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In the thesis the author presents a mathematical model which describes the behaviour of the acoustical pressure (sound), produced by a bass loudspeaker. The underlying physical propagation of sound is described by the non--linear isentropic Euler system in a Lagrangian description. This system is expanded via asymptotical analysis up to third order in the displacement of the membrane of the loudspeaker. The differential equations which describe the behaviour of the key note and the first order harmonic are compared to classical results. The boundary conditions, which are derived up to third order, are based on the principle that the small control volume sticks to the boundary and is allowed to move only along it. Using classical results of the theory of elliptic partial differential equations, the author shows that under appropriate conditions on the input data the appropriate mathematical problems admit, by the Fredholm alternative, unique solutions. Moreover, certain regularity results are shown. Further, a novel Wave Based Method is applied to solve appropriate mathematical problems. However, the known theory of the Wave Based Method, which can be found in the literature, so far, allowed to apply WBM only in the cases of convex domains. The author finds the criterion which allows to apply the WBM in the cases of non--convex domains. In the case of 2D problems we represent this criterion as a small proposition. With the aid of this proposition one is able to subdivide arbitrary 2D domains such that the number of subdomains is minimal, WBM may be applied in each subdomain and the geometry is not altered, e.g. via polygonal approximation. Further, the same principles are used in the case of 3D problem. However, the formulation of a similar proposition in cases of 3D problems has still to be done. Next, we show a simple procedure to solve an inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation using WBM. This procedure, however, is rather computationally expensive and can probably be improved. Several examples are also presented. We present the possibility to apply the Wave Based Technique to solve steady--state acoustic problems in the case of an unbounded 3D domain. The main principle of the classical WBM is extended to the case of an external domain. Two numerical examples are also presented. In order to apply the WBM to our problems we subdivide the computational domain into three subdomains. Therefore, on the interfaces certain coupling conditions are defined. The description of the optimization procedure, based on the principles of the shape gradient method and level set method, and the results of the optimization finalize the thesis.

The central topic of this thesis is Alperin's weight conjecture, a problem concerning the representation theory of finite groups.
This conjecture, which was first proposed by J. L. Alperin in 1986, asserts that for any finite group the number of its irreducible Brauer characters coincides with the number of conjugacy classes of its weights. The blockwise version of Alperin's conjecture partitions this problem into a question concerning the number of irreducible Brauer characters and weights belonging to the blocks of finite groups.
A proof for this conjecture has not (yet) been found. However, the problem has been reduced to a question on non-abelian finite (quasi-) simple groups in the sense that there is a set of conditions, the so-called inductive blockwise Alperin weight condition, whose verification for all non-abelian finite simple groups implies the blockwise Alperin weight conjecture. Now the objective is to prove this condition for all non-abelian finite simple groups, all of which are known via the classification of finite simple groups.
In this thesis we establish the inductive blockwise Alperin weight condition for three infinite series of finite groups of Lie type: the special linear groups \(SL_3(q)\) in the case \(q>2\) and \(q \not\equiv 1 \bmod 3\), the Chevalley groups \(G_2(q)\) for \(q \geqslant 5\), and Steinberg's triality groups \(^3D_4(q)\).

This thesis is devoted to the study of tropical curves with emphasis on their enumerative geometry. Major results include a conceptual proof of the fact that the number of rational tropical plane curves interpolating an appropriate number of general points is independent of the choice of points, the computation of intersection products of Psi-classes on the moduli space of rational tropical curves, a computation of the number of tropical elliptic plane curves of given degree and fixed tropical j-invariant as well as a tropical analogue of the Riemann-Roch theorem for algebraic curves. The result are obtained in joint work with Hannah Markwig and/or Andreas Gathmann.

