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For some optimization problems on a graph \(G=(V,E)\), one can give a general formulation: Let \(c\colon E \to \mathbb{R}_{\geq 0}\) be a cost function on the edges and \(X \subseteq 2^E\) be a set of (so-called feasible) subsets of \(E\), one aims to minimize \(\sum_{e\in S} c(e)\) among all feasible \(S\in X\). This formulation covers, for instance, the shortest path problem by choosing \(X\) as the set of all paths between two vertices, or the minimum spanning tree problem by choosing \(X\) to be the set of all spanning trees. This bachelor thesis deals with a parametric version of this formulation, where the edge costs \(c_\lambda\colon E \to \mathbb{R}_{\geq 0}\) depend on a parameter \(\lambda\in\mathbb{R}_{\geq 0}\) in a concave and piecewise linear manner. The goal is to investigate the worst case minimum size of a so-called representation system \(R\subseteq X\), which contains for each scenario \(\lambda\in\mathbb{R}_{\geq 0}\) an optimal solution \(S(\lambda)\in R\). It turns out that only a pseudo-polynomial size can be ensured in general, but smaller systems have to exist in special cases. Moreover, methods are presented to find such small systems algorithmically. Finally, the notion of a representation system is relaxed in order to get smaller (i.e. polynomial) systems ensuring a certain approximation ratio.

The main theme of this thesis is the interplay between algebraic and tropical intersection
theory, especially in the context of enumerative geometry. We begin by exploiting
well-known results about tropicalizations of subvarieties of algebraic tori to give a
simple proof of Nishinou and Siebert’s correspondence theorem for rational curves
through given points in toric varieties. Afterwards, we extend this correspondence
by additionally allowing intersections with psi-classes. We do this by constructing
a tropicalization map for cycle classes on toroidal embeddings. It maps algebraic
cycle classes to elements of the Chow group of the cone complex of the toroidal
embedding, that is to weighted polyhedral complexes, which are balanced with respect
to an appropriate map to a vector space, modulo a naturally defined equivalence relation.
We then show that tropicalization respects basic intersection-theoretic operations like
intersections with boundary divisors and apply this to the appropriate moduli spaces
to obtain our correspondence theorem.
Trying to apply similar methods in higher genera inevitably confronts us with moduli
spaces which are not toroidal. This motivates the last part of this thesis, where we
construct tropicalizations of cycles on fine logarithmic schemes. The logarithmic point of
view also motivates our interpretation of tropical intersection theory as the dualization
of the intersection theory of Kato fans. This duality gives a new perspective on the
tropicalization map; namely, as the dualization of a pull-back via the characteristic
morphism of a logarithmic scheme.

Buses not arriving on time and then arriving all at once - this phenomenon is known from
busy bus routes and is called bus bunching.
This thesis combines the well studied but so far separate areas of bus-bunching prediction
and dynamic holding strategies, which allow to modulate buses’ dwell times at stops to
eliminate bus bunching. We look at real data of the Dublin Bus route 46A and present
a headway-based predictive-control framework considering all components like data
acquisition, prediction and control strategies. We formulate time headways as time series
and compare several prediction methods for those. Furthermore we present an analytical
model of an artificial bus route and discuss stability properties and dynamic holding
strategies using both data available at the time and predicted headway data. In a numerical
simulation we illustrate the advantages of the presented predictive-control framework
compared to the classical approaches which only use directly available data.

We propose a multiscale model for tumor cell migration in a tissue network. The system of equations involves a structured population model for the tumor cell density, which besides time and
position depends on a further variable characterizing the cellular state with respect to the amount
of receptors bound to soluble and insoluble ligands. Moreover, this equation features pH-taxis and
adhesion, along with an integral term describing proliferation conditioned by receptor binding. The
interaction of tumor cells with their surroundings calls for two more equations for the evolution of
tissue fibers and acidity (expressed via concentration of extracellular protons), respectively. The
resulting ODE-PDE system is highly nonlinear. We prove the global existence of a solution and
perform numerical simulations to illustrate its behavior, paying particular attention to the influence
of the supplementary structure and of the adhesion.

A vehicles fatigue damage is a highly relevant figure in the complete vehicle design process.
Long term observations and statistical experiments help to determine the influence of differnt parts of the vehicle, the driver and the surrounding environment.
This work is focussing on modeling one of the most important influence factors of the environment: road roughness. The quality of the road is highly dependant on several surrounding factors which can be used to create mathematical models.
Such models can be used for the extrapolation of information and an estimation of the environment for statistical studies.
The target quantity we focus on in this work ist the discrete International Roughness Index or discrete IRI. The class of models we use and evaluate is a discriminative classification model called Conditional Random Field.
We develop a suitable model specification and show new variants of stochastic optimizations to train the model efficiently.
The model is also applied to simulated and real world data to show the strengths of our approach.

