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Mon, 03 Nov 2008 15:10:09 +0100Mon, 03 Nov 2008 15:10:09 +0100On Mathematical Aspects of a Combined Inversion of Gravity and Normal Mode Variations by a Spline Method
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/2038
This paper provides a brief overview of two linear inverse problems concerned with the determination of the Earth’s interior: inverse gravimetry and normal mode tomography. Moreover, a vector spline method is proposed for a combined solution of both problems. This method uses localised basis functions, which are based on reproducing kernels, and is related to approaches which have been successfully applied to the inverse gravimetric problem and the seismic traveltime tomography separately.Paula Berkel; Volker Michelpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/2038Mon, 03 Nov 2008 15:10:09 +0100Speech Recognition Support of Assisted Living
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/2029
We present results and views about a project in assisted living. The scenario is a room in which an elderly and/or disabled person lives who is not able to perform certain actions due to restricted mobility. We enable the person to express commands verbally that will then be executed automatically. There are several severe problems involved that complicate the situation. The person may utter the command in a rather unexpected way, the person makes an error or the action cannot be performed due to several reasons. In our approach we present an architecture with three components: The recognition component that contains novel features in the signal processing, the analysis component that logically analyzes the command, and the execution component that performs the action automatically. All three components communicate with each other.Georg Hebinger; Volker Michel; Michael Richter; Andreas Simonpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/2029Wed, 01 Oct 2008 16:07:44 +0200Splines on the 3-dimensional Ball and their Application to Seismic Body Wave Tomography
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1854
In this paper we construct spline functions based on a reproducing kernel Hilbert space to interpolate/approximate the velocity field of earthquake waves inside the Earth based on traveltime data for an inhomogeneous grid of sources (hypocenters) and receivers (seismic stations). Theoretical aspects including error estimates and convergence results as well as numerical results are demonstrated.Abel Amirbekyan; Volker Michelpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1854Tue, 17 Apr 2007 12:51:03 +0200Locally Supported Approximate Identities on the Unit Ball
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1837
We present a constructive theory for locally supported approximate identities on the unit ball in \(\mathbb{R}^3\). The uniform convergence of the convolutions of the derived kernels with an arbitrary continuous function \(f\) to \(f\), i.e. the defining property of an approximate identity, is proved. Moreover, an explicit representation for a class of such kernels is given. The original publication is available at www.springerlink.comMuhammad Akram; Volker Michelpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1837Sun, 11 Feb 2007 15:03:29 +0100Numerical Aspects of a Spline-Based Multiresolution Recovery of the Harmonic Mass Density out of Gravity Functionals
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1823
We show the numerical applicability of a multiresolution method based on harmonic splines on the 3-dimensional ball which allows the regularized recovery of the harmonic part of the Earth's mass density distribution out of different types of gravity data, e.g. different radial derivatives of the potential, at various positions which need not be located on a common sphere. This approximated harmonic density can be combined with its orthogonal anharmonic complement, e.g. determined out of the splitting function of free oscillations, to an approximation of the whole mass density function. The applicability of the presented tool is demonstrated by several test calculations based on simulated gravity values derived from EGM96. The method yields a multiresolution in the sense that the localization of the constructed spline basis functions can be increased which yields in combination with more data a higher resolution of the resulting spline. Moreover, we show that a locally improved data situation allows a highly resolved recovery in this particular area in combination with a coarse approximation elsewhere which is an essential advantage of this method, e.g. compared to polynomial approximation.Volker Michel; Kerstin Wolfpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1823Wed, 13 Dec 2006 15:19:35 +0100Fast Approximation on the 2-Sphere by Optimally Localized Approximate Identities
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1822
We introduce a method to construct approximate identities on the 2-sphere which have an optimal localization. This approach can be used to accelerate the calculations of approximations on the 2-sphere essentially with a comparably small increase of the error. The localization measure in the optimization problem includes a weight function which can be chosen under some constraints. For each choice of weight function existence and uniqueness of the optimal kernel are proved as well as the generation of an approximate identity in the bandlimited case. Moreover, the optimally localizing approximate identity for a certain weight function is calculated and numerically tested.Volker Michelpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1822Wed, 13 Dec 2006 13:46:52 +0100Time-Dependent Cauchy-Navier Splines and their Application to Seismic Wave Front Propagation
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1760
In this paper a known orthonormal system of time- and space-dependent functions, that were derived out of the Cauchy-Navier equation for elastodynamic phenomena, is used to construct reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. After choosing one of the spaces the corresponding kernel is used to define a function system that serves as a basis for a spline space. We show that under certain conditions there exists a unique interpolating or approximating, respectively, spline in this space with respect to given samples of an unknown function. The name "spline" here refers to its property of minimising a norm among all interpolating functions. Moreover, a convergence theorem and an error estimate relative to the point grid density are derived. As numerical example we investigate the propagation of seismic waves.Paula Kammann; Volker Michelpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1760Wed, 23 Aug 2006 10:19:04 +0200Wavelet Modelling of Regional and Temporal Variations of the Earth´s Gravitational Potential
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1641
