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In a recent paper, G. Malle and G. Robinson proposed a modular anologue to Brauer's famous \( k(B) \)-conjecture. If \( B \) is a \( p \)-block of a finite group with defect group \( D \), then they conjecture that \( l(B) \leq p^r \), where \( r \) is the sectional \( p \)-rank of \( D \). Since this conjecture is relatively new, there is obviously still a lot of work to do. This thesis is concerned with proving their conjecture for the finite groups of exceptional Lie type.

LinTim is a scientific software toolbox that has been under development since 2007, giving the possibility to solve the various planning steps in public transportation. Although the name originally derives from "Lineplanning and Timetabling", the available functions have grown far beyond this scope.
This document is the documentation for version 2020.02.
For more information, see https://www.lintim.net

In this thesis we study a variant of the quadrature problem for stochastic differential equations (SDEs), namely the approximation of expectations \(\mathrm{E}(f(X))\), where \(X = (X(t))_{t \in [0,1]}\) is the solution of an SDE and \(f \colon C([0,1],\mathbb{R}^r) \to \mathbb{R}\) is a functional, mapping each realization of \(X\) into the real numbers. The distinctive feature in this work is that we consider randomized (Monte Carlo) algorithms with random bits as their only source of randomness, whereas the algorithms commonly studied in the literature are allowed to sample from the uniform distribution on the unit interval, i.e., they do have access to random numbers from \([0,1]\).
By assumption, all further operations like, e.g., arithmetic operations, evaluations of elementary functions, and oracle calls to evaluate \(f\) are considered within the real number model of computation, i.e., they are carried out exactly.
In the following, we provide a detailed description of the quadrature problem, namely we are interested in the approximation of
\begin{align*}
S(f) = \mathrm{E}(f(X))
\end{align*}
for \(X\) being the \(r\)-dimensional solution of an autonomous SDE of the form
\begin{align*}
\mathrm{d}X(t) = a(X(t)) \, \mathrm{d}t + b(X(t)) \, \mathrm{d}W(t), \quad t \in [0,1],
\end{align*}
with deterministic initial value
\begin{align*}
X(0) = x_0 \in \mathbb{R}^r,
\end{align*}
and driven by a \(d\)-dimensional standard Brownian motion \(W\). Furthermore, the drift coefficient \(a \colon \mathbb{R}^r \to \mathbb{R}^r\) and the diffusion coefficient \(b \colon \mathbb{R}^r \to \mathbb{R}^{r \times d}\) are assumed to be globally Lipschitz continuous.
For the function classes
\begin{align*}
F_{\infty} = \bigl\{f \colon C([0,1],\mathbb{R}^r) \to \mathbb{R} \colon |f(x) - f(y)| \leq \|x-y\|_{\sup}\bigr\}
\end{align*}
and
\begin{align*}
F_p = \bigl\{f \colon C([0,1],\mathbb{R}^r) \to \mathbb{R} \colon |f(x) - f(y)| \leq \|x-y\|_{L_p}\bigr\}, \quad 1 \leq p < \infty.
\end{align*}
we have established the following.
\[\]
\(\textit{Theorem 1.}\)
There exists a random bit multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) algorithm \(M\) using
\[
L = L(\varepsilon,F) = \begin{cases}\lceil{\log_2(\varepsilon^{-2}}\rceil, &\text{if} \ F = F_p,\\
\lceil{\log_2(\varepsilon^{-2} + \log_2(\log_2(\varepsilon^{-1}))}\rceil, &\text{if} \ F = F_\infty
\end{cases}
\]
and replication numbers
\[
N_\ell = N_\ell(\varepsilon,F) = \begin{cases}
\lceil{(L+1) \cdot 2^{-\ell} \cdot \varepsilon^{-2}}\rceil, & \text{if} \ F = F_p,\\
\lceil{(L+1) \cdot 2^{-\ell} \cdot \max(\ell,1) \cdot \varepsilon^{-2}}\rceil, & \text{if} \ F=f_\infty
\end{cases}
\]
for \(\ell = 0,\ldots,L\), for which exists a positive constant \(c\) such that
\begin{align*}
\mathrm{error}(M,F) = \sup_{f \in F} \bigl(\mathrm{E}(S(f) - M(f))^2\bigr)^{1/2} \leq c \cdot \varepsilon
\end{align*}
and
\begin{align*}
\mathrm{cost}(M,F) = \sup_{f \in F} \mathrm{E}(\mathrm{cost}(M,f)) \leq c \cdot \varepsilon^{-2} \cdot \begin{cases}
(\ln(\varepsilon^{-1}))^2, &\text{if} \ F=F_p,\\
(\ln(\varepsilon^{-1}))^3, &\text{if} \ F=F_\infty
\end{cases}
\end{align*}
for every \(\varepsilon \in {]0,1/2[}\).
\[\]
Hence, in terms of the \(\varepsilon\)-complexity
\begin{align*}
\mathrm{comp}(\varepsilon,F) = \inf\bigl\{\mathrm{cost}(M,F) \colon M \ \text{is a random bit MC algorithm}, \mathrm{error}(M,F) \leq \varepsilon\bigr\}
\end{align*}
we have established the upper bound
\begin{align*}
\mathrm{comp}(\varepsilon,F) \leq c \cdot \varepsilon^{-2} \cdot \begin{cases}
(\ln(\varepsilon^{-1}))^2, &\text{if} \ F=F_p,\\
(\ln(\varepsilon^{-1}))^3, &\text{if} \ F=F_\infty
\end{cases}
\end{align*}
for some positive constant \(c\). That is, we have shown the same weak asymptotic upper bound as in the case of random numbers from \([0,1]\). Hence, in this sense, random bits are almost as powerful as random numbers for our computational problem.
Moreover, we present numerical results for a non-analyzed adaptive random bit MLMC Euler algorithm, in the particular cases of the Brownian motion, the geometric Brownian motion, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck SDE and the Cox-Ingersoll-Ross SDE. We also provide a numerical comparison to the corresponding adaptive random number MLMC Euler method.
A key challenge in the analysis of the algorithm in Theorem 1 is the approximation of probability distributions by means of random bits. A problem very closely related to the quantization problem, i.e., the optimal approximation of a given probability measure (on a separable Hilbert space) by means of a probability measure with finite support size.
Though we have shown that the random bit approximation of the standard normal distribution is 'harder' than the corresponding quantization problem (lower weak rate of convergence), we have been able to establish the same weak rate of convergence as for the corresponding quantization problem in the case of the distribution of a Brownian bridge on \(L_2([0,1])\), the distribution of the solution of a scalar SDE on \(L_2([0,1])\), and the distribution of a centered Gaussian random element in a separable Hilbert space.

