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Tue, 15 Apr 2014 08:54:15 +0200Tue, 15 Apr 2014 08:54:15 +0200Multi-Modal Activity Recognition Systems with Minimal Training Data and Unobtrusive Environmental Instrumentations
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3780
The recognition of day-to-day activities is still a very challenging and important research topic. During recent years, a lot of research has gone into designing and realizing smart environ- ments in different application areas such as health care, maintenance, sports or smart homes. As a result, a large amount of sensor modalities were developed, different types of activity and context recognition services were implemented and the resulting systems were benchmarked using state-of-the-art evaluation techniques. However, so far hardly any of these approaches have found their way into the market and consequently into the homes of real end-users on a large scale. The reason for this is, that almost all systems have one or more of the following characteristics in common: expensive high-end or prototype sensors are used which are not af- fordable or reliable enough for mainstream applications; many systems are deployed in highly instrumented environments or so-called "living labs", which are far from real-life scenarios and are often evaluated only in research labs; almost all systems are based on complex system con- figurations and/or extensive training data sets, which means that a large amount of data must be collected in order to install the system. Furthermore, many systems rely on a user and/or environment dependent training, which makes it even more difficult to install them on a large scale. Besides, a standardized integration procedure for the deployment of services in existing environments and smart homes has still not been defined. As a matter of fact, service providers use their own closed systems, which are not compatible with other systems, services or sensors. It is clear, that these points make it nearly impossible to deploy activity recognition systems in a real daily-life environment, to make them affordable for real users and to deploy them in hundreds or thousands of different homes.
This thesis works towards the solution of the above mentioned problems. Activity and context recognition systems designed for large-scale deployment and real-life scenarios are intro- duced. Systems are based on low-cost, reliable sensors and can be set up, configured and trained with little effort, even by technical laymen. It is because of these characteristics that we call our approach "minimally invasive". As a consequence, large amounts of training data, that are usu- ally required by many state-of-the-art approaches, are not necessary. Furthermore, all systems were integrated unobtrusively in real-world/similar to real-world environments and were evalu- ated under real-life, as well as similar to real-life conditions. The thesis addresses the following topics: First, a sub-room level indoor positioning system is introduced. The system is based on low-cost ceiling cameras and a simple computer vision tracking approach. The problem of user identification is solved by correlating modes of locomotion patterns derived from the trajectory of unidentified objects and on-body motion sensors. Afterwards, the issue of recognizing how and what mainstream household devices have been used for is considered. Based on a low-cost microphone, the water consumption of water-taps can be approximated by analyzing plumbing noise. Besides that, operating modes of mainstream electronic devices were recognized by using rule-based classifiers, electric current features and power measurement sensors. As a next step, the difficulty of spotting subtle, barely distinguishable hand activities and the resulting object interactions, within a data set containing a large amount of background data, is addressed. The problem is solved by introducing an on-body core system which is configured by simple, one-time physical measurements and minimal data collections. The lack of large training sets is compensated by fusing the system with activity and context recognition systems, that are able to reduce the search space observed. Amongst other systems, previously introduced approaches and ideas are revisited in this section. An in-depth evaluation shows the impact of each fusion procedure on the performance and run-time of the system. The approaches introduced are able to provide significantly better results than a state-of-the-art inertial system using large amounts of training data. The idea of using unobtrusive sensors has also been applied to the field of behavior analysis. Integrated smartphone sensors are used to detect behavioral changes of in- dividuals due to medium-term stress periods. Behavioral parameters related to location traces, social interactions and phone usage were analyzed to detect significant behavioral changes of individuals during stressless and stressful time periods. Finally, as a closing part of the the- sis, a standardization approach related to the integration of ambient intelligence systems (as introduced in this thesis) in real-life and large-scale scenarios is shown.Gerald Bauerdoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3780Tue, 15 Apr 2014 08:54:15 +0200Hypervolume Subset Selection in Two Dimensions: Formulations and Algorithms
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3770
The hypervolume subset selection problem consists of finding a subset, with a given cardinality, of a nondominated set of points that maximizes the hypervolume indicator. This problem arises in selection procedures of population-based heuristics for multiobjective optimization, and for which practically efficient algorithms are strongly required. In this article, we provide two new formulations for the two-dimensional variant of this problem.
