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Novel System Approach for a mm-range Precision Indoor Positioning System

  • Indoor positioning system (IPS) is becoming more and more popular in recent years in industrial, scientific and medical areas. The rapidly growing demand of accurate position information attracts much attention and effort in developing various kinds of positioning systems that are characterized by parameters like accuracy,robustness, latency, cost, etc. These systems have been successfully used in many applications such as automation in manufacturing, patient tracking in hospital, action detection for human-machine interacting and so on. The different performance requirements in various applications lead to existence of greatly diverse technologies, which can be categorized into two groups: inertial positioning(involving momentum sensors embedded on the object device to be located) and external sensing (geometry estimation based on signal measurement). In positioning systems based on external sensing, the input signal used for locating refers to many sources, such as visual or infrared signal in optical methods, sound or ultra-sound in acoustic methods and radio frequency based methods. This dissertation gives a recapitulative survey of a number of existence popular solutions for indoor positioning systems. Basic principles of individual technologies are demonstrated and discussed. By comparing the performances like accuracy, robustness, cost, etc., a comprehensive review of the properties of each technologies is presented, which concludes a guidance for designing a location sensing systems for indoor applications. This thesis will lately focus on presenting the development of a high precision IPS prototype system based on RF signal from the concept aspect to the implementation up to evaluation. Developing phases related to this work include positioning scenario, involved technologies, hardware development, algorithms development, firmware generation, prototype evaluation, etc.. The developed prototype is a narrow band RF system, and it is suitable for a flexible frequency selection in UHF (300MHz� 3GHz) and SHF (3GHz� 30GHz) bands, enabling this technology to meet broad service preferences. The fundamental of the proposed system classified itself as a hyperbolic position fix system, which estimates a location by solving non-linear equations derived from time difference of arrival (TDoA) measurements. As the positioning accuracy largely depends on the temporal resolution of the signal acquisition, a dedicated RF front-end system is developed to achieve a time resolution in range of multiple picoseconds down to less than 1 pico second. On the algorithms aspect, two processing units: TDoA estimator and the Hyperbolic equations solver construct the digital signal processing system. In order to implement a real-time positioning system, the processing system is implemented on a FPGA platform. Corresponding firmware is generated from the algorithms modeled in MATLAB/Simulink, using the high level synthesis (HLS) tool HDL Coder. The prototype system is evaluated and an accuracy of better than 1 cm is achieved. A better performance is potential feasible by manipulating some of the controlling conditions such as ADC sampling rate, ADC resolution, interpolation process, higher frequency, more stable antenna, etc. Although the proposed system is initially dedicated to indoor applications, it could also be a competitive candidate for an outdoor positioning service.

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Author:Renhai XiongORCiD
URN (permanent link):urn:nbn:de:hbz:386-kluedo-62681
DOI:https://doi.org/10.26204/KLUEDO/6268
ISBN:978-3-95806-517-8
Title Additional (German):Neuartiger Systemansatz für ein Innenpositionierungssystem mit Präzision im mm-Bereich
Advisor:Norbert Wehn
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language of publication:English
Publication Date:2021/02/22
Year of Publication:2020
Publishing Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Granting Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Acceptance Date of the Thesis:2020/11/04
Date of the Publication (Server):2021/02/22
Number of page:XI, 144
Faculties / Organisational entities:Fachbereich Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik
CCS-Classification (computer science):H. Information Systems
DDC-Cassification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 621.3 Elektrontechnik, Elektronik
Licence (German):Creative Commons 4.0 - Namensnennung, nicht kommerziell, keine Bearbeitung (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)