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The paper presents some new estimates on the gain term of the Boltzmann collision operator. For Maxwellian molecules, it is shown that the L -norm of the gain term can be bounded in terms of the L1 and L -norm of the density function f. In the case of more general collision kernels, like the hard-sphere interaction potential, the gain term is estimated pointwise by the L -norm of the density function and the loss term of the Boltzmann collision operator.

The paper presents some adaptive load balance techniques for the simulation of rarefied gas flows on parallel computers. It is shown that a static load balance is insufficient to obtain a scalable parallel efficiency. Hence, two adaptive techniques are investigated which are based on simple algorithms. Numerical results show that using heuristic techniques one can achieve a sufficiently high efficiency over a wide range of different hardware platforms.

Second Order Scheme for the Spatially Homogeneous Boltzmann Equation with Maxwellian Molecules
(1995)

In the standard approach, particle methods for the Boltzmann equation are obtained using an explicit time discretization of the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation. This kind of discretization leads to a restriction of the discretization parameter as well as on the differential cross section in the case of the general Boltzmann equation. Recently, it was shown, how to construct an implicit particle scheme for the Boltzmann equation with Maxwellian molecules. The present paper combines both approaches using a linear combination of explicit and implicit discretizations. It is shown that the new method leads to a second order particle method, when using an equiweighting of explicit and implicit discretization.

Numerical Simulation of the Stationary One-Dimensional Boltzmann Equation by Particle Methods
(1995)

The paper presents a numerical simulation technique - based on the well-known particle methods - for the stationary, one-dimensional Boltzmann equation for Maxwellian molecules. In contrast to the standard splitting methods, where one works with the instationary equation, the current approach simulates the direct solution of the stationary problem. The model problem investigated is the heat transfer between two parallel plates in the rarefied gas regime. An iteration process is introduced which leads to the stationary solution of the exact - space discretized - Boltzmann equation, in the sense of weak convergence.

The paper presents numerical results on the simulation of boundary value problems for the Boltzmann equation in one and two dimensions. In the one-dimensional case, we use prescribed fluxes at the left and diffusive conditions on the right end of a slab to study the resulting steady state solution. Moreover, we compute the numerical density function in velocity space and compare the result with the Chapman-Enskog distribution obtained in the limit for continuous media. The aim of the two-dimensional simulations is to investigate the possibility of a symmetry break in the numerical solution.

Monte-Carlo methods are widely used numerical tools in various fields of application, like rarefied gas dynamics, vacuum technology, stellar dynamics or nuclear physics. A central part in all applications is the generation of random variates according to a given probability law. Fundamental techniques to generate non-uniform random variates are the inversion principle or the acceptance-rejection method. Both procedures can be quite time-consuming if the given probability law has a complicated structure.; In this paper we consider probability laws depending on a small parameter and investigate the use of asmptotic expansions to generate random variates. The results given in the paper are restrictedto first order expansions. We show error estimates for the discrepancy as well as for the bounded Lipschitz distance of the asymptotic expansion. Furthermore the integration error for some special classes of functions is given. The efficiency of the method is proved by a numerical example from rarefied gas flows.

Particle methods to simulate rarefied gas flows have found an increasing interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics during the last decade, see for example [1], [2], [3] and [4]. The general goal is to develop numerical schemes which are reliable enough to substitute real windtunnel experiments, needed for example in space research, by computer experiments. In order to achieve this goal one needs numerical methods solving the Boltzmann equation including all important physical effects. In general this means 3D computations for a chemically reacting rarefied gas. With codes of this kind at hand, Boltzmann simulation becomes a powerful tool in studying rarefied gas phenomena.