The first is an integer programming formulation that can be solved by solving its linear relaxation. The second formulation is a \(k\)-link shortest path formulation on a special digraph with Monge property that can be solved by dynamic programming in \(\mathcal{O}(n^2)\) time complexity. This improves upon the existing result of \(O(n^3)\) in Bader.Tobias Kuhn; Carlos M. Fonseca; Luís Paquete; Stefan Ruzika; José Rui Figueirapreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3770Mon, 31 Mar 2014 07:47:17 +0200Edgeworth expansions for lattice triangular arrays
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3765
Edgeworth expansions have been introduced as a generalization of the central limit theorem and allow to investigate the convergence properties of sums of i.i.d. random variables. We consider triangular arrays of lattice random vectors and obtain a valid Edgeworth expansion for this case. The presented results can be used, for example, to study the convergence behavior of lattice models.Alona Bockpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3765Wed, 26 Mar 2014 12:14:40 +0100A multiscale model for pH-tactic invasion with time-varying carrying capacities
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3757
We propose a model for acid-mediated tumor invasion involving two different scales: the microscopic one, for the dynamics of intracellular protons and their exchange with their extracellular counterparts, and the macroscopic scale of interactions between tumor cell and normal cell populations, along with the evolution of extracellular protons. We also account for the tactic behavior of cancer cells, the latter being assumed to biase their motion according to a gradient of extracellular protons (following [2,31] we call this pH taxis). A time dependent (and also time delayed) carrying capacity for the tumor cells in response to the effects of acidity is considered as well. The global well posedness of the resulting multiscale model is proved with a regularization and fixed point argument. Numerical simulations are performed in order to illustrate the behavior of the model.Christina Surulescu; Gülnihal Meral; Christian Stinnerpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3757Tue, 18 Mar 2014 14:06:43 +0100Intersection theory with applications to the computation of Gromov-Witten invariants
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3750
This thesis is devoted to the computational aspects of intersection theory and enumerative geometry. The first results are a Sage package Schubert3 and a Singular library schubert.lib which both provide the key functionality necessary for computations in intersection theory and enumerative geometry. In particular, we describe an alternative method for computations in Schubert calculus via equivariant intersection theory. More concretely, we propose an explicit formula for computing the degree of Fano schemes of linear subspaces on hypersurfaces. As a special case, we also obtain an explicit formula for computing the number of linear subspaces on a general hypersurface when this number is finite. This leads to a much better performance than classical Schubert calculus.
Another result of this thesis is related to the computation of Gromov-Witten invariants. The most powerful method for computing Gromov-Witten invariants is the localization of moduli spaces of stable maps. This method was introduced by Kontsevich in 1995. It allows us to compute Gromov-Witten invariants via Bott's formula. As an insightful application, we computed the numbers of rational curves on general complete intersection Calabi-Yau threefolds in projective spaces up to degree six. The results are all in agreement with predictions made from mirror symmetry.
Hiep Dangdoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3750Fri, 14 Mar 2014 08:54:11 +0100The role of stimulus complexity in auditory research of speech and non-speech on the behavioral and electrophysiological level
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3749
According to the domain specific models of speech perception, speech is supposed to be processed distinctively compared to non-speech. This assumption is supported by many studies dealing with the processing of speech and non-speech stimuli. However, the complexity of both stimulus classes is not matched in most studies, which might be a confounding factor, according to the cue specific models of speech perception. One solution is spectrally rotated speech, which has already been used in a range of fMRI and PET studies. In order to be able to investigate the role of stimulus complexity, vowels, spectrally rotated vowels and a second non-speech condition with two bands of sinusoidal waves, representing the first two formants of the vowels, were used in the present thesis. A detailed description of the creation and the properties of the whole stimulus set are given in Chapter 2 (Experiment 1) of this work. These stimuli were used to investigate the auditory processing of speech and non-speech sounds in a group of dyslexic adults and age matched controls (Experiment 2). The results support the assumption of a general auditory deficit in dyslexia. In order to compare the sensory processing of speech and non-speech in healthy adults on the electrophysiological level, stimuli were also presented within a multifeature oddball paradigm (Experiment 3). Vowels evoked a larger mismatch negativity (MMN) compared to both non-speech stimulus types. The MMN evoked by tones and spectrally rotated tones were compared in Experiment 4, to investigate the role of harmony. No difference in the area of MMN was found, indicating that the results found in Experiment 3 were not moderated by the harmonic structure of the vowels. All results are discussed in the context of the domain and cue specific models of speech perception. Corinna Christmanndoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3749Thu, 27 Feb 2014 12:24:30 +0100Clock Refinement in Imperative Synchronous Languages
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3739
An huge amount of computational models and programming languages have been proposed
for the description of embedded systems. In contrast to traditional sequential programming
languages, they cope directly with the requirements for embedded systems: direct support for
concurrent computations and periodic interaction with the environment are only some of the
features they offer. Synchronous languages are one class of languages for the development of
embedded systems and they follow the fundamental principle that the execution is divided into
a sequence of logical steps. Thereby, each step follows the simplification that the computation
of the outputs is finished directly when the inputs are available. This rigorous abstraction leads
to well-defined deterministic parallel composition in general, and to deterministic abortion
and suspension in imperative synchronous languages in particular. These key features also
allow to translate programs to hardware and software, and also formal verification techniques
like model checking can be easily applied.
