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Sustainable Methods for the Catalytic Regioselective Transformation of Aromatic Carboxylic Acids via C-COOH and C-H Bond Cleavage

  • In the present work the concept of decarboxylative couplings and the strategy to use carboxylates as directing groups for C-H functionalizations have been decisively improved in three ways. These concepts emphasize the multifaceted nature of aromatic carboxylic acids as expedient starting materials in homogeneous catalysis to construct highly desirable molecular scaffolds in a straightforward fashion. In the first project, the restriction of decarboxylative biaryl synthesis to exclusively couple aryl halides with ortho-substituted benzoic acids has been overcome by a holistic optimization of a Cu/Pd bimetallic catalyst system. Long ago postulated, this is now the proof that decarboxylative cross-couplings are not intrinsically limited to different decarboxylation propensities of benzoic acids or hampered by excess halides, accessing for the first time the entire spectrum of aromatic carboxylic acids as starting materials for the decarboxylative biaryl synthesis. The second project uses the carboxyl moiety as directing group for the ortho-arylation with aryl bromides and -chlorides catalyzed by comparatively inexpensive ruthenium. The carboxylic acid group remains untouched after the ortho-functionalization giving the possibility to a wealth of further diversifications via decarboxylative ipso-substitutions. Within the same project, a Cu/Ru bimetallic catalyst system was found to be able to switch the decarboxylative biaryl coupling from the ipso- to the ortho-position, complementing the Cu/Pd system developed in the first project. In a third project, a redox neutral C-C bond formation revealed the full synthetic potential of the carboxyl group. The COOH moiety acts as a classical directing group for the C-H hydroarylation of internal alkynes to form highly desirable 2-vinyl benzoic acids. With propargylic alcohols the hydroarylation is followed by an in situ esterification, showing that after easing the C-H cleavage, the directing group can be transformed into another functional group, thus, acting as a transformable directing group. Most importantly, a new fascinating reaction mode is activated by embedding the decarboxylation within the C-H functionalization event. This mode of action is capable to solve regioselectivity issues that inherently occur when dealing with carboxylates as directing groups. A so-called deciduous directing group is cast off simultaneously within the C-H functionalization event, resulting in an inherently monoselective pathway. These methods were developed with the permanent goal of ensuring high sustainability. They do require neither pre-functionalized starting materials nor additional oxidants and provide access to a number of chemically relevant molecules from abundant, inexpensive and toxicologically innocuous educts.

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Author:Agostino Biafora
URN (permanent link):urn:nbn:de:hbz:386-kluedo-48142
Advisor:Lukas J. Gooßen
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language of publication:English
Publication Date:2017/09/28
Year of Publication:2017
Publishing Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Granting Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Acceptance Date of the Thesis:2017/09/21
Date of the Publication (Server):2017/09/28
Number of page:XV, 219
Faculties / Organisational entities:Fachbereich Chemie
DDC-Cassification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 540 Chemie
Licence (German):Creative Commons 4.0 - Namensnennung, nicht kommerziell, keine Bearbeitung (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)