Diversification is one of the main pillars of investment strategies. The prominent 1/N portfolio, which puts equal weight on each asset is, apart from its simplicity, a method which is hard to outperform in realistic settings, as many studies have shown. However, depending on the number of considered assets, this method can lead to very large portfolios. On the other hand, optimization methods like the mean-variance portfolio suffer from estimation errors, which often destroy the theoretical benefits. We investigate the performance of the equal weight portfolio when using fewer assets. For this we explore different naive portfolios, from selecting the best Sharpe ratio assets to exploiting knowledge about correlation structures using clustering methods. The clustering techniques separate the possible assets into non-overlapping clusters and the assets within a cluster are ordered by their Sharpe ratio. Then the best asset of each portfolio is chosen to be a member of the new portfolio with equal weights, the cluster portfolio. We show that this portfolio inherits the advantages of the 1/N portfolio and can even outperform it empirically. For this we use real data and several simulation models. We prove these findings from a statistical point of view using the framework by DeMiguel, Garlappi and Uppal (2009). Moreover, we show the superiority regarding the Sharpe ratio in a setting, where in each cluster the assets are comonotonic. In addition, we recommend the consideration of a diversification-risk ratio to evaluate the performance of different portfolios.

Synapses are connections between different nerve cells that form an essential link in neural signal transmission. It is generally distinguished between electrical and chemical synapses, where chemical synapses are more common in the human brain and are also the type we deal with in this work.
In chemical synapses, small container-like objects called vesicles fill with neurotransmitter and expel them from the cell during synaptic transmission. This process is vital for communication between neurons. However, to the best of our knowledge no mathematical models that take different filling states of the vesicles into account have been developed before this thesis was written.
In this thesis we propose a novel mathematical model for modeling synaptic transmission at chemical synapses which includes the description of vesicles of different filling states. The model consists of a transport equation (for the vesicle growth process) plus three ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and focuses on the presynapse and synaptic cleft.
The well-posedness is proved in detail for this partial differential equation (PDE) system. We also propose a few different variations and related models. In particular, an ODE system is derived and a delay differential equation (DDE) system is formulated. We then use nonlinear optimization methods for data fitting to test some of the models on data made available to us by the Animal Physiology group at TU Kaiserslautern.

Destructive diseases of the lung like lung cancer or fibrosis are still often lethal. Also in case of fibrosis in the liver, the only possible cure is transplantation.
In this thesis, we investigate 3D micro computed synchrotron radiation (SR\( \mu \)CT) images of capillary blood vessels in mouse lungs and livers. The specimen show so-called compensatory lung growth as well as different states of pulmonary and hepatic fibrosis.
During compensatory lung growth, after resecting part of the lung, the remaining part compensates for this loss by extending into the empty space. This process is accompanied by an active vessel growing.
In general, the human lung can not compensate for such a loss. Thus, understanding this process in mice is important to improve treatment options in case of diseases like lung cancer.
In case of fibrosis, the formation of scars within the organ's tissue forces the capillary vessels to grow to ensure blood supply.
Thus, the process of fibrosis as well as compensatory lung growth can be accessed by considering the capillary architecture.
As preparation of 2D microscopic images is faster, easier, and cheaper compared to SR\( \mu \)CT images, they currently form the basis of medical investigation. Yet, characteristics like direction and shape of objects can only properly be analyzed using 3D imaging techniques. Hence, analyzing SR\( \mu \)CT data provides valuable additional information.
For the fibrotic specimen, we apply image analysis methods well-known from material science. We measure the vessel diameter using the granulometry distribution function and describe the inter-vessel distance by the spherical contact distribution. Moreover, we estimate the directional distribution of the capillary structure. All features turn out to be useful to characterize fibrosis based on the deformation of capillary vessels.
It is already known that the most efficient mechanism of vessel growing forms small torus-shaped holes within the capillary structure, so-called intussusceptive pillars. Analyzing their location and number strongly contributes to the characterization of vessel growing. Hence, for all three applications, this is of great interest. This thesis provides the first algorithm to detect intussusceptive pillars in SR\( \mu \)CT images. After segmentation of raw image data, our algorithm works automatically and allows for a quantitative evaluation of a large amount of data.
The analysis of SR\( \mu \)CT data using our pillar algorithm as well as the granulometry, spherical contact distribution, and directional analysis extends the current state-of-the-art in medical studies. Although it is not possible to replace certain 3D features by 2D features without losing information, our results could be used to examine 2D features approximating the 3D findings reasonably well.