Besides the advantages of imperative synchronous languages, also some drawbacks can
be listed. Over-synchronization is an effect being caused by parallel threads which have to
synchronize for each execution step, even if they do not communicate, since the synchronization
is implicitly forced by the control-flow. This thesis considers the idea of clock refinement to
introduce several abstraction layers for communication and synchronization in addition to the
existing single-clock abstraction. Thereby, clocks can be refined by several independent clocks
so that a controlled amount of asynchrony between subsequent synchronization points can be
exploited by compilers. The declarations of clocks form a tree, and clocks can be defined within
the threads of the parallel statement, which allows one to do independent computations based
on these clocks without synchronizing the threads. However, the synchronous abstraction is
kept at each level of the abstraction.
Clock refinement is introduced in this thesis as an extension to the imperative synchronous
language Quartz. Therefore, new program statements are introduced which allow to define
a new clock as a refinement of an existing one and to finish a step based on a certain clock.
Examples are considered to show the impact of the behavior of the new statements to
the already existing statements, before the semantics of this extension is formally defined.
Furthermore, the thesis presents a compile algorithm to translate programs to an intermediate
format, and to translate the intermediate format to a hardware description. The advantages
obtained by the new modeling feature are finally evaluated based on examples.Mike Gemündedoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3739Wed, 19 Feb 2014 09:12:36 +0100Enhanced information processing of phobic natural images in participants with specific phobias
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3740
From an evolutionary point of view, it can be assumed that visual processing and rapid detection of potentially dangerous stimuli in the environment (e.g., perilous animals) is highly adaptive for all humans. In the present dissertation, I address three research questions; (1) Is information processing of threatening stimuli enhanced in individuals with specific phobias? (2) Are there any differences between the different types of phobia (e.g., spider phobia vs. snake phobia)? (3) Is the frequently reported attentional bias of individuals with specific phobias - which may contribute to an enhancement in information processing – also detectable in a prior entry paradigm? In Experiments 1 to 3 of the present thesis non-anxious control, spider-fearful, snake-fearful, and blood-injection-injury-fearful participants took part in the study. We applied in each experiment a response priming paradigm which has a strong theoretical (cf. rapid-chase theory; Schmidt, Niehaus, & Nagel, 2006; Schmidt, Haberkamp, Veltkamp et al., 2011) as well as empirical background (cf. Schmidt, 2002). We show that information processing in fearful individuals is indeed enhanced for phobic images (i.e., spiders for spider-fearful participants; injuries for blood-injury-injection(BII)-fearful individuals). However, we found marked differences between the different types of phobia. In Experiment 1 and 2 (Chapter 2 and 3), spiders had a strong and specific influence in the group of spider-fearful individuals: Phobic primes entailed the largest priming effects, and phobic targets accelerated responses, both effects indicating speeded response activation by phobic images. In snake-fearful participants (Experiment 1, Chapter 2), this processing enhancement for phobic material was less pronounced and extended to both snake and spider images. In Experiment 3 (Chapter 4), we demonstrated that early information processing for pictures of small injuries is also enhanced in BII-fearful participants, even though BII fear is unique in that BII-fearful individuals show opposite physiological reactions when confronted with the phobic stimulus compared to individuals with animal phobias. These results show that already fast visuomotor responses are further enhanced in spider- and BII-fearful participants. Results give evidence that responses are based on the first feedforward sweep of neuronal activation proceeding through the visuomotor system. I propose that the additional enhancement in spider- and BII-fearful individuals depend on a specific hardwired binding of elementary features belonging to the phobic object in fearful individuals (i.e., effortless recognition of the respective phobic object via hardwired neuronal conjunctions). I suggest that these hardwired conjunctions developed due to long-term perceptual learning processes. We also investigate the frequently reported attentional bias of phobic individuals and showed that this bias is detectable in temporal order judgments using a prior entry paradigm. I assume that perceptual learning processes might also strengthen the attentional bias, for example, by providing a more salient bottom-up signal that draws attention involuntarily. In sum, I conclude that (1) early information processing of threatening stimuli is indeed enhanced in individuals with specific phobias but that (2) differences between divers types of phobia exist (i.e., spider- and BII-fearful participants show enhanced information of the respective phobic object; though, snake-fearful participants show no specific information processing enhancement of snakes); (3) the frequently reported attentional bias of spider-fearful individuals is also detectable in a prior entry paradigm.Anke Haberkampdoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3740Wed, 19 Feb 2014 08:57:53 +0100On the distribution of eigenspaces in classical groups over finite rings and the Cohen-Lenstra heuristic
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3732
In 2006 Jeffrey Achter proved that the distribution of divisor class groups of degree 0 of function fields with a fixed genus and the distribution of eigenspaces in symplectic similitude groups are closely related to each other. Gunter Malle proposed that there should be a similar correspondence between the distribution of class groups of number fields and the distribution of eigenspaces in ceratin matrix groups. Motivated by these results and suggestions we study the distribution of eigenspaces corresponding to the eigenvalue one in some special subgroups of the general linear group over factor rings of rings of integers of number fields and derive some conjectural statements about the distribution of \(p\)-parts of class groups of number fields over a base field \(K_{0}\). Where our main interest lies in the case that \(K_{0}\) contains the \(p\)th roots of unity, because in this situation the \(p\)-parts of class groups seem to behave in an other way like predicted by the popular conjectures of Henri Cohen and Jacques Martinet. In 2010 based on computational data Malle has succeeded in formulating a conjecture in the spirit of Cohen and Martinet for this case. Here using our investigations about the distribution in matrixgroups we generalize the conjecture of Malle to a more abstract level and establish a theoretical backup for these statements.Michael Adamdoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3732Tue, 18 Feb 2014 13:17:02 +0100Isogeometric analysis of nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam vibrations
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3718
In this paper we analyze the vibrations of nonlinear structures by means of the novel approach of isogeometric finite elements. The fundamental idea of isogeometric finite elements is to apply the same functions, namely B-Splines and NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines), for describing the geometry and for representing the numerical solution. In case of linear vibrational analysis, this approach has already been shown to possess substantial advantages over classical finite elements, and we extend it here to a nonlinear framework based on the harmonic balance principle.
