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If gradient based derivative algorithms are used to improve industrial products by reducing their target functions, the derivatives need to be exact.
The last percent of possible improvement, like the efficiency of a turbine, can only be gained if the derivatives are consistent with the solution process that is used in the simulation software.
It is problematic that the development of the simulation software is an ongoing process which leads to the use of approximated derivatives.
If a derivative computation is implemented manually, it will be inconsistent after some time if it is not updated.
This thesis presents a generalized approach which differentiates the whole simulation software with Algorithmic Differentiation (AD), and guarantees a correct and consistent derivative computation after each change to the software.
For this purpose, the variable tagging technique is developed.
The technique checks at run-time if all dependencies, which are used by the derivative algorithms, are correct.
Since it is also necessary to check the correctness of the implementation, a theorem is developed which describes how AD derivatives can be compared.
This theorem is used to develop further methods that can detect and correct errors.
All methods are designed such that they can be applied in real world applications and are used within industrial configurations.
The process described above yields consistent and correct derivatives but the efficiency can still be improved.
This is done by deriving new derivative algorithms.
A fixed-point iterator approach, with a consistent derivation, yields all state of the art algorithms and produces two new algorithms.
These two new algorithms include all implementation details and therefore they produce consistent derivative results.
For detecting hot spots in the application, the state of the art techniques are presented and extended.
The data management is changed such that the performance of the software is affected only marginally when quantities, like the number of input and output variables or the memory consumption, are computed for the detection.
The hot spots can be treated with techniques like checkpointing or preaccumulation.
How these techniques change the time and memory consumption is analyzed and it is shown how they need to be used in selected AD tools.
As a last step, the used AD tools are analyzed in more detail.
The major implementation strategies for operator overloading AD tools are presented and implementation improvements for existing AD tools are discussed.\
The discussion focuses on a minimal memory consumption and makes it possible to compare AD tools on a theoretical level.
The new AD tool CoDiPack is based on these findings and its design and concepts are presented.
The improvements and findings in this thesis make it possible, that an automatic, consistent and correct derivative is generated in an efficient way for industrial applications.

For modeling approaches in systems biology, knowledge of the absolute abundances of cellular proteins is essential. One way to gain this knowledge is the use of quantification concatamers (QconCATs), which are synthetic proteins consisting of proteotypic peptides derived from the target proteins to be quantified. The QconCAT protein is labeled with a heavy isotope upon expression in E. coli and known amounts of the purified protein are spiked into a whole cell protein extract. Upon tryptic digestion, labeled and unlabeled peptides are released from the QconCAT and the native proteins, respectively, and both are quantified by LC-MS/MS. The labeled Q-peptides then serve as standards for determining the absolute quantity of the native peptides/proteins. Here we have applied the QconCAT approach to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for the absolute quantification of the major proteins and protein complexes driving photosynthetic light reactions in the thylakoid membranes and carbon fixation in the pyrenoid. We found that with 25.2 attomol/cell the Rubisco large subunit makes up 6.6% of all proteins in a Chlamydomonas cell and with this exceeds the amount of the small subunit by a factor of 1.56. EPYC1, which links Rubisco to form the pyrenoid, is eight times less abundant than RBCS, and Rubisco activase is 32-times less abundant than RBCS. With 5.2 attomol/cell, photosystem II is the most abundant complex involved in the photosynthetic light reactions, followed by plastocyanin, photosystem I and the cytochrome b6/f complex, which range between 2.9 and 3.5 attomol/cell. The least abundant complex is the ATP synthase with 2 attomol/cell. While applying the QconCAT approach, we have been able to identify many potential pitfalls associated with this technique. We analyze and discuss these pitfalls in detail and provide an optimized workflow for future applications of this technique.

The authors explore the intrinsic trade-off in a DRAM between the power consumption (due to refresh) and the reliability. Their unique measurement platform allows tailoring to the design constraints depending on whether power consumption, performance or reliability has the highest design priority. Furthermore, the authors show how this measurement platform can be used for reverse engineering the internal structure of DRAMs and how this knowledge can be used to improve DRAM’s reliability.

The simulation of cutting process challenges established methods due to large deformations and topological changes. In this work a particle finite element method (PFEM) is presented, which combines the benefits of discrete modeling techniques and methods based on continuum mechanics. A crucial part of the PFEM is the detection of the boundary of a set of particles. The impact of this boundary detection method on the structural integrity is examined and a relation of the key parameter of the method to the eigenvalues of strain tensors is elaborated. The influence of important process parameters on the cutting force is studied and a comparison to an empirical relation is presented.