Cell migration is essential for embryogenesis, wound healing, immune surveillance, and
progression of diseases, such as cancer metastasis. For the migration to occur, cellular
structures such as actomyosin cables and cell-substrate adhesion clusters must interact.
As cell trajectories exhibit a random character, so must such interactions. Furthermore,
migration often occurs in a crowded environment, where the collision outcome is deter-
mined by altered regulation of the aforementioned structures. In this work, guided by a
few fundamental attributes of cell motility, we construct a minimal stochastic cell migration
model from ground-up. The resulting model couples a deterministic actomyosin contrac-
tility mechanism with stochastic cell-substrate adhesion kinetics, and yields a well-defined
piecewise deterministic process. The signaling pathways regulating the contractility and
adhesion are considered as well. The model is extended to include cell collectives. Numer-
ical simulations of single cell migration reproduce several experimentally observed results,
including anomalous diffusion, tactic migration, and contact guidance. The simulations
of colliding cells explain the observed outcomes in terms of contact induced modification
of contractility and adhesion dynamics. These explained outcomes include modulation
of collision response and group behavior in the presence of an external signal, as well as
invasive and dispersive migration. Moreover, from the single cell model we deduce a pop-
ulation scale formulation for the migration of non-interacting cells. In this formulation,
the relationships concerning actomyosin contractility and adhesion clusters are maintained.
Thus, we construct a multiscale description of cell migration, whereby single, collective,
and population scale formulations are deduced from the relationships on the subcellular
level in a mathematically consistent way.

In this thesis we consider the directional analysis of stationary point processes. We focus on three non-parametric methods based on second order analysis which we have defined as Integral method, Ellipsoid method, and Projection method. We present the methods in a general setting and then focus on their application in the 2D and 3D case of a particular type of anisotropy mechanism called geometric anisotropy. We mainly consider regular point patterns motivated by our application to real 3D data coming from glaciology. Note that directional analysis of 3D data is not so prominent in the literature.
We compare the performance of the methods, which depends on the relative parameters, in a simulation study both in 2D and 3D. Based on the results we give recommendations on how to choose the methods´ parameters in practice.
We apply the directional analysis to the 3D data coming from glaciology, which consist in the locations of air-bubbles in polar ice cores. The aim of this study is to provide information about the deformation rate in the ice and the corresponding thinning of ice layers at different depths. This information is substantial for the glaciologists in order to build ice dating models and consequently to give a correct interpretation of the climate information which can be found by analyzing ice cores. In this thesis we consider data coming from three different ice cores: the Talos Dome core, the EDML core and the Renland core.
Motivated by the ice application, we study how isotropic and stationary noise influences the directional analysis. In fact, due to the relaxation of the ice after drilling, noise bubbles can form within the ice samples. In this context we take two classification algorithms into consideration, which aim to classify points in a superposition of a regular isotropic and stationary point process with Poisson noise.
We introduce two methods to visualize anisotropy, which are particularly useful in 3D and apply them to the ice data. Finally, we consider the problem of testing anisotropy and the limiting behavior of the geometric anisotropy transform.

In this thesis, we deal with the worst-case portfolio optimization problem occuring in discrete-time markets.
First, we consider the discrete-time market model in the presence of crash threats. We construct the discrete worst-case optimal portfolio strategy by the indifference principle in the case of the logarithmic utility. After that we extend this problem to general utility functions and derive the discrete worst-case optimal portfolio processes, which are characterized by a dynamic programming equation. Furthermore, the convergence of the discrete worst-case optimal portfolio processes are investigated when we deal with the explicit utility functions.
In order to further study the relation of the worst-case optimal value function in discrete-time models to continuous-time models we establish the finite-difference approach. By deriving the discrete HJB equation we verify the worst-case optimal value function in discrete-time models, which satisfies a system of dynamic programming inequalities. With increasing degree of fineness of the time discretization, the convergence of the worst-case value function in discrete-time models to that in continuous-time models are proved by using a viscosity solution method.