, the formation of scars within the organ's tissue forces the capillary vessels to grow to ensure blood supply.
Thus, the process of fibrosis as well as compensatory lung growth can be accessed by considering the capillary architecture.
As preparation of 2D microscopic images is faster, easier, and cheaper compared to SR\( \mu \)CT images, they currently form the basis of medical investigation. Yet, characteristics like direction and shape of objects can only properly be analyzed using 3D imaging techniques. Hence, analyzing SR\( \mu \)CT data provides valuable additional information.
For the fibrotic specimen, we apply image analysis methods well-known from material science. We measure the vessel diameter using the granulometry distribution function and describe the inter-vessel distance by the spherical contact distribution. Moreover, we estimate the directional distribution of the capillary structure. All features turn out to be useful to characterize fibrosis based on the deformation of capillary vessels.
It is already known that the most efficient mechanism of vessel growing forms small torus-shaped holes within the capillary structure, so-called intussusceptive pillars. Analyzing their location and number strongly contributes to the characterization of vessel growing. Hence, for all three applications, this is of great interest. This thesis provides the first algorithm to detect intussusceptive pillars in SR\( \mu \)CT images. After segmentation of raw image data, our algorithm works automatically and allows for a quantitative evaluation of a large amount of data.
The analysis of SR\( \mu \)CT data using our pillar algorithm as well as the granulometry, spherical contact distribution, and directional analysis extends the current state-of-the-art in medical studies. Although it is not possible to replace certain 3D features by 2D features without losing information, our results could be used to examine 2D features approximating the 3D findings reasonably well.

A distributional solution framework is developed for systems consisting of linear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs) and switched differential algebraic equations (DAEs) which are coupled via boundary conditions. The unique solvability is then characterize in terms of a switched delay DAE. The theory is illustrated with an example of electric power lines modeled by the telegraph equations which are coupled via a switching transformer where simulations confirm the predicted impulsive solutions.

Anisotropy of tracer-coupled networks is a hallmark in many brain regions. In the past, the topography of these networks was analyzed using various approaches, which focused on different aspects, e.g., position, tracer signal, or direction of coupled cells. Here, we developed a vector-based method to analyze the extent and preferential direction of tracer spreading. As a model region, we chose the lateral superior olive—a nucleus that exhibits specialized network topography. In acute slices, sulforhodamine 101-positive astrocytes were patch-clamped and dialyzed with the GJ-permeable tracer neurobiotin, which was subsequently labeled with avidin alexa fluor 488. A predetermined threshold was used to differentiate between tracer-coupled and tracer-uncoupled cells. Tracer extent was calculated from the vector means of tracer-coupled cells in four 90° sectors. We then computed the preferential direction using a rotating coordinate system and post hoc fitting of these results with a sinusoidal function. The new method allows for an objective analysis of tracer spreading that provides information about shape and orientation of GJ networks. We expect this approach to become a vital tool for the analysis of coupling anisotropy in many brain regions

Eine Maturaschule ist eine private Bildungseinrichtung, in der Menschen darauf vorbereitet werden, ihre Matura, das österreichische Pendant zum Abitur, nachzuholen. Maturaschulen, die auf externe Prüfungen vorbereiten, verfügen üblicherweise weder über die Möglichkeit, offizielle Noten zu geben, noch Anwesenheit einzufordern. Die Gegebenheiten einer Maturaschule sind somit nicht nur vorteilhaft hinsichtlich eines guten Schulklimas mit partnerschaftlichen Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehungen. Im Zusammenhang mit zu wenig Eigenverantwortlichkeit der Lernenden können diese Gegebenheiten durchaus problematisch sein.

Adjustment Effects of Maximum Intensity Tolerance During Whole-Body Electromyostimulation Training
(2019)

Intensity regulation during whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) training is mostly controlled by subjective scales such as CR-10 Borg scale. To determine objective training intensities derived from a maximum as it is used in conventional strength training using the one-repetition-maximum (1-RM), a comparable maximum in WB-EMS is necessary. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine, if there is an individual maximum intensity tolerance plateau after multiple consecutive EMS application sessions. A total of 52 subjects (24.1 ± 3.2 years; 76.8 ± 11.1 kg; 1.77 ± 0.09 m) participated in the longitudinal, observational study (38 males, 14 females). Each participant carried out four consecutive maximal EMS applications (T1–T4) separated by 1 week. All muscle groups were stimulated successively until their individual maximum and combined to a whole-body stimulation index to carry out a possible statement for the development of the maximum intensity tolerance of the whole body. There was a significant main effect between the measurement times for all participants (p < 0.001; ????2 = 0.39) as well as gender specific for males (p = 0.001; ????2 = 0.18) and females (p < 0.001; ????2 = 0.57). There were no interaction effects of gender × measurement time (p = 0.394). The maximum intensity tolerance increased significantly from T1 to T2 (p = 0.001) and T2 to T3 (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between T3 and T4 (p = 1.0). These results indicate that there is an adjustment of the individual maximum intensity tolerance to a WB-EMS training after three consecutive tests. Therefore, there is a need of several habituation units comparable to the identification of the individual 1-RM in conventional strength training. Further research should focus on an objective intensity-specific regulation of the WB-EMS based on the individual maximum intensity tolerance to characterize different training areas and therefore generate specific adaptations to a WB-EMS training compared to conventional strength training methods.