As application, the straight nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam is used, and overall, it is demonstrated that isogeometric finite elements with B-Splines in combination with the harmonic balance method are a powerful means for the analysis of nonlinear structural vibrations. In particular, the smoother k-method provides higher accuracy than the p-method for isogeometric nonlinear vibration analysis.Oliver Weeger; Utz Wever; Bernd Simeonpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3718Mon, 10 Feb 2014 11:22:39 +0100Solid-Solid Phase Transitions in Iron Systems
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3706
In the present work, the phase transitions in different Fe/FeC systems were studied by using the molecular dynamics simulation and the Meyer-Entel interaction potential (also the Johnson potential for Fe-C interaction). Fe-bicrystal, thin film, Fe-C bulk and Fe-C nanowire systems were investigated to study the behaviour of the phase transition, where the energetics, dynamics and transformations pathways were analysed. Binjun Wangdoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3706Thu, 06 Feb 2014 12:48:45 +0100Annual Report 2013
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3703
Burkard Hillebrandsperiodicalparthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3703Fri, 31 Jan 2014 10:44:13 +0100Continuum Mechanical Modeling of Dry Granular Systems: From Dilute Flow to Solid-Like Behavior
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3696
In this thesis, we develop a granular hydrodynamic model which covers the three principal regimes observed in granular systems, i.e. the dilute flow, the dense flow and the solid-like regime. We start from a kinetic model valid at low density and extend its validity to the granular solid-like behavior. Analytical and numerical results show that this model reproduces a lot of complex phenomena like for instance slow viscoplastic motion, critical states and the pressure dip in sand piles. Finally we formulate a 1D version of the full model and develop a numerical method to solve it. We present two numerical examples, a filling simulation and the flow on an inclined plane where the three regimes are included.Clément Zemerlidoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3696Wed, 29 Jan 2014 11:01:06 +0100An Inexact Interior Point Method for the Large-Scale Simulation of Granular Material
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3694
Non-smooth contact dynamics provides an increasingly popular simulation framework for granular material. In contrast to classical discrete element methods, this approach is stable for arbitrary time steps and produces visually acceptable results in very short computing time. Yet when it comes to the prediction of draft forces, non-smooth contact dynamics is typically not accurate enough. We therefore propose to combine the method class with an interior point algorithm for higher accuracy. Our specific algorithm is based on so-called Jordan algebras and exploits the relation to symmetric cones in order to tackle the conical constraints that are intrinsic to frictional contact problems. In every interior point iteration a linear system has to be solved. We analyze how the interior point method behaves when it is combined with Krylov subspace solvers and incomplete factorizations. We show that efficient preconditioners and efficient linear solvers are essential for the method to be applicable to large-scale problems. Using BiCGstab as a linear solver and incomplete Cholesky factorizations, we substantially improve the accuracy in comparison to the projected Gauss-Jacobi solver.Jan Kleinert; Bernd Simeon; Martin Obermayrpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3694Wed, 29 Jan 2014 10:40:35 +0100Monitoring time series based on estimating functions
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3693
A large class of estimators including maximum likelihood, least squares and M-estimators are based on estimating functions. In sequential change point detection related monitoring functions can be used to monitor new incoming observations based on an initial estimator, which is computationally efficient because possible numeric optimization is restricted to the initial estimation. In this work, we give general regularity conditions under which we derive the asymptotic null behavior of the corresponding tests in addition to their behavior under alternatives, where conditions become particularly simple for sufficiently smooth estimating and monitoring functions. These regularity conditions unify and even extend a large amount of existing procedures in the literature, while they also allow us to derive monitoring schemes in time series that have not yet been considered in the literature including non-linear autoregressive time series and certain count time series such as binary or Poisson autoregressive models. We do not assume that the estimating and monitoring function are equal or even of the same dimension, allowing for example to combine a non-robust but more precise initial estimator with a robust monitoring scheme. Some simulations and data examples illustrate the usefulness of the described procedures.Claudia Kirch; Joseph Tadjuidje Kamgaingpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3693Wed, 29 Jan 2014 10:20:27 +0100Thermal Modeling and Management of Multi-Core Processors
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3682
The work presented in this thesis discusses the thermal and power management of multi-core processors (MCPs) with both two dimensional (2D) package and there dimensional (3D) package chips. The power and thermal management/balancing is of increasing concern and is a technological challenge to the MCP development and will be a main performance bottleneck for the development of MCPs. This thesis develops optimal thermal and power management policies for MCPs. The system thermal behavior for both 2D package and 3D package chips is analyzed and mathematical models are developed. Thereafter, the optimal thermal and power management methods are introduced.