1,3-Diynes are frequently found as an important structural motif in natural products, pharmaceuticals and bioactive compounds, electronic and optical materials and supramolecular molecules. Copper and palladium complexes are widely used to prepare 1,3-diynes by homocoupling of terminal alkynes; albeit the potential of nickel complexes towards the same is essentially unexplored. Although a detailed study on the reported nickel-acetylene chemistry has not been carried out, a generalized mechanism featuring a nickel(II)/nickel(0) catalytic cycle has been proposed. In the present work, a detailed mechanistic aspect of the nickel-mediated homocoupling reaction of terminal alkynes is investigated through the isolation and/or characterization of key intermediates from both the stoichiometric and the catalytic reactions. A nickel(II) complex [Ni(L-N4Me2)(MeCN)2](ClO4)2 (1) containing a tetradentate N,N′-dimethyl-2,11-diaza[3.3](2,6)pyridinophane (L-N4Me2) as ligand was used as catalyst for homocoupling of terminal alkynes by employing oxygen as oxidant at room temperature. A series of dinuclear nickel(I) complexes bridged by a 1,3-diyne ligand have been isolated from stoichiometric reaction between [Ni(L-N4Me2)(MeCN)2](ClO4)2 (1) and lithium acetylides. The dinuclear nickel(I)-diyne complexes [{Ni(L-N4Me2)}2(RC4R)](ClO4)2 (2) were well characterized by X-ray crystal structures, various spectroscopic methods, SQUID and DFT calculation. The complexes not only represent as a key intermediate in aforesaid catalytic reaction, but also describe the first structurally characterized dinuclear nickel(I)-diyne complexes. In addition, radical trapping and low temperature UV-Vis-NIR experiments in the formation of the dinuclear nickel(I)-diyne confirm that the reactions occurring during the reduction of nickel(II) to nickel(I) and C-C bond formation of 1,3-diyne follow non-radical concerted mechanism. Furthermore, spectroscopic investigation on the reactivity of the dinuclear nickel(I)-diyne complex towards molecular oxygen confirmed the formation of a mononuclear nickel(I)-diyne species [Ni(L-N4Me2)(RC4R)]+ (4) and a mononuclear nickel(III)-peroxo species [Ni(L-N4Me2)(O2)]+ (5) which were converted to free 1,3-diyne and an unstable dinuclear nickel(II) species [{Ni(L-N4Me2)}2(O2)]2+ (6). A mononuclear nickel(I)-alkyne complex [Ni(L-N4Me2)(PhC2Ph)](ClO4).MeOH (3) and the mononuclear nickel(III)-peroxo species [Ni(L-N4Me2)(O2)]+ (5) were isolated/generated and characterized to confirm the formulation of aforementioned mononuclear nickel(I)-diyne and mononuclear nickel(III)-peroxo species. Spectroscopic experiments on the catalytic reaction mixture also confirm the presence of aforesaid intermediates. Results of both stoichiometric and catalytic reactions suggested an intriguing mechanism involving nickel(II)/nickel(I)/nickel(III) oxidation states in contrast to the reported nickel(II)/nickel(0) catalytic cycle. These findings are expected to open a new paradigm towards nickel-catalyzed organic transformations.

In this article a new numerical solver for simulations of district heating networks is presented. The numerical method applies the local time stepping introduced in [11] to networks of linear advection equations. In combination with the high order approach of [4] an accurate and very efficient scheme is developed. In several numerical test cases the advantages for simulations of district heating networks are shown.

Numerical Godeaux surfaces are minimal surfaces of general type with the smallest possible numerical invariants. It is known that the torsion group of a numerical Godeaux surface is cyclic of order \(m\leq 5\). A full classification has been given for the cases \(m=3,4,5\) by the work of Reid and Miyaoka. In each case, the corresponding moduli space is 8-dimensional and irreducible.
There exist explicit examples of numerical Godeaux surfaces for the orders \(m=1,2\), but a complete classification for these surfaces is still missing.
In this thesis we present a construction method for numerical Godeaux surfaces which is based on homological algebra and computer algebra and which arises from an experimental approach by Schreyer. The main idea is to consider the canonical ring \(R(X)\) of a numerical Godeaux surface \(X\) as a module over some graded polynomial ring \(S\). The ring \(S\) is chosen so that \(R(X)\) is finitely generated as an \(S\)-module and a Gorenstein \(S\)-algebra of codimension 3. We prove that the canonical ring of any numerical Godeaux surface, considered as an \(S\)-module, admits a minimal free resolution whose middle map is alternating. Moreover, we show that a partial converse of this statement is true under some additional conditions.
Afterwards we use these results to construct (canonical rings of) numerical Godeaux surfaces. Hereby, we restrict our study to surfaces whose bicanonical system has no fixed component but 4 distinct base points, in the following referred to as marked numerical Godeaux surfaces.
The particular interest of this thesis lies on marked numerical Godeaux surfaces whose torsion group is trivial. For these surfaces we study the fibration of genus 4 over \(\mathbb{P}^1\) induced by the bicanonical system. Catanese and Pignatelli showed that the general fibre is non-hyperelliptic and that the number \(\tilde{h}\) of hyperelliptic fibres is bounded by 3. The two explicit constructions of numerical Godeaux surfaces with a trivial torsion group due to Barlow and Craighero-Gattazzo, respectively, satisfy \(\tilde{h} = 2\).
With the method from this thesis, we construct an 8-dimensional family of numerical Godeaux surfaces with a trivial torsion group and whose general element satisfy \(\tilde{h}=0\).
Furthermore, we establish a criterion for the existence of hyperelliptic fibres in terms of a minimal free resolution of \(R(X)\). Using this criterion, we verify experimentally the
existence of a numerical Godeaux surface with \(\tilde{h}=1\).