This work is dedicated to the wavelet modelling of regional and temporal variations of the Earth's gravitational potential observed by GRACE. In the first part, all required mathematical tools and methods involving spherical wavelets are introduced. Then we apply our method to monthly GRACE gravity fields. A strong seasonal signal can be identified, which is restricted to areas, where large-scale redistributions of continental water mass are expected. This assumption is analyzed and verified by comparing the time series of regionally obtained wavelet coefficients of the gravitational signal originated from hydrology models and the gravitational potential observed by GRACE. The results are in good agreement to previous studies and illustrate that wavelets are an appropriate tool to investigate regional time-variable effects in the gravitational field.Martin J. Fengler; Willi Freeden; Annika Kohlhaas; Volker Michel; Thomas Peterspreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1641Thu, 02 Jun 2005 14:48:00 +0200Local Multiscale Approximations of Geostrophic Flow: Theoretical Background and Aspects of Scientific Computing
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1634
In modern geoscience, understanding the climate depends on the information about the oceans. Covering two thirds of the Earth, oceans play an important role. Oceanic phenomena are, for example, oceanic circulation, water exchanges between atmosphere, land and ocean or temporal changes of the total water volume. All these features require new methods in constructive approximation, since they are regionally bounded and not globally observable. This article deals with methods of handling data with locally supported basis functions, modeling them in a multiscale scheme involving a wavelet approximation and presenting the main results for the dynamic topography and the geostrophic flow, e.g., in the Northern Atlantic. Further, it is demonstrated that compressional rates of the occurring wavelet transforms can be achieved by use of locally supported wavelets.Willi Freeden; Dominik Michel; Volker Michelpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1634Mon, 09 May 2005 16:04:38 +0200Harmonic Spline-Wavelets on the 3-dimensional Ball and their Application to the Reconstruction of the Earth´s Density Distribution from Gravitational Data at Arbitrarily Shaped Satellite Orbits
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1623
We introduce splines for the approximation of harmonic functions on a 3-dimensional ball. Those splines are combined with a multiresolution concept. More precisely, at each step of improving the approximation we add more data and, at the same time, reduce the hat-width of the used spline basis functions. Finally, a convergence theorem is proved. One possible application, that is discussed in detail, is the reconstruction of the Earth´s density distribution from gravitational data obtained at a satellite orbit. This is an exponentially ill-posed problem where only the harmonic part of the density can be recovered since its orthogonal complement has the potential 0. Whereas classical approaches use a truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) with the well-known disadvantages like the non-localizing character of the used spherical harmonics and the bandlimitedness of the solution, modern regularization techniques use wavelets allowing a localized reconstruction via convolutions with kernels that are only essentially large in the region of interest. The essential remaining drawback of a TSVD and the wavelet approaches is that the integrals (i.e. the inner product in case of a TSVD and the convolution in case of wavelets) are calculated on a spherical orbit, which is not given in reality. Thus, simplifying modelling assumptions, that certainly include a modelling error, have to be made. The splines introduced here have the important advantage, that the given data need not be located on a sphere but may be (almost) arbitrarily distributed in the outer space of the Earth. This includes, in particular, the possibility to mix data from different satellite missions (different orbits, different derivatives of the gravitational potential) in the calculation of the Earth´s density distribution. Moreover, the approximating splines can be calculated at varying resolution scales, where the differences for increasing the resolution can be computed with the introduced spline-wavelet technique.Martin J. Fengler; Dominik Michel; Volker Michelpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1623Wed, 23 Mar 2005 13:00:11 +0100Wavelet Deformation Analysis for Spherical Bodies
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1612
In this paper we introduce a multiscale technique for the analysis of deformation phenomena of the Earth. Classically, the basis functions under use are globally defined and show polynomial character. In consequence, only a global analysis of deformations is possible such that, for example, the water load of an artificial reservoir is hardly to model in that way. Up till now, the alternative to realize a local analysis can only be established by assuming the investigated region to be flat. In what follows we propose a local analysis based on tools (Navier scaling functions and wavelets) taking the (spherical) surface of the Earth into account. Our approach, in particular, enables us to perform a zooming-in procedure. In fact, the concept of Navier wavelets is formulated in such a way that subregions with larger or smaller data density can accordingly be modelled with a higher or lower resolution of the model, respectively.Willi Freeden; Volker Michelpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1612Thu, 17 Feb 2005 18:43:34 +0100Regularized Multiresolution Recovery of the Mass Density Distribution From Satellite Data of the Earth´s Gravitational Field
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1586
The inverse problem of recovering the Earth's density distribution from data of the first or second derivative of the gravitational potential at satellite orbit height is discussed for a ball-shaped Earth. This problem is exponentially ill-posed. In this paper a multiscale regularization technique using scaling functions and wavelets constructed for the corresponding integro-differential equations is introduced and its numerical applications are discussed. In the numerical part the second radial derivative of the gravitational potential at 200 km orbitheight is calculated on a point grid out of the NASA/GSFC/NIMA Earth Geopotential Model (EGM96). Those simulated derived data out of SGG (satellite gravity gradiometry) satellite measurements are taken for convolutions with the introduced scaling functions yielding a multiresolution analysis of harmonic density variations in the Earth's crust. Moreover, the noise sensitivity of the regularization technique is analyzed numerically.Volker Michelreporthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/1586Tue, 16 Nov 2004 14:25:33 +0100