Nowadays, the chips are generally packed in 2D technique, which means that there is only one layer of dies in the chip. The chip thermal behavior can be described by a 3D heat conduction partial differential equation (PDE). As the target is to balance the thermal behavior and power consumption among the cores, a group of one dimensional (1D) PDEs, which is derived from the developed 3D PDE heat conduction equation, is proposed to describe the thermal behavior of each core. Therefore, the thermal behavior of the MCP is described by a group of 1D PDEs. An optimal controller is designed to manage the power consumption and balance the temperature among the cores based on the proposed 1D model.
3D package is an advanced package technology, which contains at least 2 layers of dies stacked in one chip. Different from 2D package, the cooling system should be installed among the layers to reduce the internal temperature of the chip. In this thesis, the micro-channel liquid cooling system is considered, and the heat transfer character of the micro-channel is analyzed and modeled as an ordinary differential equation (ODE). The dies are discretized to blocks based on the chip layout with each block modeled as a thermal resistance and capacitance (R-C) circuit. Thereafter, the micro-channels are discretized. The thermal behavior of the whole system is modeled as an ODE system. The micro-channel liquid velocity is set according to the workload and the temperature of the dies. Under each velocity, the system can be described as a linear ODE model system and the whole system is a switched linear system. An H-infinity observer is designed to estimate the states. The model predictive control (MPC) method is employed to design the thermal and power management/balancing controller for each submodel.
The models and controllers developed in this thesis are verified by simulation experiments via MATLAB. The IBM cell 8 cores processor and water micro-channel cooling system developed by IBM Research in collaboration with EPFL and ETHZ are employed as the experiment objects.Jianfei Wangdoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3682Mon, 13 Jan 2014 16:29:51 +0100Personalized Mobile Physical Activity Monitoring for Everyday Life
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3681
Regular physical activity is essential to maintain or even improve an individual’s health. There exist various guidelines on how much individuals should do. Therefore, it is important to monitor performed physical activities during people’s daily routine in order to tell how far they meet professional recommendations. This thesis follows the goal to develop a mobile, personalized physical activity monitoring system applicable for everyday life scenarios. From the mentioned recommendations, this thesis concentrates on monitoring aerobic physical activity. Two main objectives are defined in this context. On the one hand, the goal is to estimate the intensity of performed activities: To distinguish activities of light, moderate or vigorous effort. On the other hand, to give a more detailed description of an individual’s daily routine, the goal is to recognize basic aerobic activities (such as walk, run or cycle) and basic postures (lie, sit and stand).
With recent progress in wearable sensing and computing the technological tools largely exist nowadays to create the envisioned physical activity monitoring system. Therefore, the focus of this thesis is on the development of new approaches for physical activity recognition and intensity estimation, which extend the applicability of such systems. In order to make physical activity monitoring feasible in everyday life scenarios, the thesis deals with questions such as 1) how to handle a wide range of e.g.
everyday, household or sport activities and 2) how to handle various potential users. Moreover, this thesis deals with the realistic scenario where either the currently performed activity or the current user is unknown during the development and training
phase of activity monitoring applications. To answer these questions, this thesis proposes and developes novel algorithms, models and evaluation techniques, and performs thorough experiments to prove their validity.
The contributions of this thesis are both of theoretical and of practical value. Addressing the challenge of creating robust activity monitoring systems for everyday life the concept of other activities is introduced, various models are proposed and validated. Another key challenge is that complex activity recognition tasks exceed the potential of existing classification algorithms. Therefore, this thesis introduces a confidence-based extension of the well known AdaBoost.M1 algorithm, called ConfAdaBoost.M1. Thorough experiments show its significant performance improvement compared to commonly used boosting methods. A further major theoretical contribution is the introduction and validation of a new general concept for the personalization of physical activity recognition applications, and the development of a novel algorithm (called Dependent Experts) based on this concept. A major contribution of practical value is the introduction of a new evaluation technique (called leave-one-activity-out) to simulate when performing previously unknown activities in a physical activity monitoring system. Furthermore, the creation and benchmarking of publicly available physical activity monitoring datasets within this thesis are directly benefiting the research community. Finally, the thesis deals with issues related to the implementation of the proposed methods, in order to realize the envisioned mobile system and integrate it into a full healthcare application for aerobic activity monitoring and support in daily life.Attila Reissdoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3681Mon, 13 Jan 2014 11:24:07 +0100ADER schemes and high order coupling on networks of hyperbolic conservation laws
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3674
In this article we present a method to extend high order finite volume schemes
to networks of hyperbolic conservation laws with algebraic coupling conditions. This method is based on an ADER approach in time to solve the
generalized Riemann problem at the junction. Additionally to the high order accuracy, this approach maintains an exact conservation of quantities if
stated by the coupling conditions. Several numerical examples confirm the
benefits of a high order coupling procedure for high order accuracy and stable
shock capturing.