By using Gröbner bases of ideals of polynomial algebras over a field, many implemented algorithms manage to give exciting examples and counter examples in Commutative Algebra and Algebraic Geometry. Part A of this thesis will focus on extending the concept of Gröbner bases and Standard bases for polynomial algebras over the ring of integers and its factors \(\mathbb{Z}_m[x]\). Moreover we implemented two algorithms for this case in Singular which use different approaches in detecting useless computations, the classical Buchberger algorithm and a F5 signature based algorithm. Part B includes two algorithms that compute the graded Hilbert depth of a graded module over a polynomial algebra \(R\) over a field, as well as the depth and the multigraded Stanley depth of a factor of monomial ideals of \(R\). The two algorithms provide faster computations and examples that lead B. Ichim and A. Zarojanu to a counter example of a question of J. Herzog. A. Duval, B. Goeckner, C. Klivans and J. Martin have recently discovered a counter example for the Stanley Conjecture. We prove in this thesis that the Stanley Conjecture holds in some special cases. Part D explores the General Neron Desingularization in the frame of Noetherian local domains of dimension 1. We have constructed and implemented in Singular and algorithm that computes a strong Artin Approximation for Cohen-Macaulay local rings of dimension 1.

We propose and analyze a multiscale model for acid-mediated tumor invasion
accounting for stochastic effects on the subcellular level.
The setting involves a PDE of reaction-diffusion-taxis type describing the evolution of the tumor cell density,
the movement being directed towards pH gradients in the local microenvironment,
which is coupled to a PDE-SDE system characterizing the
dynamics of extracellular and intracellular proton concentrations, respectively.
The global well-posedness of the model is shown and
numerical simulations are performed in order to illustrate the solution behavior.

Gröbner bases are one of the most powerful tools in computer algebra and commutative algebra, with applications in algebraic geometry and singularity theory. From the theoretical point of view, these bases can be computed over any field using Buchberger's algorithm. In practice, however, the computational efficiency depends on the arithmetic of the coefficient field.
In this thesis, we consider Gröbner bases computations over two types of coefficient fields. First, consider a simple extension \(K=\mathbb{Q}(\alpha)\) of \(\mathbb{Q}\), where \(\alpha\) is an algebraic number, and let \(f\in \mathbb{Q}[t]\) be the minimal polynomial of \(\alpha\). Second, let \(K'\) be the algebraic function field over \(\mathbb{Q}\) with transcendental parameters \(t_1,\ldots,t_m\), that is, \(K' = \mathbb{Q}(t_1,\ldots,t_m)\). In particular, we present efficient algorithms for computing Gröbner bases over \(K\) and \(K'\). Moreover, we present an efficient method for computing syzygy modules over \(K\).
To compute Gröbner bases over \(K\), starting from the ideas of Noro [35], we proceed by joining \(f\) to the ideal to be considered, adding \(t\) as an extra variable. But instead of avoiding superfluous S-pair reductions by inverting algebraic numbers, we achieve the same goal by applying modular methods as in [2,4,27], that is, by inferring information in characteristic zero from information in characteristic \(p > 0\). For suitable primes \(p\), the minimal polynomial \(f\) is reducible over \(\mathbb{F}_p\). This allows us to apply modular methods once again, on a second level, with respect to the
modular factors of \(f\). The algorithm thus resembles a divide and conquer strategy and
is in particular easily parallelizable. Moreover, using a similar approach, we present an algorithm for computing syzygy modules over \(K\).
On the other hand, to compute Gröbner bases over \(K'\), our new algorithm first specializes the parameters \(t_1,\ldots,t_m\) to reduce the problem from \(K'[x_1,\ldots,x_n]\) to \(\mathbb{Q}[x_1,\ldots,x_n]\). The algorithm then computes a set of Gröbner bases of specialized ideals. From this set of Gröbner bases with coefficients in \(\mathbb{Q}\), it obtains a Gröbner basis of the input ideal using sparse multivariate rational interpolation.
At current state, these algorithms are probabilistic in the sense that, as for other modular Gröbner basis computations, an effective final verification test is only known for homogeneous ideals or for local monomial orderings. The presented timings show that for most examples, our algorithms, which have been implemented in SINGULAR [17], are considerably faster than other known methods.

In retail, assortment planning refers to selecting a subset of products to offer that maximizes profit. Assortments can be planned for a single store or a retailer with multiple chain stores where demand varies between stores. In this paper, we assume that a retailer with a multitude of stores wants to specify her offered assortment. To suit all local preferences, regionalization and store-level assortment optimization are widely used in practice and lead to competitive advantages. When selecting regionalized assortments, a tradeoff between expensive, customized assortments in every store and inexpensive, identical assortments in all stores that neglect demand variation is preferable.
We formulate a stylized model for the regionalized assortment planning problem (APP) with capacity constraints and given demand. In our approach, a 'common assortment' that is supplemented by regionalized products is selected. While products in the common assortment are offered in all stores, products in the local assortments are customized and vary from store to store.
Concerning the computational complexity, we show that the APP is strongly NP-complete. The core of this hardness result lies in the selection of the common assortment. We formulate the APP as an integer program and provide algorithms and methods for obtaining approximate solutions and solving large-scale instances.
Lastly, we perform computational experiments to analyze the benefits of regionalized assortment planning depending on the variation in customer demands between stores.

This thesis is concerned with interest rate modeling by means of the potential approach. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, by making use of the potential approach and the theory of affine Markov processes, we develop a general class of rational models to the term structure of interest rates which we refer to as "the affine rational potential model". These models feature positive interest rates and analytical pricing formulae for zero-coupon bonds, caps, swaptions, and European currency options. We present some concrete models to illustrate the scope of the affine rational potential model and calibrate a model specification to real-world market data. Second, we develop a general family of "multi-curve potential models" for post-crisis interest rates. Our models feature positive stochastic basis spreads, positive term structures, and analytic pricing formulae for interest rate derivatives. This modeling framework is also flexible enough to accommodate negative interest rates and positive basis spreads.