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Design and Analysis of Adaptive Caching Techniques for Internet Content Delivery

  • Fast Internet content delivery relies on two layers of caches on the request path. Firstly, content delivery networks (CDNs) seek to answer user requests before they traverse slow Internet paths. Secondly, aggregation caches in data centers seek to answer user requests before they traverse slow backend systems. The key challenge in managing these caches is the high variability of object sizes, request patterns, and retrieval latencies. Unfortunately, most existing literature focuses on caching with low (or no) variability in object sizes and ignores the intricacies of data center subsystems. This thesis seeks to fill this gap with three contributions. First, we design a new caching system, called AdaptSize, that is robust under high object size variability. Second, we derive a method (called Flow-Offline Optimum or FOO) to predict the optimal cache hit ratio under variable object sizes. Third, we design a new caching system, called RobinHood, that exploits variances in retrieval latencies to deliver faster responses to user requests in data centers. The techniques proposed in this thesis significantly improve the performance of CDN and data center caches. On two production traces from one of the world's largest CDN AdaptSize achieves 30-91% higher hit ratios than widely-used production systems, and 33-46% higher hit ratios than state-of-the-art research systems. Further, AdaptSize reduces the latency by more than 30% at the median, 90-percentile and 99-percentile. We evaluate the accuracy of our FOO analysis technique on eight different production traces spanning four major Internet companies. We find that FOO's error is at most 0.3%. Further, FOO reveals that the gap between online policies and OPT is much larger than previously thought: 27% on average, and up to 43% on web application traces. We evaluate RobinHood with production traces from a major Internet company on a 50-server cluster. We find that RobinHood improves the 99-percentile latency by more than 50% over existing caching systems. As load imbalances grow, RobinHood's latency improvement can be more than 2x. Further, we show that RobinHood is robust against server failures and adapts to automatic scaling of backend systems. The results of this thesis demonstrate the power of guiding the design of practical caching policies using mathematical performance models and analysis. These models are general enough to find application in other areas of caching design and future challenges in Internet content delivery.

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Author:Daniel S. Berger
URN (permanent link):urn:nbn:de:hbz:386-kluedo-53787
Advisor:Jens Schmitt
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language of publication:English
Publication Date:2018/09/17
Date of first Publication:2018/06/08
Publishing Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Granting Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Acceptance Date of the Thesis:2018/06/08
Date of the Publication (Server):2018/09/17
Tag:Caching; Performance
Number of page:XXI, 137
Faculties / Organisational entities:Fachbereich Informatik
DDC-Cassification:0 Allgemeines, Informatik, Informationswissenschaft / 004 Informatik
Licence (German):Creative Commons 4.0 - Namensnennung, nicht kommerziell, keine Bearbeitung (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)