Raul Borsche; Jochen Kallpreprinthttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3674Mon, 16 Dec 2013 11:49:28 +0100Sound Simulation and Visualization in virtual Manufacturing Systems
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3668
The noise issue in manufacturing system is widely discussed from legal and health aspects. Regarding the existing laws and guidelines, various investigation methods are implemented in industry. The sound pressure level can be measured and reduced by using established approaches in reality. However, a straightforward and low cost approach to study noise issue using existing digital factory models is not found.
This thesis attempts to develop a novel concept for sound pressure level investigation in a virtual environment. With this, the factory planners are able to investigate the noise issue during factory design and layout planning phase.
Two computer aided tools are used in this approach: acoustic simulation and virtual reality (VR). The former enables the planner to simulate the sound pressure level by given factory layout and facility sound features. And the latter provides a visualization environment to view and explore the simulation results. The combination of these two powerful tools provides the planners a new possibility to analyze the noise in a factory.
To validate the simulations, the acoustic measurements are implemented in a real factory. Sound pressure level and sound intensity are determined respectively. Furthermore, a software tool is implemented using the introduced concept and approach. With this software, the simulation results are represented in a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE).
This thesis describes the development of the approach, the measurement of sound features, the design of visualization framework, and the implementation of VR software. Based on this know-how, the industry users are able to design their own method and software for noise investigation and analysis. Xiang Yangdoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3668Mon, 16 Dec 2013 11:26:00 +0100Reasoning about Backward Compatibility of Class Libraries
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3660
Backward compatibility of class libraries ensures that an old implementation of a library can safely be replaced by a new implementation without breaking existing clients.
Formal reasoning about backward compatibility requires an adequate semantic model to compare the behavior of two library implementations.
In the object-oriented setting with inheritance and callbacks, finding such models is difficult as the interface between library implementations and clients are complex.
Furthermore, handling these models in a way to support practical reasoning requires appropriate verification tools.
This thesis proposes a formal model for library implementations and a reasoning approach for backward compatibility that is implemented using an automatic verifier. The first part of the thesis develops a fully abstract trace-based semantics for class libraries of a core sequential object-oriented language. Traces abstract from the control flow (stack) and data representation (heap) of the library implementations. The construction of a most general context is given that abstracts exactly from all possible clients of the library implementation.
Soundness and completeness of the trace semantics as well as the most general context are proven using specialized simulation relations on the operational semantics. The simulation relations also provide a proof method for reasoning about backward compatibility.
The second part of the thesis presents the implementation of the simulation-based proof method for an automatic verifier to check backward compatibility of class libraries written in Java. The approach works for complex library implementations, with recursion and loops, in the setting of unknown program contexts. The verification process relies on a coupling invariant that describes a relation between programs that use the old library implementation and programs that use the new library implementation. The thesis presents a specification language to formulate such coupling invariants. Finally, an application of the developed theory and tool to typical examples from the literature validates the reasoning and verification approach.Yannick Welschdoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3660Mon, 16 Dec 2013 11:02:45 +0100Effects of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Human Liver Cell Models (in vitro) and in Mice (in vivo)
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3665
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent environmental pollutants which ubiquitously occur as complex mixtures and accumulate in the food and feed chain due to their high lipophilic properties. Of the 419 possible congeners, only 29 share a common mechanism of action and cause similar effects, the so called dioxin-like compounds. Dioxin-like compounds evoke a broad spectrum of biochemical and toxic responses, i.e. enzyme induction, dermal toxicity, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity as well as adverse effects on reproduction, development, and the endocrine system in laboratory animals and in humans. Most, if not all, of the aforementioned responses, are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. In the present work, the elicited biochemical effects of a selection of dioxin-like compounds and the non dioxin-like PCB 153 were examined in mouse (in vivo) and in human liver cell models (in vitro). Emphasis was given to the main contributors to the total toxic equivalents in human blood and tissues TCDD, 1-PnCDD, 4-PnCDF, PCB 118, PCB 126, and PCB 156, which likewise contribute about 90 % to the dioxin-like activity in the human food chain.
