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Impact of 'Dioxins' on Gene Expression in Mouse Liver in vivo, and in both Rat Liver Cells and Human Blood Cells In Culture

  • ‘Dioxin-like’ (DL) compounds occur ubiquitously in the environment. Toxic responses associated with specific dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) include dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, liver toxicity, carcinogenicity, as well as adverse effects on reproduction, development, and endocrine functions. Most, if not all of these effects are believed to be due to interaction of these compounds with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). With tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as representatively most potent congener, a toxic equivalency factor (TEF) concept was employed, in which respective congeners were assigned to a certain TEF-value reflecting the compound’s toxicity relative to TCDD’s. The EU-project ‘SYSTEQ’ aimed to develop, validate, and implement human systemic TEFs as indicators of toxicity for DL-congeners. Hence, the identification of novel quantifiable biomarkers of exposure was a major objective of the SYSTEQ project. In order to approach to this objective, a mouse whole genome microarray analysis was applied using a set of seven individual congeners, termed the ‘core congeners’. These core congeners (TCDD, 1-PeCDD, 4-PeCDF, PCB 126, PCB 118, PCB 156, and the non dioxin-like PCB 153), which contribute to approximately 90% of toxic equivalents (TEQs) in the human food chain, were further tested in vivo as well as in vitro. The mouse whole genome microarray revealed a conserved list of differentially regulated genes and pathways associated with ‘dioxin-like’ effects. A definite data-set of in vitro studies was supposed to function as a fundament for a probable establishment of novel TEFs. Thus, CYP1A induction measured by EROD activity, which represents a sensitive and yet best known marker for dioxin-like effects, was used to estimate potency and efficacy of selected congeners. For this study, primary rat hepatocytes and the rat hepatoma cell line H4IIE were used as well as the core congeners and an additional group of compounds of comparable relevance for the environment: 1,6-HxCDD, 1,4,6-HpCDD, TCDF, 1,4-HxCDF, 1,4,6-HpCDF, PCB 77, and PCB 105. Besides, a human whole genome microarray experiment was applied in order to gain knowledge with respect to TCDD’s impact towards cells of the immune system. Hence, human primary blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from individuals and exposed to TCDD or to TCDD in combination with a stimulus (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or phytohemagglutinin (PHA)). A few members of the AhR-gene batterie were found to be regulated, and minor data with respect to potential TCDD-mediated immunomodulatory effects were given. Still, obtained data in this regard was limited due to great inter-individual differences.

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Author:Sylke Neser
URN (permanent link):urn:nbn:de:hbz:386-kluedo-39495
Advisor:Dieter Schrenk
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Language of publication:English
Publication Date:2014/12/15
Date of first Publication:2014/12/15
Publishing Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Granting Institute:Technische Universität Kaiserslautern
Acceptance Date of the Thesis:2014/11/07
Date of the Publication (Server):2014/12/15
Tag:AhRR; CYP1A1; DL-PCBs; PCDD/Fs; TIPARP; aryl hydrocarbon receptor; dioxin-like compounds; flow cytometry; peripheral blood mononuclear cells; rat liver cell systems; relative effect potencies; tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; toxic equivalency factor (TEF) concept; whole genome microarray analysis
GND-Keyword:Dioxin; EROD; Immunoblot; Microarray
Number of page:X, 323
Faculties / Organisational entities:Fachbereich Chemie
DDC-Cassification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 540 Chemie
MSC-Classification (mathematics):92-XX BIOLOGY AND OTHER NATURAL SCIENCES
Licence (German):Standard gemäß KLUEDO-Leitlinien vom 28.10.2014