The growing computational power enables the establishment of the Population Balance Equation (PBE)
to model the steady state and dynamic behavior of multiphase flow unit operations. Accordingly, the twophase
flow
behavior inside liquid-liquid extraction equipment is characterized by different factors. These
factors include: interactions among droplets (breakage and coalescence), different time scales due to the
size distribution of the dispersed phase, and micro time scales of the interphase diffusional mass transfer
process. As a result of this, the general PBE has no well known analytical solution and therefore robust
numerical solution methods with low computational cost are highly admired.
In this work, the Sectional Quadrature Method of Moments (SQMOM) (Attarakih, M. M., Drumm, C.,
Bart, H.-J. (2009). Solution of the population balance equation using the Sectional Quadrature Method of
Moments (SQMOM). Chem. Eng. Sci. 64, 742-752) is extended to take into account the continuous flow
systems in spatial domain. In this regard, the SQMOM is extended to solve the spatially distributed
nonhomogeneous bivariate PBE to model the hydrodynamics and physical/reactive mass transfer
behavior of liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Based on the extended SQMOM, two different steady
state and dynamic simulation algorithms for hydrodynamics and mass transfer behavior of liquid-liquid
extraction equipment are developed and efficiently implemented. At the steady state modeling level, a
Spatially-Mixed SQMOM (SM-SQMOM) algorithm is developed and successfully implemented in a onedimensional
physical spatial domain. The integral spatial numerical flux is closed using the mean mass
droplet diameter based on the One Primary and One Secondary Particle Method (OPOSPM which is the
simplest case of the SQMOM). On the other hand the hydrodynamics integral source terms are closed
using the analytical Two-Equal Weight Quadrature (TEqWQ). To avoid the numerical solution of the
droplet rise velocity, an analytical solution based on the algebraic velocity model is derived for the
particular case of unit velocity exponent appearing in the droplet swarm model. In addition to this, the
source term due to mass transport is closed using OPOSPM. The resulting system of ordinary differential
equations with respect to space is solved using the MATLAB adaptive Runge–Kutta method (ODE45). At
the dynamic modeling level, the SQMOM is extended to a one-dimensional physical spatial domain and
resolved using the finite volume method. To close the mathematical model, the required quadrature nodes
and weights are calculated using the analytical solution based on the Two Unequal Weights Quadrature
(TUEWQ) formula. By applying the finite volume method to the spatial domain, a semi-discreet ordinary
differential equation system is obtained and solved. Both steady state and dynamic algorithms are
extensively validated at analytical, numerical, and experimental levels. At the numerical level, the
predictions of both algorithms are validated using the extended fixed pivot technique as implemented in
PPBLab software (Attarakih, M., Alzyod, S., Abu-Khader, M., Bart, H.-J. (2012). PPBLAB: A new
multivariate population balance environment for particulate system modeling and simulation. Procedia
Eng. 42, pp. 144-562). At the experimental validation level, the extended SQMOM is successfully used
to model the steady state hydrodynamics and physical and reactive mass transfer behavior of agitated
liquid-liquid extraction columns under different operating conditions. In this regard, both models are
found efficient and able to follow liquid extraction column behavior during column scale-up, where three
column diameters were investigated (DN32, DN80, and DN150). To shed more light on the local
interactions among the contacted phases, a reduced coupled PBE and CFD framework is used to model
the hydrodynamic behavior of pulsed sieve plate columns. In this regard, OPOSPM is utilized and
implemented in FLUENT 18.2 commercial software as a special case of the SQMOM. The dropletdroplet
interactions
(breakage
and
coalescence)
are
taken
into
account
using
OPOSPM,
while
the
required
information
about
the
velocity
field
and
energy
dissipation
is
calculated
by
the
CFD
model.
In
addition
to
this,
the proposed coupled OPOSPM-CFD framework is extended to include the mass transfer. The
proposed framework is numerically tested and the results are compared with the published experimental
data. The required breakage and coalescence parameters to perform the 2D-CFD simulation are estimated
using PPBLab software, where a 1D-CFD simulation using a multi-sectional gird is performed. A very
good agreement is obtained at the experimental and the numerical validation levels.

III/V semiconductor quantum dots (QD) are in the focus of optoelectronics research for about 25 years now. Most of the work
has been done on InAs QD on GaAs substrate. But, e.g., Ga(As)Sb (antimonide) QD on GaAs substrate/buffer have also gained
attention for the last 12 years.There is a scientific dispute on whether there is a wetting layer before antimonide QD formation, as
commonly expected for Stransky-Krastanov growth, or not. Usually ex situ photoluminescence (PL) and atomic force microscope
(AFM) measurements are performed to resolve similar issues. In this contribution, we show that reflectance anisotropy/difference
spectroscopy (RAS/RDS) can be used for the same purpose as an in situ, real-time monitoring technique. It can be employed not
only to identify QD growth via a distinct RAS spectrum, but also to get information on the existence of a wetting layer and its
thickness. The data suggest that for antimonide QD growth the wetting layer has a thickness of 1 ML (one monolayer) only.