Adsorption and Diffusion of Cisplatin Molecules in Nanoporous Materials: A Molecular Dynamics Study
(2019)

Using molecular dynamics simulations, the adsorption and diffusion of cisplatin drug molecules in nanopores is investigated for several inorganic materials. Three different materials are studied with widely-varying properties: metallic gold, covalent silicon, and silica. We found a strong influence of both the van der Waals and the electrostatic interaction on the adsorption behavior on the pore walls, which in turn influence the diffusion coefficients. While van der Waals forces generally lead to a reduction of the diffusion coefficient, the fluctuations in the electrostatic energy induced by orientation changes of the cisplatin molecule were found to help desorb the molecule from the wall.

Phase-gradient metasurfaces can be designed to manipulate electromagnetic waves according to the generalized Snell’s law. Here, we show that a phased parallel-plate waveguide array (PPWA) can be devised to act in the same manner as a phase-gradient metasurface. We derive an analytic model that describes the wave propagation in the PPWA and calculate both the angle and amplitude distribution of the diffracted waves. The analytic model provides an intuitive understanding of the diffraction from the PPWA. We verify the (semi-)analytically calculated angle and amplitude distribution of the diffracted waves by numerical 3-D simulations and experimental measurements in a microwave goniometer.

Various physical phenomenons with sudden transients that results into structrual changes can be modeled via
switched nonlinear differential algebraic equations (DAEs) of the type
\[
E_{\sigma}\dot{x}=A_{\sigma}x+f_{\sigma}+g_{\sigma}(x). \tag{DAE}
\]
where \(E_p,A_p \in \mathbb{R}^{n\times n}, x\mapsto g_p(x),\) is a mapping, \(p \in \{1,\cdots,P\}, P\in \mathbb{N}
f \in \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^n , \sigma: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \{1,\cdots, P\}\).
Two related common tasks are:
Task 1: Investigate if above (DAE) has a solution and if it is unique.
Task 2: Find a connection among a solution of above (DAE) and solutions of related
partial differential equations.
In the linear case \(g(x) \equiv 0\) the task 1 has been tackeled already in a
distributional solution framework.
A main goal of the dissertation is to give contribution to task 1 for the
nonlinear case \(g(x) \not \equiv 0\) ; also contributions to the task 2 are given for
switched nonlinear DAEs arising while modeling sudden transients in water
distribution networks. In addition, this thesis contains the following further
contributions:
The notion of structured switched nonlinear DAEs has been introduced,
allowing also non regular distributions as solutions. This extend a previous
framework that allowed only piecewise smooth functions as solutions. Further six mild conditions were given to ensure existence and uniqueness of the solution within the space of piecewise smooth distribution. The main
condition, namely the regularity of the matrix pair \((E,A)\), is interpreted geometrically for those switched nonlinear DAEs arising from water network graphs.
Another contribution is the introduction of these switched nonlinear DAEs
as a simplication of the PDE model used classically for modeling water networks. Finally, with the support of numerical simulations of the PDE model it has been illustrated that this switched nonlinear DAE model is a good approximation for the PDE model in case of a small compressibility coefficient.

Radar cross section reducing (RCSR) metasurfaces or coding metasurfaces were primarily designed for normally incident radiation in the past. It is evident that the performance of coding metasurfaces for RCSR can be significantly improved by additional backscattering reduction of obliquely incident radiation, which requires a valid analytic conception tool. Here, we derive an analytic current density distribution model for the calculation of the backscatter far-field of obliquely incident radiation on a coding metasurface for RCSR. For demonstration, we devise and fabricate a metasurface for a working frequency of 10.66GHz and obtain good agreement between the measured, simulated, and analytically calculated backscatter far-fields. The metasurface significantly reduces backscattering for incidence angles between −40∘ and 40∘ in a spectral working range of approximately 1GHz.