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Estelle is an internationally standardized formal description technique (FDT) designed for the specification of distributed systems, in particular communication protocols. An Estelle specification describes a system of communicating components (module instances). The specified system is closed in a topological sense, i.e. it has no ability to interact with some environment. Because of this restriction, open systems can only be specified together with and incorporated with an environment. To overcome this restriction, we introduce a compatible extension of Estelle, called "Open Estelle". It allows the specification of (topologically) open systems, i.e. systems that have the ability to communicate with any environment through a well-defined external interface. We define aformal syntax and a formal semantics for Open Estelle, both based on and extending the syntax and semantics of Estelle. The extension is compatible syntactically and semantically, i.e. Estelle is a subset of Open Estelle. In particular, the formal semantics of Open Estelle reduces to the Estelle semantics in the special case of a closed system. Furthermore, we present a tool for the textual integration of open systems into environments specified in Open Estelle, and a compiler for the automatic generation of implementations directly from Open Estelle specifications.

The intuitionistic calculus mj for sequents, in which no other logical symbols than those for implication and universal quantification occur, is introduced and analysed. It allows a simple backward application, called mj-reduction here, for searching for derivation trees. Terms needed in mj-reduction can be found with the unification algorithm. mj-Reduction with unification can be seen as a natural extension of SLD-resolution. mj-Derivability of the sequents considered here coincides with derivability in Johansson's minimal intuitionistic calculus LHM in [6]. Intuitionistic derivability of formulae with negation and classical derivability of formulae with all usual logical symbols can be expressed with mj-derivability and hence be verified by mj-reduction. mj-Derivations can be easily translated into LJ-derivations without
"Schnitt", or into NJ-derivations in a slightly sharpened form of Prawitz' normal form. In the first three sections, the systematic use of mj-reduction for proving in predicate logic is emphasized. Although the fourth section, the last and largest, is exclusively devoted to the mathematical analysis of the calculus mj, the first three sections may be of interest to a wider readership, including readers looking for applications of symbolic logic. Unfortunately, the mathematical analysis of the calculus mj, as the study of Gentzen's calculi, demands a large amount of technical work that obscures the natural unfolding of the argumentation. To alleviate this, definitions and theorems are completely embedded in the text to provide a fluent and balanced mathematical discourse: new concepts are indicated with bold-face, proofs of assertions are outlined, or omitted when it is assumed that the reader can provide them.

Instant Radiosity
(1997)

We present a fundamental procedure for instant rendering from the radiance equation. Operating directly on the textured scene description, the very efficient and simple algorithm produces photorealistic images without any kernel or solution discretization of the underlying integral equation. Rendering rates of a few seconds are obtained by exploiting graphics hardware, the deterministic
technique of the quasi-random walk for the solution of the global illumination problem, and the new method of jittered low discrepancy sampling.

The problem of constructing a geometric model of an existing object from a set of boundary points arises in many areas of industry. In this paper we present a new solution to this problem which is an extension of Boissonnat's method [2]. Our approach uses the well known Delaunay triangulation of the data points as an intermediate step. Starting with this structure, we eliminate tetrahedra until we get an appropriate approximation of the desired shape. The method proposed in this paper is capable of reconstructing objects with arbitrary genus and can cope with different point densities in different regions of the object. The
problems which arise during the elimination process, i.e. which tetrahedra can be eliminated, which order has to be used to control the process and finally, how to stop the elimination procedure at the right time, are discussed in detail. Several examples are given to show the validity of the method.

We study the problem of global solution of Fredholm integral equations. This means that we seek to approximate the full solution function (as opposed to the local problem, where only the value of the solution in a single point or a functional of the solution is sought). We analyze the Monte Carlo complexity, i.e. the complexity of stochastic solution of this problem. The framework for this analysis is provided by information based complexity theory. Our investigations complement previous ones on stochastic complexity of local solution and on deterministic complexity of
both local and global solution. The results show that even in the global case Monte Carlo algorithms can perform better than deterministic ones, although the difference is not as large as in the local case.

We compare different notions of differentiability of a measure along a vector field on a locally convex space. We consider in the \(L^2\)-space of a differentiable measure the analoga of the classical concepts of gradient, divergence and Laplacian (which coincides with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck
operator in the Gaussian case). We use these operators for the extension of the basic results of Malliavin and Stroock on the smoothness of finite dimensional image measures under certain nonsmooth mappings to the case of non-Gaussian measures. The proof of this extension is quite direct and does not use any Chaos-decomposition. Finally, the role of this Laplacian in the
procedure of quantization of anharmonic oscillators is discussed.

Annual Report
(1997)

We report on the observation of quantized surface spin waves in periodic arrays of magnetic Ni81Fe19 wires by means of Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. At small wavevectors (q_1 = 0 - 0.9*100000 cm^-1 ) several discrete, dispersionless modes with a frequency splitting of up to 0.9 GHz were observed for the wavevector oriented perpendicular to the wires. From the frequencies of the modes and the wavevector interval, where each mode is observed, the modes are identified as dipole-exchange surface spin wave modes of the film with quantized wavevector values determined by the boundary conditions at the lateral edges of the wires. With increasing wavevector the separation of the modes becomes smaller, and the frequencies of the discrete modes converge to the dispersion of the dipole-exchange surface mode of a continuous film.

The Fock space of bosons and fermions and its underlying superalgebra are represented by algebras of functions on a superspace. We define Gaussian integration on infinite dimensional superspaces, and construct superanalogs of the classical function spaces with a reproducing kernel - including the Bargmann-Fock representation - and of the Wiener-Segal representation. The latter representation requires the investigation of Wick ordering on Z 2 -graded algebras. As application we derive a Mehler formula for the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck semigroup on the Fock space.

For periodically driven systems, quantum tunneling between classical resonant stability islands in phase space separated by invariant KAM curves or chaotic regions manifests itself by oscillatory motion of wave packets centered on such an island, by multiplet splittings of the quasienergy spectrum, and by phase space localisation of the quasienergy states on symmetry related ,ux tubes. Qualitatively di,erent types of classical resonant island formation | due to discrete symmetries of the system | and their quantum implications are analysed by a (uniform) semiclassical theory. The results are illustrated by a numerical study of a driven non-harmonic oscillator.