Three mouse in vivo studies were carried out aiming to characterize the alterations in hepatic gene expression as well as the induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes after single oral dose. Based on the results obtained from mouse 3-day and 14-day studies, the seven test compounds can be categorized into three classes; the ones which are 'pure' AhR ligands (TCDD, 1-PnCDD, 4-PnCDF, and PCB 126) or solely CAR inducers (PCB 153), and the ones which are AhR/CAR mixed-type inducers (PCB 118, PCB 156). Moreover, the analysis of hepatic gene expression patterns after a single oral dose of either TCDD or PCB 153 revealed that the altered genes fundamentally differed. Profiling of significantly altered genes led to the conclusion that changes in gene expression were associated with different signalling pathways, in fact by AhR and CAR.
For investigating the role of the AhR in mediating biological responses, several experimental approaches were carried out, such as the analysis of blood plasma metabolites in Ahr knockout and wild-type mice. Genotype specifics and similarities were determined by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. Several plasma metabolites could be identified in both genotypes, but also differences were detected. Furthermore, an in vivo experiment was performed aiming to characterize AhR-dependent and -independent effects in female Ahr knockout and wild-type mice. For this purpose, mice received a single oral dose of TCDD and were killed 96 h later. Microarray analysis of mouse livers revealed that although the Ahr gene was knocked out in Ahr-/- mice, the quantity of affected genes were in the same order of magnitude as for Ahr+/+ mice, but the pattern of altered genes distinctly differed. In addition, the relative liver weights of TCDD-treated Ahr+/+ mice were significantly increased which led to the conclusion, that TCDD induced the development of hepatic steatosis in female Ahr wild-type.
The performed in vitro experiments aimed to characterize the effects elicited by selected DLCs and PCB 153 in human liver cell models by the use of HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes. In general, primary human hepatocytes were less responsive than HepG2 cells. This was not only observed in EC values derived from EROD assay, but also regarding microarray analysis in terms of differently regulated genes. In vitro REPs gained from both liver cell models widely confirmed the current TEFs, but some deviations occurred. The comparison of the TCDD-altered genes in both human cell types revealed that only a considerably small number of genes was in common up regulated by both human liver cell models, such as the established AhR-regulated highly inducible cytochrome P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1 as well as other AhR target genes. Although the overlap was rather small, the TCDD-induced genes could be consistently associated with the broad spectrum of established dioxin-related biological responses. The gene expression pattern in primary human hepatocytes after treatment with selected DLCs (TCDD, 1-PnCDD, 4-PnCDF, and PCB 126) and PCB 153 was additionally characterized by microarray analysis. The highest response in terms of significantly altered genes was determined for TCDD, followed by 4-PnCDF, 1-PnCDD, and PCB 126, whereas exposure to PCB 153 did not evoke any significant changes in gene expression. The pattern of significantly altered genes was very homogenous among the four congeners. Genes associated with well-established DLC-related biological responses as well as novel dioxin-inducible target genes were identified, whereby an extensive overlap in terms of up regulated genes by all four DLCs occurred. In conclusion, the results from the in vitro experiments performed in primary human hepatocytes provided fundamental insight into the congeners' potencies and caused alterations in gene expression patterns. The obtained findings implicate that although the extent of enzyme inducibilities varied, the gene expression patterns are coincidental. Microarray analysis identified species-specific (mouse vs. human) as well as model-specific (in vitro vs. in vivo and transformed cells vs. untransformed cells) differences. In order to identify novel biomarkers for AhR activation due to treatment with dioxin-like compounds, five candidates were selected based on the microarray results i.e. ALDH3A1, TIPARP, HSD17B2, CD36, and AhRR. Eventually, ALDH3A1 turned out to be the most reliable and suitable marker for exposure to DLCs in both human liver cell models eliciting the highest mRNA inducibility among the five chosen candidates. In which way these species- and cell type-specific markers are involved in the dioxin-elicited toxic responses should be further characterized in vivo and in vitro.
Christiane Lohrdoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3665Wed, 11 Dec 2013 13:21:44 +0100Extended Artificial Memory. Toward an integral cognitive theory of memory and technology.
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3662
This thesis is a contribution toward an integral cognitive theory of memory and technology. It, furthermore, develops a theory and prototype for technologically extending mind (memory and thinking).Lars Ludwigdoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3662Thu, 05 Dec 2013 14:24:52 +0100Multi-Class Image Segmentation via Convex and Biconvex Optimization
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3656
This thesis is divided into two parts. Both cope with multi-class image segmentation and utilize
non-smooth optimization algorithms.
The topic of the first part, namely unsupervised segmentation, is the application of clustering
to image pixels. Therefore, we start with an introduction of the biconvex center-based clustering
algorithms c-means and fuzzy c-means, where c denotes the number of classes. We show that
fuzzy c-means can be seen as an approximation of c-means in terms of power means.
