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Residual Demand Modeling and Application to Electricity Pricing

  • Worldwide the installed capacity of renewable technologies for electricity production is rising tremendously. The German market is particularly progressive and its regulatory rules imply that production from renewables is decoupled from market prices and electricity demand. Conventional generation technologies are to cover the residual demand (defined as total demand minus production from renewables) but set the price at the exchange. Existing electricity price models do not account for the new risks introduced by the volatile production of renewables and their effects on the conventional demand curve. A model for residual demand is proposed, which is used as an extension of supply/demand electricity price models to account for renewable infeed in the market. Infeed from wind and solar (photovoltaics) is modeled explicitly and withdrawn from total demand. The methodology separates the impact of weather and capacity. Efficiency is transformed on the real line using the logit-transformation and modeled as a stochastic process. Installed capacity is assumed a deterministic function of time. In a case study the residual demand model is applied to the German day-ahead market using a supply/demand model with a deterministic supply-side representation. Price trajectories are simulated and the results are compared to market future and option prices. The trajectories show typical features seen in market prices in recent years and the model is able to closely reproduce the structure and magnitude of market prices. Using the simulated prices it is found that renewable infeed increases the volatility of forward prices in times of low demand, but can reduce volatility in peak hours. Prices for different scenarios of installed wind and solar capacity are compared and the meritorder effect of increased wind and solar capacity is calculated. It is found that wind has a stronger overall effect than solar, but both are even in peak hours.

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Author:Andreas Wagner
URN (permanent link):urn:nbn:de:hbz:386-kluedo-29897
Serie (Series number):Berichte des Fraunhofer-Instituts für Techno- und Wirtschaftsmathematik (ITWM Report) (213)
Document Type:Report
Language of publication:English
Publication Date:2012/04/18
Year of Publication:2012
Publishing Institute:Fraunhofer-Institut für Techno- und Wirtschaftsmathematik
Date of the Publication (Server):2012/04/19
Number of page:41
Faculties / Organisational entities:Fraunhofer (ITWM)
DDC-Cassification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 510 Mathematik
Licence (German):Standard gemäß KLUEDO-Leitlinien vom 15.02.2012