Tropical geometry is a rather new field of algebraic geometry. The main idea is to replace algebraic varieties by certain piece-wise linear objects in R^n, which can be studied with the aid of combinatorics. There is hope that many algebraically difficult operations become easier in the tropical setting, as the structure of the objects seems to be simpler. In particular, tropical geometry shows promise for application in enumerative geometry. Enumerative geometry deals with the counting of geometric objects that are determined by certain incidence conditions. Until around 1990, not many enumerative questions had been answered and there was not much prospect of solving more. But then Kontsevich introduced the moduli space of stable maps which turned out to be a very useful concept for the study of enumerative geometry. A well-known problem of enumerative geometry is to determine the numbers N_cplx(d,g) of complex genus g plane curves of degree d passing through 3d+g-1 points in general position. Mikhalkin has defined the analogous number N_trop(d,g) for tropical curves and shown that these two numbers coincide (Mikhalkin's Correspondence Theorem). Tropical geometry supplies many new ideas and concepts that could be helpful to answer enumerative problems. However, as a rather new field, tropical geometry has to be studied more thoroughly. This thesis is concerned with the ``translation'' of well-known facts of enumerative geometry to tropical geometry. More precisely, the main results of this thesis are: - a tropical proof of the invariance of N_trop(d,g) of the position of the 3d+g-1 points, - a tropical proof for Kontsevich's recursive formula to compute N_trop(d,0) and - a tropical proof of Caporaso's and Harris' algorithm to compute N_trop(d,g). All results were derived in joint work with my advisor Andreas Gathmann. (Note that tropical research is not restricted to the translation of classically well-known facts, there are actually new results shown by means of tropical geometry that have not been known before. For example, Mikhalkin gave a tropical algorithm to compute the Welschinger invariant for real curves. This shows that tropical geometry can indeed be a tool for a better understanding of classical geometry.)

This work deals with the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the dynamics of a curved inertial viscous Newtonian fiber, which is practically applicable to the description of centrifugal spinning processes of glass wool. Neglecting surface tension and temperature dependence, the fiber flow is modeled as a three-dimensional free boundary value problem via instationary incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. From regular asymptotic expansions in powers of the slenderness parameter leading-order balance laws for mass (cross-section) and momentum are derived that combine the unrestricted motion of the fiber center-line with the inner viscous transport. The physically reasonable form of the one-dimensional fiber model results thereby from the introduction of the intrinsic velocity that characterizes the convective terms. For the numerical simulation of the derived model a finite volume code is developed. The results of the numerical scheme for high Reynolds numbers are validated by comparing them with the analytical solution of the inviscid problem. Moreover, the influence of parameters, like viscosity and rotation on the fiber dynamics are investigated. Finally, an application based on industrial data is performed.

In the theoretical part of this thesis, the difference of the solutions of the elastic and the elastoplastic boundary value problem is analysed, both for linear kinematic and combined linear kinematic and isotropic hardening material. We consider both models in their quasistatic, rate-independent formulation with linearised geometry. The main result of the thesis is, that the differences of the physical obervables (the stresses, strains and displacements) can be expressed as composition of some linear operators and play operators with respect to the exterior forces. Explicit homotopies between both solutions are presented. The main analytical devices are Lipschitz estimates for the stop and the play operator. We present some generalisations of the standard estimates. They allow different input functions, different initial memories and different scalar products. Thereby, the underlying time involving function spaces are the Sobolov spaces of first order with arbitrary integrability exponent between one and infinity. The main results can easily be generalised for the class of continuous functions with bounded total variation. In the practical part of this work, a method to correct the elastic stress tensor over a long time interval at some chosen points of the body is presented and analysed. In contrast to widespread uniaxial corrections (Neuber or ESED), our method takes multiaxiality phenomena like cyclic hardening/softening, ratchetting and non-masing behaviour into account using Jiang's model of elastoplasticity. It can be easily adapted to other constitutive elastoplastic material laws. The theory for our correction model is developped for linear kinematic hardening material, for which error estimated are derived. Our numerical algorithm is very fast and designed for the case that the elastic stress is piecewise linear. The results for the stresses can be significantly improved with Seeger's empirical strain constraint. For the improved model, a simple predictor-correcor algorithm for smooth input loading is established.

Functional data analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with observations \(X_1,..., X_n\) which are curves. We are interested in particular in time series of dependent curves and, specifically, consider the functional autoregressive process of order one (FAR(1)), which is defined as \(X_{n+1}=\Psi(X_{n})+\epsilon_{n+1}\) with independent innovations \(\epsilon_t\). Estimates \(\hat{\Psi}\) for the autoregressive operator \(\Psi\) have been investigated a lot during the last two decades, and their asymptotic properties are well understood. Particularly difficult and different from scalar- or vector-valued autoregressions are the weak convergence properties which also form the basis of the bootstrap theory.
Although the asymptotics for \(\hat{\Psi}{(X_{n})}\) are still tractable, they are only useful for large enough samples. In applications, however, frequently only small samples of data are available such that an alternative method for approximating the distribution of \(\hat{\Psi}{(X_{n})}\) is welcome. As a motivation, we discuss a real-data example where we investigate a changepoint detection problem for a stimulus response dataset obtained from the animal physiology group at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern.
To get an alternative for asymptotic approximations, we employ the naive or residual-based bootstrap procedure. In this thesis, we prove theoretically and show via simulations that the bootstrap provides asymptotically valid and practically useful approximations of the distributions of certain functions of the data. Such results may be used to calculate approximate confidence bands or critical bounds for tests.