Since noise is omnipresent in our image data, these simple clustering models are not suitable
for its segmentation. To this end, we introduce a general and finite dimensional segmentation
model that consists of a data term stemming from the aforementioned clustering models plus a
continuous regularization term. We tackle this optimization model via an alternating minimiza-
tion approach called regularized c-centers (RcC). Thereby, we fix the centers and optimize the
segment membership of the pixels and vice versa. In this general setting, we prove convergence
in the sense of set-valued algorithms using Zangwill’s Theory [172].
Further, we present a segmentation model with a total variation regularizer. While updating
the cluster centers is straightforward for fixed segment memberships of the pixels, updating the
segment membership can be solved iteratively via non-smooth, convex optimization. Thereby,
we do not iterate a convex optimization algorithm until convergence. Instead, we stop as soon as
we have a certain amount of decrease in the objective functional to increase the efficiency. This
algorithm is a particular implementation of RcC providing also the corresponding convergence
theory. Moreover, we show the good performance of our method in various examples such as
simulated 2d images of brain tissue and 3d volumes of two materials, namely a multi-filament
composite superconductor and a carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide ceramics. Thereby, we
exploit the property of the latter material that two components have no common boundary in
our adapted model.
The second part of the thesis is concerned with supervised segmentation. We leave the area
of center based models and investigate convex approaches related to graph p-Laplacians and
reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We study the effect of different weights used to
construct the graph. In practical experiments we show on the one hand image types that
are better segmented by the p-Laplacian model and on the other hand images that are better
segmented by the RKHS-based approach. This is due to the fact that the p-Laplacian approach
provides smoother results, while the RKHS approach provides often more accurate and detailed
segmentations. Finally, we propose a novel combination of both approaches to benefit from the
advantages of both models and study the performance on challenging medical image data.
Behrang Shafeidoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3656Mon, 25 Nov 2013 08:30:52 +0100Geometric Ergodicity of Binary Autoregressive Models with Exogenous Variables
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3647
In this paper we introduce a binary autoregressive model. In contrast to the typical autoregression framework, we allow the conditional distribution of the observed process to depend on past values of the time series and some exogenous variables. Such processes have
potential applications in econometrics, medicine and environmental sciences. In this
paper, we establish stationarity and geometric ergodicity of these
processes under suitable conditions on the parameters of the model. Such properties are
important for understanding the stability properties of the model as well as for deriving the
asymptotic behavior of the parameter estimators.Claudia Kirch; Joseph Tadjuidje Kamgaingworkingpaperhttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3647Wed, 13 Nov 2013 15:43:19 +0100Curve interactions in R^2: An analytical and stochastical approach
https://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3646
In the last few years a lot of work has been done in the investigation of Brownian motion with point interaction(s) in one and higher dimensions. Roughly speaking a Brownian motion with point interaction is nothing else than a Brownian motion whose generator is disturbed by a measure supported in just one point.
The purpose of the present work is the introducing of curve interactions of the two dimensional Brownian motion for a closed curve \(\mathcal{C}\). We will understand a curve interaction as a self-adjoint extension of the restriction of the Laplacian to the set of infinitely often continuously differentiable functions with compact support in \(\mathbb{R}^{2}\) which are constantly 0 at the closed curve. We will give a full description of all these self-adjoint extensions.
In the second chapter we will prove a generalization of Tanaka's formula to \(\mathbb{R}^{2}\). We define \(g\) to be a so-called harmonic single layer with continuous layer function \(\eta\) in \(\mathbb{R}^{2}\). For such a function \(g\) we prove
\begin{align}
g\left(B_{t}\right)=g\left(B_{0}\right)+\int\limits_{0}^{t}{\nabla g\left(B_{s}\right)\mathrm{d}B_{s}}+\int\limits_{0}^{t}\eta\left(B_{s}\right)\mathrm{d}L\left(s,\mathcal{C}\right)
\end{align}
where \(B_{t}\) is just the usual Brownian motion in \(\mathbb{R}^{2}\) and \(L\left(t,\mathcal{C}\right)\) is the connected unique local time process of \(B_{t}\) on the closed curve \(\mathcal{C}\).
We will use the generalized Tanaka formula in the following chapter to construct classes of processes related to curve interactions. In a first step we get the generalization of point interactions in a second step we get processes which behaves like a Brownian motion in the complement of \(\mathcal{C}\) and has an additional movement along the curve in the time- scale of \(L\left(t,\mathcal{C}\right)\). Such processes do not exist in the one point case since there we cannot move when the Brownian motion is in the point.
By establishing an approximation of a curve interaction by operators of the form Laplacian \(+V_{n}\) with "nice" potentials \(V_{n}\) we are able to deduce the existence of superprocesses related to curve interactions.
The last step is to give an approximation of these superprocesses by a sytem of branching particles. This approximation gives a better understanding of the related mass creation. Benedikt Heinrichdoctoralthesishttps://kluedo.ub.uni-kl.de/frontdoor/index/index/docId/3646Wed, 13 Nov 2013 15:30:37 +0100