This thesis deals with the application of binomial option pricing in a single-asset Black-Scholes market and its extension to multi-dimensional situations. Although the binomial approach is, in principle, an efficient method for lower dimensional valuation problems, there are at least two main problems regarding its application: Firstly, traded options often exhibit discontinuities, so that the Berry- Esséen inequality is in general tight; i.e. conventional tree methods converge no faster than with order 1/sqrt(N). Furthermore, they suffer from an irregular convergence behaviour that impedes the possibility to achieve a higher order of convergence via extrapolation methods. Secondly, in multi-asset markets conventional tree construction methods cannot ensure well-defined transition probabilities for arbitrary correlation structures between the assets. As a major aim of this thesis, we present two approaches to get binomial trees into shape in order to overcome the main problems in applications; the optimal drift model for the valuation of single-asset options and the decoupling approach to multi-dimensional option pricing. The new valuation methods are embedded into a self-contained survey of binomial option pricing, which focuses on the convergence behaviour of binomial trees. The optimal drift model is a new one-dimensional binomial scheme that can lead to convergence of order o(1/N) by exploiting the specific structure of the valuation problem under consideration. As a consequence, it has the potential to outperform benchmark algorithms. The decoupling approach is presented as a universal construction method for multi-dimensional trees. The corresponding trees are well-defined for an arbitrary correlation structure of the underlying assets. In addition, they yield a more regular convergence behaviour. In fact, the sawtooth effect can even vanish completely, so that extrapolation can be applied.

The main aim of this work was to obtain an approximate solution of the seismic traveltime tomography problems with the help of splines based on reproducing kernel Sobolev spaces. In order to be able to apply the spline approximation concept to surface wave as well as to body wave tomography problems, the spherical spline approximation concept was extended for the case where the domain of the function to be approximated is an arbitrary compact set in R^n and a finite number of discontinuity points is allowed. We present applications of such spline method to seismic surface wave as well as body wave tomography, and discuss the theoretical and numerical aspects of such applications. Moreover, we run numerous numerical tests that justify the theoretical considerations.

This dissertation deals with two main subjects. Both are strongly related to boundary problems for the Poisson equation and the Laplace equation, respectively. The oblique boundary problem of potential theory as well as the limit formulae and jump relations of potential theory are investigated. We divide this abstract into two parts and start with the oblique boundary problem. Here we prove existence and uniqueness results for solutions to the outer oblique boundary problem for the Poisson equation under very weak assumptions on boundary, coefficients and inhomogeneities. Main tools are the Kelvin transformation and the solution operator for the regular inner problem, provided in my diploma thesis. Moreover we prove regularization results for the weak solutions of both, the inner and the outer problem. We investigate the non-admissible direction for the oblique vector field, state results with stochastic inhomogeneities and provide a Ritz-Galerkin approximation. Finally we show that the results are applicable to problems from Geomathematics. Now we come to the limit formulae. There we combine the modern theory of Sobolev spaces with the classical theory of limit formulae and jump relations of potential theory. The convergence in Lebesgue spaces for integrable functions is already treated in literature. The achievement of this dissertation is this convergence for the weak derivatives of higher orders. Also the layer functions are elements of Sobolev spaces and the surface is a two dimensional suitable smooth submanifold in the three dimensional space. We are considering the potential of the single layer, the potential of the double layer and their first order normal derivatives. Main tool in the proof in Sobolev norm is the uniform convergence of the tangential derivatives, which is proved with help of some results taken from literature. Additionally, we need a result about the limit formulae in the Lebesgue spaces, which is also taken from literature, and a reduction result for normal derivatives of harmonic functions. Moreover we prove the convergence in the Hölder spaces. Finally we give an application of the limit formulae and jump relations. We generalize a known density of several function systems from Geomathematics in the Lebesgue spaces of square integrable measureable functions, to density in Sobolev spaces, based on the results proved before. Therefore we have prove the limit formula of the single layer potential in dual spaces of Soboelv spaces, where also the layer function is an element of such a distribution space.